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    PPY pancreatic polypeptide [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 5539, updated on 17-Jun-2019


    Official Symbol
    PPYprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    pancreatic polypeptideprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000108849 MIM:167780
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    Homo sapiens
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    PP; PNP
    This gene encodes a member of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) family of peptides. The encoded 95 aa preproprotein is synthesized in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and proteolytically processed to generate two peptide products. These products include the active pancreatic hormone of 36 aa and an icosapeptide of unknown function. This hormone acts as a regulator of pancreatic and gastrointestinal functions and may be important in the regulation of food intake. Plasma level of this hormone has been shown to be reduced in conditions associated with increased food intake and elevated in anorexia nervosa. In addition, infusion of this hormone in obese rodents has shown to decrease weight gain. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, at least one of which encodes an isoform that is proteolytically processed. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]
    Biased expression in pancreas (RPKM 7.7), colon (RPKM 0.9) and 1 other tissue See more

    Genomic context

    See PPY in Genome Data Viewer
    Exon count:
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109.20190607 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 17 NC_000017.11 (43940802..43944212, complement)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 17 NC_000017.10 (42018172..42019833, complement)

    Chromosome 17 - NC_000017.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene Wnt family member 9-like Neighboring gene long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1976 Neighboring gene peptide YY Neighboring gene N-acetylglutamate synthase

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products


    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018


    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Pathways from BioSystems

    • Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystemRhodopsin-like receptors (class A/1) are the largest group of GPCRs and are the best studied group from a functional and structural point of view. They show great diversity at the sequence level and ...
    • G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe classical signalling mechanism for G alpha (i) is inhibition of the cAMP dependent pathway through inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Decreased production of cAMP from ATP results in decreased act...
    • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
    • GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystemThere are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all...
    • Peptide ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Peptide ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystemThese receptors, a subset of the Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like) family, all bind peptide ligands which include the chemokines, opioids and somatostatins.
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...


    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information



    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    G protein-coupled receptor binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    G protein-coupled receptor binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    hormone activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    neuropeptide hormone activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    neuropeptide signaling pathway IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    protein secretion TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    cytoplasm IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
    extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    extracellular space IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    pancreatic prohormone
    pancreatic polypeptide Y
    prepro-PP (prepropancreatic polypeptide)

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001319209.1NP_001306138.1  pancreatic prohormone isoform 2 precursor

      Status: REVIEWED

      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) includes an alternate 5' terminal exon, resulting in a different 5' UTR and 5' coding region, and the use of an alternate translation start site compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) has a longer N-terminus than isoform 1. This isoform (2) may undergo proteolytic processing similar to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      BP384893, BP388331
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      PAH; Pancreatic hormones / neuropeptide F / peptide YY family
    2. NM_002722.5NP_002713.1  pancreatic prohormone isoform 1 preproprotein

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002713.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the shorter transcript and encodes the shorter isoform (1).
      Source sequence(s)
      AC007993, BP388331, BP394217
      Consensus CDS
      ENSP00000225992.2, ENST00000225992.7
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      PAH; Pancreatic hormones / neuropeptide F / peptide YY family

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly


    1. NC_000017.11 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

      43940802..43944212 complement
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_011524978.3XP_011523280.1  pancreatic prohormone isoform X1

      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      PAH; Pancreatic hormones / neuropeptide F / peptide YY family
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