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    GPI glucose-6-phosphate isomerase [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 2821, updated on 8-Jul-2019

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    GPIprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    glucose-6-phosphate isomeraseprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:4458
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000105220 MIM:172400
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    AMF; NLK; PGI; PHI; GNPI; SA36; SA-36
    Summary
    This gene encodes a member of the glucose phosphate isomerase protein family. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions. In the cytoplasm, the gene product functions as a glycolytic enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate isomerase) that interconverts glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate. Extracellularly, the encoded protein (also referred to as neuroleukin) functions as a neurotrophic factor that promotes survival of skeletal motor neurons and sensory neurons, and as a lymphokine that induces immunoglobulin secretion. The encoded protein is also referred to as autocrine motility factor based on an additional function as a tumor-secreted cytokine and angiogenic factor. Defects in this gene are the cause of nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia and a severe enzyme deficiency can be associated with hydrops fetalis, immediate neonatal death and neurological impairment. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2016]
    Expression
    Ubiquitous expression in heart (RPKM 54.9), fat (RPKM 52.6) and 25 other tissues See more
    Orthologs

    Genomic context

    See GPI in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    19q13.11
    Exon count:
    20
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109.20190607 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 19 NC_000019.10 (34353330..34402413)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 19 NC_000019.9 (34855645..34893318)

    Chromosome 19 - NC_000019.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene KIAA0355 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L29 pseudogene 33 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 14193 Neighboring gene programmed cell death 2 like Neighboring gene RNA, 7SL, cytoplasmic 154, pseudogene Neighboring gene ubiquitin like modifier activating enzyme 2

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    HIV-1 interactions

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Glucophosphoisomerase (GPI) can be antagonized by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) gp120 protein in human and rat neuroblastoma cell lines PubMed
    Tat tat Expression of HIV-1 Tat upregulates the abundance of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) in the nucleoli of Jurkat T-cells PubMed
    Vpr vpr A stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics identifies downregulation of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) expression by HIV-1 Vpr in Vpr transduced macrophages PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Pathways from BioSystems

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Clone Names

    • DKFZp686C13233

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    cytokine activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    glucose-6-phosphate isomerase activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    growth factor activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    intramolecular transferase activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    monosaccharide binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    ubiquitin protein ligase binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    canonical glycolysis TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    carbohydrate metabolic process NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    gluconeogenesis IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    gluconeogenesis TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    glucose 6-phosphate metabolic process IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    glycolytic process IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    hemostasis TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    humoral immune response TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    neutrophil degranulation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    positive regulation of endothelial cell migration IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of immunoglobulin secretion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    signal transduction IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    cytosol IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytosol IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
    extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    ficolin-1-rich granule lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    membrane HDA PubMed 
    nucleoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    plasma membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    secretory granule lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    glucose-6-phosphate isomerase
    Names
    autocrine motility factor
    hexose monophosphate isomerase
    hexosephosphate isomerase
    neuroleukin
    oxoisomerase
    phosphoglucose isomerase
    phosphohexomutase
    phosphohexose isomerase
    phosphosaccharomutase
    sperm antigen-36
    NP_000166.2
    NP_001171651.1
    NP_001276718.1
    NP_001276719.1
    NP_001316838.1
    NP_001316839.1
    NP_001316840.1
    XP_011525056.1

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_012838.3 RefSeqGene

      Range
      10605..47822
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics), LRG_1178

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_000175.5NP_000166.2  glucose-6-phosphate isomerase isoform 2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000166.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR and uses a downstream start codon, compared to variant 3. The encoded isoform (2) has a shorter N-terminus, compared to isoform 3.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC092073, BC004982, BM664761, DC299841
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS12437.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P06744
      Related
      ENSP00000348877.3, ENST00000356487.11
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      PRK00179
      Location:1554
      pgi; glucose-6-phosphate isomerase; Reviewed
      cd05015
      Location:123286
      SIS_PGI_1; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the first SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...
      cd05016
      Location:334525
      SIS_PGI_2; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the second SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...
    2. NM_001184722.1NP_001171651.1  glucose-6-phosphate isomerase isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001171651.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) lacks an in-frame exon in the central coding region, compared to variant 3. The encoded isoform (1) is shorter, compared to isoform 3.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC010504, AC092073, AK294396, BM664761, DC342043
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS54246.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P06744
      Related
      ENSP00000465858.3, ENST00000588991.7
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      PRK00179
      Location:40565
      pgi; glucose-6-phosphate isomerase; Reviewed
      cd05015
      Location:162297
      SIS_PGI_1; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the first SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...
      cd05016
      Location:345536
      SIS_PGI_2; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the second SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...
    3. NM_001289789.1NP_001276718.1  glucose-6-phosphate isomerase isoform 3

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001276718.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (3) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longest isoform (3).
      Source sequence(s)
      AK129884, BC006342, CR745343, DC342043, FY213211
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS86742.1
      Related
      ENSP00000405573.3, ENST00000415930.8
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      PRK00179
      Location:40593
      pgi; glucose-6-phosphate isomerase; Reviewed
      cd05015
      Location:162325
      SIS_PGI_1; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the first SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...
      cd05016
      Location:373564
      SIS_PGI_2; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the second SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...
    4. NM_001289790.3NP_001276719.1  glucose-6-phosphate isomerase isoform 4

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001276719.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR, uses a downstream start codon, and lacks an in-frame exon in the central coding region, compared to variant 3. The encoded isoform (4) is shorter, compared to isoform 3.
      Source sequence(s)
      AK293446, BC006342, CR745343, DC299841, FY213211
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      B4DE36
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      PRK00179
      Location:1526
      pgi; glucose-6-phosphate isomerase; Reviewed
      cd05015
      Location:123258
      SIS_PGI_1; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the first SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...
      cd05016
      Location:306497
      SIS_PGI_2; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the second SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...
    5. NM_001329909.1NP_001316838.1  glucose-6-phosphate isomerase isoform 2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (5) differs in the 5' UTR and uses a downstream start codon, compared to variant 3. The encoded isoform (2) is shorter, compared to isoform 3.
      Source sequence(s)
      AK129884, BC004982, BC006342, BM664761, DA158837, DA171856
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS12437.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P06744
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      PRK00179
      Location:1554
      pgi; glucose-6-phosphate isomerase; Reviewed
      cd05015
      Location:123286
      SIS_PGI_1; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the first SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...
      cd05016
      Location:334525
      SIS_PGI_2; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the second SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...
    6. NM_001329910.1NP_001316839.1  glucose-6-phosphate isomerase isoform 2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (6) differs in the 5' UTR and uses a downstream start codon, compared to variant 3. The encoded isoform (2) is shorter, compared to isoform 3.
      Source sequence(s)
      BC004982, BC006342, BM664761, DA158837, DA171856, DA909998
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS12437.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P06744
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      PRK00179
      Location:1554
      pgi; glucose-6-phosphate isomerase; Reviewed
      cd05015
      Location:123286
      SIS_PGI_1; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the first SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...
      cd05016
      Location:334525
      SIS_PGI_2; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the second SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...
    7. NM_001329911.2NP_001316840.1  glucose-6-phosphate isomerase isoform 5

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (7) differs in the 5' UTR, uses a downstream start codon, and uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 3. The encoded isoform (5) is shorter, compared to isoform 3.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC092073, BC004982, BM664761, DC299841, HY310615
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P06744
      Related
      ENSP00000467670.3, ENST00000586425.2

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000019.10 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

      Range
      34353330..34402413
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_011526754.3XP_011525056.1  glucose-6-phosphate isomerase isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011525056.1

      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      PRK00179
      Location:40593
      pgi; glucose-6-phosphate isomerase; Reviewed
      cd05015
      Location:162325
      SIS_PGI_1; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the first SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...
      cd05016
      Location:373564
      SIS_PGI_2; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the second SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...

    Reference GRCh38.p13 ALT_REF_LOCI_1

    Genomic

    1. NT_187619.1 Reference GRCh38.p13 ALT_REF_LOCI_1

      Range
      13932..30733
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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