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    PENK proenkephalin [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 5179, updated on 17-Jun-2019

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    PENKprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    proenkephalinprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:8831
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000181195 MIM:131330
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    PE; PENK-A
    Summary
    This gene encodes a preproprotein that is proteolytically processed to generate multiple protein products. These products include the pentapeptide opioids Met-enkephalin and Leu-enkephalin, which are stored in synaptic vesicles, then released into the synapse where they bind to mu- and delta-opioid receptors to modulate the perception of pain. Other non-opioid cleavage products may function in distinct biological activities. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2015]
    Expression
    Biased expression in adrenal (RPKM 200.5), testis (RPKM 60.4) and 1 other tissue See more
    Orthologs

    Genomic context

    See PENK in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    8q12.1
    Exon count:
    4
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109.20190607 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 8 NC_000008.11 (56440957..56446641, complement)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 8 NC_000008.10 (57353513..57359282, complement)

    Chromosome 8 - NC_000008.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family 16C member 6, pseudogene Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105375849 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101929415 Neighboring gene septin 10 pseudogene 1 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101929398

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Pathways from BioSystems

    • Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystemRhodopsin-like receptors (class A/1) are the largest group of GPCRs and are the best studied group from a functional and structural point of view. They show great diversity at the sequence level and ...
    • G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe classical signalling mechanism for G alpha (i) is inhibition of the cAMP dependent pathway through inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Decreased production of cAMP from ATP results in decreased act...
    • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
    • GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystemThere are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all...
    • Peptide ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Peptide ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystemThese receptors, a subset of the Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like) family, all bind peptide ligands which include the chemokines, opioids and somatostatins.
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    neuropeptide hormone activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    opioid peptide activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    opioid receptor binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    aggressive behavior IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    aging IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    behavioral fear response IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cellular protein metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    cellular response to cAMP IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cellular response to oxidative stress IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cellular response to transforming growth factor beta stimulus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cellular response to virus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cellular response to vitamin D IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    chemical synaptic transmission IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    general adaptation syndrome, behavioral process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    glial cell proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    locomotory exploration behavior IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    neuropeptide signaling pathway IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    osteoblast differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of behavioral fear response IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    post-translational protein modification TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    response to calcium ion IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to epinephrine IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to estradiol IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to ethanol IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to hypoxia IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to lipopolysaccharide IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to morphine IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to nicotine IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to radiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    sensory perception of pain IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    signal transduction TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    startle response IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    synaptic signaling via neuropeptide IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    axon terminus IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    cell body fiber IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    dendrite IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    neuronal cell body IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    neuronal dense core vesicle lumen IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    perikaryon IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    plasma membrane IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    symmetric synapse IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    synaptic vesicle lumen IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    proenkephalin-A
    Names
    enkephalin A
    peptide F
    preproenkephalin

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001135690.3NP_001129162.1  proenkephalin-A preproprotein

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001129162.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AK314908, BI496610
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS6168.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P01210
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A024R7V4
      Related
      ENSP00000400894.2, ENST00000451791.7
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      pfam01160
      Location:2570
      Opiods_neuropep; Vertebrate endogenous opioids neuropeptide

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000008.11 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

      Range
      56440957..56446641 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

    The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

    1. NM_006211.3: Suppressed sequence

      Description
      NM_006211.3: This RefSeq was removed because currently there is not sufficient data to support this transcript.
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