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    GSTM4 glutathione S-transferase mu 4 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 2948, updated on 8-Jul-2021

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    GSTM4provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    glutathione S-transferase mu 4provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:4636
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000168765 MIM:138333
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    GTM4; GSTM4-4
    Summary
    Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. At present, eight distinct classes of the soluble cytoplasmic mammalian glutathione S-transferases have been identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta and zeta. This gene encodes a glutathione S-transferase that belongs to the mu class. The mu class of enzymes functions in the detoxification of electrophilic compounds, including carcinogens, therapeutic drugs, environmental toxins and products of oxidative stress, by conjugation with glutathione. The genes encoding the mu class of enzymes are organized in a gene cluster on chromosome 1p13.3 and are known to be highly polymorphic. These genetic variations can change an individual's susceptibility to carcinogens and toxins as well as affect the toxicity and efficacy of certain drugs. Diversification of these genes has occurred in regions encoding substrate-binding domains, as well as in tissue expression patterns, to accommodate an increasing number of foreign compounds. Multiple transcript variants, each encoding a distinct protein isoform, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
    Expression
    Ubiquitous expression in duodenum (RPKM 44.6), small intestine (RPKM 30.1) and 23 other tissues See more
    Orthologs
    NEW
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    Try the new Transcript table

    Genomic context

    See GSTM4 in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    1p13.3
    Exon count:
    10
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109.20210514 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 1 NC_000001.11 (109656076..109665497)
    105.20201022 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 1 NC_000001.10 (110198721..110208119)

    Chromosome 1 - NC_000001.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 1493 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L7 pseudogene 8 Neighboring gene glutathione S-transferase mu 2 Neighboring gene glutathione S-transferase mu 1

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

    What's a GeneRIF?

    Pathways from PubChem

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Clone Names

    • MGC9247, MGC131945

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    enables enzyme binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables glutathione binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables glutathione transferase activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables glutathione transferase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables leukotriene-C4 synthase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables protein homodimerization activity IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    involved_in glutathione metabolic process IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in glutathione metabolic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in long-chain fatty acid biosynthetic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in nitrobenzene metabolic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in xenobiotic catabolic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    located_in cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in cytosol IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    located_in cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    located_in intercellular bridge IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    glutathione S-transferase Mu 4
    Names
    GST class-mu 4
    GST-Mu2
    GTS-Mu2
    S-(hydroxyalkyl)glutathione lyase M4
    glutathione S-alkyltransferase M4
    glutathione S-aralkyltransferase M4
    glutathione S-aryltransferase M4
    glutathione S-transferase M4
    leukotriene C4 synthase GSTM4
    testis tissue sperm-binding protein Li 60n
    NP_000841.1
    NP_671489.1
    XP_016856574.1
    XP_016856575.1
    XP_016856576.1
    XP_016856577.1
    XP_024302345.1

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    NEW Try the new Transcript table

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_000850.5NP_000841.1  glutathione S-transferase Mu 4 isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000841.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longest isoform (1).
      Source sequence(s)
      AC000031, BC108729, DA895954
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS807.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q03013
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A140VKE3
      Related
      ENSP00000358851.4, ENST00000369836.9
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      cd03209
      Location:92211
      GST_C_Mu; C-terminal, alpha helical domain of Class Mu Glutathione S-transferases
      COG0625
      Location:3189
      GstA; Glutathione S-transferase [Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones]
      cd03075
      Location:384
      GST_N_Mu; GST_N family, Class Mu subfamily; GSTs are cytosolic dimeric proteins involved in cellular detoxification by catalyzing the conjugation of glutathione (GSH) with a wide range of endogenous and xenobiotic alkylating agents, including carcinogens, ...
    2. NM_147148.3NP_671489.1  glutathione S-transferase Mu 4 isoform 2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_671489.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate in-frame exon in the 3' coding region and 3' UTR, compared to variant 1. It encodes a protein which has a shorter and distinct C-terminus compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC000031, BI791533, DA895954, M99422
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS806.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q03013
      Related
      ENSP00000316471.5, ENST00000326729.9
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      cd03209
      Location:92189
      GST_C_Mu; C-terminal, alpha helical domain of Class Mu Glutathione S-transferases
      COG0625
      Location:3189
      GstA; Glutathione S-transferase [Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones]
      cd03075
      Location:384
      GST_N_Mu; GST_N family, Class Mu subfamily; GSTs are cytosolic dimeric proteins involved in cellular detoxification by catalyzing the conjugation of glutathione (GSH) with a wide range of endogenous and xenobiotic alkylating agents, including carcinogens, ...

    RNA

    1. NR_024538.2 RNA Sequence

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (3) lacks an alternate exon in the 5' coding region resulting in a frameshift and early stop codon, compared to variant 1. The predicted protein is not represented because the product is significantly truncated and the transcript is a candidate for nonsense-mediated decay (NMD).
      Source sequence(s)
      AC000031, BC015513, DA895954, M99421
      Related
      ENST00000495742.5

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20210514

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000001.11 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

      Range
      109656076..109665497
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_024446577.1XP_024302345.1  glutathione S-transferase Mu 4 isoform X2

      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd03209
      Location:92241
      GST_C_Mu; C-terminal, alpha helical domain of Class Mu Glutathione S-transferases
      cd03075
      Location:384
      GST_N_Mu; GST_N family, Class Mu subfamily; GSTs are cytosolic dimeric proteins involved in cellular detoxification by catalyzing the conjugation of glutathione (GSH) with a wide range of endogenous and xenobiotic alkylating agents, including carcinogens, ...
    2. XM_017001085.1XP_016856574.1  glutathione S-transferase Mu 4 isoform X1

    3. XM_017001088.2XP_016856577.1  glutathione S-transferase Mu 4 isoform X5

    4. XM_017001086.1XP_016856575.1  glutathione S-transferase Mu 4 isoform X3

    5. XM_017001087.2XP_016856576.1  glutathione S-transferase Mu 4 isoform X4

    Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

    The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

    1. NM_147149.1: Suppressed sequence

      Description
      NM_147149.1: This RefSeq was permanently suppressed because it is a nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) candidate.
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