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    THEM4 thioesterase superfamily member 4 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 117145, updated on 17-Jun-2019

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    THEM4provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    thioesterase superfamily member 4provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:17947
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000159445 MIM:606388
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    CTMP
    Summary
    Protein kinase B (PKB) is a major downstream target of receptor tyrosine kinases that signal via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Upon cell stimulation, PKB is translocated to the plasma membrane, where it is phosphorylated in the C-terminal regulatory domain. The protein encoded by this gene negatively regulates PKB activity by inhibiting phosphorylation. Transcription of this gene is commonly downregulated in glioblastomas. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
    Expression
    Ubiquitous expression in kidney (RPKM 4.4), testis (RPKM 3.1) and 25 other tissues See more
    Orthologs

    Genomic context

    See THEM4 in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    1q21.3
    Exon count:
    7
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109.20190607 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 1 NC_000001.11 (151870866..151909511, complement)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 1 NC_000001.10 (151843342..151882361, complement)

    Chromosome 1 - NC_000001.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene C2CD4D and THEM5 antisense RNA 1 Neighboring gene C2 calcium dependent domain containing 4D Neighboring gene thioesterase superfamily member 5 Neighboring gene keratin 8 pseudogene 28 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105371441 Neighboring gene S100 calcium binding protein A10

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Phenotypes

    NHGRI GWAS Catalog

    Description
    An atlas of genetic influences on human blood metabolites.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genetic determinants influencing human serum metabolome among African Americans.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog

    Pathways from BioSystems

    • Activation of AKT2, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Activation of AKT2, organism-specific biosystem
      Activation of AKT2
    • Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystemAdaptive immunity refers to antigen-specific immune response efficiently involved in clearing the pathogens. The adaptive immune system is comprised of B and T lymphocytes that express receptors with...
    • CD28 co-stimulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      CD28 co-stimulation, organism-specific biosystemIn naive T cells, CD28 costimulation enhances cell cycle entry, potently stimulates expression of both the mitogenic lymphokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) and its receptor, and stimulates the activation o...
    • CD28 dependent PI3K/Akt signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      CD28 dependent PI3K/Akt signaling, organism-specific biosystemPI3Ks can be activated by a number of different receptors, including the TcR (T cell receptor), co-stimulatory receptors (CD28), cytokine receptors and chemokine receptors. However, the specific role...
    • Costimulation by the CD28 family, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Costimulation by the CD28 family, organism-specific biosystemOptimal activation of T-lymphocytes requires at least two signals. A primary one is delivered by the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex after antigen recognition and additional costimulatory signals are d...
    • DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystemDNAX activation protein of 12kDa (DAP12) is an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-bearing adapter molecule that transduces activating signals in natural killer (NK) and myeloid cel...
    • DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystemIn response to receptor ligation, the tyrosine residues in DAP12's immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) are phosphorylated by Src family kinases. These phosphotyrosines form the dock...
    • Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystemThe role of autophosphorylation sites on PDGF receptors are to provide docking sites for downstream signal transduction molecules which contain SH2 domains. The SH2 domain is a conserved motif of aro...
    • Downstream signaling events of B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Downstream signaling events of B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystemSecond messengers (calcium, diacylglycerol, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and phosphatidyinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate) trigger signaling pathways: NF-kappaB is activated via protein kinase C beta, RA...
    • Fatty Acyl-CoA Biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Fatty Acyl-CoA Biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystemFatty acyl-CoA biosynthesis involves following steps: -Palmitate synthesis catalyzed by Acetyl-CoA carboxylase and Fatty acid synthase-Conversion of palmitic acid to long chain fatty acids and-Conver...
    • Fatty acid, triacylglycerol, and ketone body metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Fatty acid, triacylglycerol, and ketone body metabolism, organism-specific biosystemThe reactions involved in the metabolism of fatty acids and of the triacylglycerols and ketone bodies derived from them form a closely interrelated, coordinately regulated module that plays a central...
    • Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystemMast cells (MC) are distributed in tissues throughout the human body and have long been recognized as key cells of type I hypersensitivity reactions. They also play important roles in inflammatory an...
    • GAB1 signalosome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GAB1 signalosome, organism-specific biosystemGAB1 is recruited to the activated EGFR indirectly, through GRB2. GAB1 acts as an adaptor protein that enables formation of an active PIK3, through recruitment of PIK3 regulatory subunit PIK3R1 (also...
    • IGF1R signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      IGF1R signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystemAfter autophosphorylation the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) binds and phosphorylates scaffold proteins, IRS1/2/4 and SHC1, which in turn bind effectors possessing enzymatic activ...
    • IRS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      IRS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemRelease of phospho-IRS from the insulin receptor triggers a cascade of signalling events via PI3K, SOS, RAF and the MAP kinases.
    • IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphorylated type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor phosphorylates IR1, IRS2, IRS4 and possibly other IRS/DOK family members (reviewed in Pavelic et al. 2007, Chitnis et al. 2008, Maki et a...
    • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
    • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
    • Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystemAutophosphorylation of the insulin receptor triggers a series of signalling events, mediated by SHC or IRS, and resulting in activation of the Ras/RAF and MAP kinase cascades. A second effect of the ...
    • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
    • Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystemLipids are hydrophobic but otherwise chemically diverse molecules that play a wide variety of roles in human biology. They include ketone bodies, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sphi...
    • NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemTrk receptors signal from the plasma membrane and from intracellular membranes, particularly from early endosomes. Signalling from the plasma membrane is fast but transient; signalling from endosomes...
    • Negative regulation of the PI3K/AKT network, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Negative regulation of the PI3K/AKT network, organism-specific biosystemThe PI3K/AKT network is negatively regulated by phosphatases that dephosphorylate PIP3, thus hampering AKT activation.
    • PI3K Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      PI3K Cascade, organism-specific biosystem
      PI3K Cascade
    • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
    • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
    • PI3K/AKT activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      PI3K/AKT activation, organism-specific biosystemPI3K/AKT signalling is a major regulator of neuron survival. It blocks cell death by both impinging on the cytoplasmic cell death machinery and by regulating the expression of genes involved in cell...
    • PIP3 activates AKT signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      PIP3 activates AKT signaling, organism-specific biosystemSignaling by AKT is one of the key outcomes of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation. AKT is activated by the cellular second messenger PIP3, a phospholipid that is generated by PI3K. In ustimula...
    • Role of LAT2/NTAL/LAB on calcium mobilization, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Role of LAT2/NTAL/LAB on calcium mobilization, organism-specific biosystemThe lipid raft resident adaptor molecules LAT1 and Non-T cell activation linker (NTAL), also known as linker for activation of B cells (LAB)/LAT2 are known participants in the regulation of mast cell...
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystemThe epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one member of the ERBB family of transmembrane glycoprotein tyrosine receptor kinases (RTK). Binding of EGFR to its ligands induces conformational chang...
    • Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in receptor autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues and the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (e.g. IRS and Shc) by the insulin receptor...
    • Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet-derived Growth Factor (PDGF) is a potent stimulator of growth and motility of connective tissue cells such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells as well as other cells such as capillary end...
    • Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystemStem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor with membrane bound and soluble forms. It is expressed by fibroblasts and endothelial cells throughout the body, promoting proliferation, migration, survival...
    • Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystemBinding of IGF1 (IGF-I) or IGF2 (IGF-II) to the extracellular alpha peptides of the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) triggers the activation of two major signaling pathways: the SOS...
    • Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystemIn normal development vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are crucial regulators of vascular development during embryogenesis (vasculogenesis) and blood-vessel formation in the adult (angioge...
    • Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystemMature B cells express IgM and IgD immunoglobulins which are complexed at the plasma membrane with Ig-alpha (CD79A, MB-1) and Ig-beta (CD79B, B29) to form the B cell receptor (BCR) (Fu et al. 1974, F...
    • Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4/5) play pivotal roles in survival, differentiation, and plasticity of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. They are produced, and secreted in mi...
    • Triglyceride Biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Triglyceride Biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystemThe overall process of triglyceride (triacylglycerol) biosynthesis consists of four biochemical pathways: fatty acyl-CoA biosynthesis, conversion of fatty acyl-CoA to phosphatidic acid, conversion of...
    • VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystemAngiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vasculature. One of the most important proangiogenic factors is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF exerts its biologic...
    • VEGFR2 mediated vascular permeability, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      VEGFR2 mediated vascular permeability, organism-specific biosystemThe free radical nitric oxide (NO), produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), is an important vasoactive substance in normal vascular biology and pathophysiology. It plays an important role in vasc...

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Clone Names

    • FLJ27206, MGC29636

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    myristoyl-CoA hydrolase activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    cytosol IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    mitochondrial inner membrane IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    mitochondrial intermembrane space IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    mitochondrial matrix TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    mitochondrion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    plasma membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    ruffle membrane IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    acyl-coenzyme A thioesterase THEM4
    Names
    C-terminal modulator protein
    acyl-CoA thioesterase THEM4
    carboxyl-terminal modulator protein
    NP_444283.2
    XP_011507444.1

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_053055.5NP_444283.2  acyl-coenzyme A thioesterase THEM4

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_444283.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AF075119, AJ313515, AL450992, DC353229
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS1006.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q5T1C6
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A8K0C9
      Related
      ENSP00000357804.3, ENST00000368814.8
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd03443
      Location:119231
      PaaI_thioesterase; PaaI_thioesterase is a tetrameric acyl-CoA thioesterase with a hot dog fold and one of several proteins responsible for phenylacetic acid (PA) degradation in bacteria. Although orthologs of PaaI exist in archaea and eukaryotes, their function has not ...

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000001.11 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

      Range
      151870866..151909511 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_011509142.2XP_011507444.1  acyl-coenzyme A thioesterase THEM4 isoform X1

      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd03443
      Location:55167
      PaaI_thioesterase; PaaI_thioesterase is a tetrameric acyl-CoA thioesterase with a hot dog fold and one of several proteins responsible for phenylacetic acid (PA) degradation in bacteria. Although orthologs of PaaI exist in archaea and eukaryotes, their function has not ...

    Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

    The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

    1. NM_176853.2: Suppressed sequence

      Description
      NM_176853.2: This RefSeq was permanently suppressed because it is a nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) candidate.
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