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    GRP gastrin releasing peptide [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 2922, updated on 6-Jun-2024

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    GRPprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    gastrin releasing peptideprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:4605
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000134443 MIM:137260; AllianceGenome:HGNC:4605
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    BN; GRP-10; proGRP; preproGRP
    Summary
    This gene encodes a member of the bombesin-like family of gastrin-releasing peptides. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate two peptides, gastrin-releasing peptide and neuromedin-C. These peptides regulate numerous functions of the gastrointestinal and central nervous systems, including release of gastrointestinal hormones, smooth muscle cell contraction, and epithelial cell proliferation. These peptides are also likely to play a role in human cancers of the lung, colon, stomach, pancreas, breast, and prostate. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, at least one of which encodes a preproprotein that is proteolytically processed. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]
    Expression
    Low expression observed in reference dataset See more
    Orthologs
    NEW
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    Genomic context

    See GRP in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    18q21.32
    Exon count:
    5
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    RS_2023_10 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 18 NC_000018.10 (59219189..59230771)
    RS_2023_10 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 18 NC_060942.1 (59420451..59432025)
    105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 18 NC_000018.9 (56887390..56898003)

    Chromosome 18 - NC_000018.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 9491 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 13410 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 13411 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 13412 Neighboring gene SEC11 homolog C, signal peptidase complex subunit Neighboring gene signal recognition particle 19kDa pseudogene Neighboring gene MED14-independent group 3 enhancer GRCh37_chr18:56855703-56856902 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr18:56886610-56887224 Neighboring gene MPRA-validated peak3170 silencer Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr18:56936011-56936521 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 9492 Neighboring gene retina and anterior neural fold homeobox Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 9493 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 9494 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 9495 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 1890 Neighboring gene complexin 4

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

    What's a GeneRIF?

    Pathways from PubChem

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    enables neuropeptide hormone activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    enables neuropeptide hormone activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables signaling receptor binding NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    involved_in cellular response to sodium phosphate IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in mast cell degranulation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of voltage-gated potassium channel activity ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of voltage-gated sodium channel activity ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in neuropeptide signaling pathway IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    acts_upstream_of_or_within neuropeptide signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in ossification IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of behavioral fear response ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of peptide hormone secretion ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of phospholipase C-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of respiratory gaseous exchange ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell apoptotic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in psychomotor behavior IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of gene expression IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in response to external biotic stimulus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in signal transduction NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in social behavior IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    located_in extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    is_active_in extracellular space IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    located_in extracellular space IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in neuron projection ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    located_in neuronal dense core vesicle IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    located_in secretory granule lumen ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    gastrin-releasing peptide
    Names
    bombesin
    neuromedin C
    pre-progastrin releasing peptide
    prepro-GRP
    testicular tissue protein Li 103

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    NEW Try the new Transcript table

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001012512.3NP_001012530.1  gastrin-releasing peptide isoform 2 precursor

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1, resulting in a shorter protein (isoform 2). This variant has also been identified as "splice isoform 3" and "pro-gastrin releasing peptide type 2". The encoded isoform (2) may undergo proteolytic processing similar to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AA989236, AC067859, BC004488, W01859
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS45877.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A140VJM7, Q5FBX9
      Related
      ENSP00000389696.2, ENST00000420468.6
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      pfam02044
      Location:4154
      Bombesin; Bombesin-like peptide
    2. NM_001012513.3NP_001012531.1  gastrin-releasing peptide isoform 3 preproprotein

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (3) uses an alternate splice site in the coding region, which results in a frameshift and an early stop codon, compared to variant 1. It encodes isoform 3 which has a shorter and distinct C-terminus, compared to isoform 1. This variant has also been identified as "splice isoform 2", "pro-gastrin releasing peptide type 3", and "gastrin-releasing peptide nirs variant 1".
      Source sequence(s)
      AC067859, BC004488, CK903483
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS45878.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      Q5FBX9
      Related
      ENSP00000434101.1, ENST00000529320.2
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      pfam02044
      Location:4154
      Bombesin; Bombesin-like peptide
    3. NM_002091.5NP_002082.2  gastrin-releasing peptide isoform 1 preproprotein

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002082.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longest isoform (1). This variant has also been identified as "pro-gastrin releasing peptide type 1".
      Source sequence(s)
      AC067859, BC004488
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS11971.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P07491, P07492, P81553, Q14454, Q53YA0, Q9BSY7
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      Q5FBX9
      Related
      ENSP00000256857.2, ENST00000256857.7
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      pfam02044
      Location:4154
      Bombesin; Bombesin-like peptide

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: GCF_000001405.40-RS_2023_10

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000018.10 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

      Range
      59219189..59230771
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_011525933.3XP_011524235.1  gastrin-releasing peptide isoform X3

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011524235.1

    2. XM_017025712.2XP_016881201.1  gastrin-releasing peptide isoform X1

      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      Q5FBX9
    3. XM_017025713.2XP_016881202.1  gastrin-releasing peptide isoform X2

      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      Q5FBX9
    4. XM_017025714.2XP_016881203.1  gastrin-releasing peptide isoform X4

    Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    Genomic

    1. NC_060942.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

      Range
      59420451..59432025
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_054318547.1XP_054174522.1  gastrin-releasing peptide isoform X3

    2. XM_054318545.1XP_054174520.1  gastrin-releasing peptide isoform X1

      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      Q5FBX9
    3. XM_054318546.1XP_054174521.1  gastrin-releasing peptide isoform X2

      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      Q5FBX9
    4. XM_054318548.1XP_054174523.1  gastrin-releasing peptide isoform X4