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    MRPS21 mitochondrial ribosomal protein S21 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 54460, updated on 17-Jun-2019

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    MRPS21provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    mitochondrial ribosomal protein S21provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:14046
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000266472 MIM:611984
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    MDS016; RPMS21; MRP-S21
    Summary
    Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S21P family. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 1p, 1q, 9p, 10p, 10q, 16q, and 17q. Available sequence data analyses identified splice variants that differ in the 5' UTR; both transcripts encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
    Expression
    Ubiquitous expression in adrenal (RPKM 25.8), brain (RPKM 23.2) and 25 other tissues See more
    Orthologs

    Genomic context

    See MRPS21 in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    1q21.2
    Exon count:
    3
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109.20190607 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 1 NC_000001.11 (150293842..150308979)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 1 NC_000001.10 (150266262..150281414)

    Chromosome 1 - NC_000001.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105371434 Neighboring gene circadian associated repressor of transcription Neighboring gene pre-mRNA processing factor 3 Neighboring gene regulation of nuclear pre-mRNA domain containing 2

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Pathways from BioSystems

    • Mitochondrial translation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Mitochondrial translation, organism-specific biosystemOf the roughly 1000 human mitochondrial proteins only 13 proteins, all of them hydrophobic inner membrane proteins that are components of the oxidative phosphorylation apparatus, are encoded in the m...
    • Mitochondrial translation elongation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Mitochondrial translation elongation, organism-specific biosystemTranslation elongation proceeds by cycles of aminoacyl-tRNAs binding, peptide bond formation, and displacement of deacylated tRNAs (reviewed in Christian and Spremulli 2012). In each cycle an aminoac...
    • Mitochondrial translation initiation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Mitochondrial translation initiation, organism-specific biosystemTranslation initiates with the mitochondrial mRNA binding the 28S subunit:MTIF3 (28S subunit:IF-3Mt, 28S subunit:IF3mt) complex together with MTIF2:GTP (IF-2Mt:GTP, IF2mt:GTP) (reviewed in Christian ...
    • Mitochondrial translation termination, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Mitochondrial translation termination, organism-specific biosystemTranslation is terminated when MTRF1L:GTP (MTRF1a:GTP) recognizes a UAA or UAG termination codon in the mRNA at the A site of the ribosome (Soleimanpour-Lichaei et al. 2007, reviewed in Richter et al...
    • Organelle biogenesis and maintenance, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Organelle biogenesis and maintenance, organism-specific biosystemThis module describes the biogenesis of organelles. Organelles are subcellular structures of distinctive morphology and function. The organelles of human cells include: mitochondria, endoplasmic reti...
    • Ribosome, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Ribosome, organism-specific biosystem
      Ribosome
    • Ribosome, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Ribosome, conserved biosystem
      Ribosome

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    RNA binding HDA PubMed 
    structural constituent of ribosome ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
    PubMed 
    structural constituent of ribosome NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    mitochondrial translation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
    PubMed 
    mitochondrial translational elongation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    mitochondrial translational termination TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    translation NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    mitochondrial inner membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    mitochondrial small ribosomal subunit IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    28S ribosomal protein S21, mitochondrial
    Names
    S21mt
    mitochondrial 28S ribosomal protein S21
    mitochondrial small ribosomal subunit protein bS21m
    NP_061870.1
    NP_114107.1

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_018997.3NP_061870.1  28S ribosomal protein S21, mitochondrial

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_061870.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR, compared to variant 1. Variants 1 and 2 both encode the same protein.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC242988, U79258
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS950.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P82921
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      Q99768
      Related
      ENSP00000461930.1, ENST00000581066.2
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      TIGR00030
      Location:1066
      S21p; ribosomal protein S21
    2. NM_031901.5NP_114107.1  28S ribosomal protein S21, mitochondrial

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_114107.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) is the predominant transcript. Variants 1 and 2 both encode the same protein.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC242988, AK289467, HY161691, U79258
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS950.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P82921
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      Q99768
      Related
      ENSP00000480129.1, ENST00000614145.4
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      TIGR00030
      Location:1066
      S21p; ribosomal protein S21

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000001.11 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

      Range
      150293842..150308979
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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