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    PPARA peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 5465, updated on 5-Jul-2020

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    PPARAprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alphaprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:9232
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000186951 MIM:170998
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    PPAR; NR1C1; hPPAR; PPARalpha
    Summary
    Peroxisome proliferators include hypolipidemic drugs, herbicides, leukotriene antagonists, and plasticizers; this term arises because they induce an increase in the size and number of peroxisomes. Peroxisomes are subcellular organelles found in plants and animals that contain enzymes for respiration and for cholesterol and lipid metabolism. The action of peroxisome proliferators is thought to be mediated via specific receptors, called PPARs, which belong to the steroid hormone receptor superfamily. PPARs affect the expression of target genes involved in cell proliferation, cell differentiation and in immune and inflammation responses. Three closely related subtypes (alpha, beta/delta, and gamma) have been identified. This gene encodes the subtype PPAR-alpha, which is a nuclear transcription factor. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene, although the full-length nature of only two has been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
    Expression
    Ubiquitous expression in kidney (RPKM 12.0), heart (RPKM 8.1) and 24 other tissues See more
    Orthologs

    Genomic context

    See PPARA in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    22q13.31
    Exon count:
    14
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109.20200522 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 22 NC_000022.11 (46150526..46243756)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 22 NC_000022.10 (46546458..46639653)

    Chromosome 22 - NC_000022.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene MIRLET7B host gene Neighboring gene microRNA let-7b Neighboring gene microRNA 4763 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105373074 Neighboring gene cysteine rich DPF motif domain containing 1 Neighboring gene polycystin family receptor for egg jelly

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

    What's a GeneRIF?

    Phenotypes

    NHGRI GWAS Catalog

    Description
    Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genetic Loci Associated with Circulating Levels of Very Long-Chain Saturated Fatty Acids.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog

    HIV-1 interactions

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Tat tat PPARalpha and PPARgamma over-expression prevent Tat-induced binding activity and transactivation of nuclear factor-kappaB PubMed
    tat Over-expression of PPARalpha or PPARgamma attenuates Tat-induced up-regulation of inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, CCL2, and E-selectin PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Pathways from PubChem

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Clone Names

    • MGC2237, MGC2452

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    DNA binding TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    DNA-binding transcription activator activity, RNA polymerase II-specific IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    DNA-binding transcription factor activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    DNA-binding transcription factor activity ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific ISA
    Inferred from Sequence Alignment
    more info
     
    DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific ISM
    Inferred from Sequence Model
    more info
    PubMed 
    DNA-binding transcription repressor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    DNA-binding transcription repressor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    MDM2/MDM4 family protein binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    NFAT protein binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    RNA polymerase II proximal promoter sequence-specific DNA binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    RNA polymerase II repressing transcription factor binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    RNA polymerase II repressing transcription factor binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    drug binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    lipid binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    nuclear receptor activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    nuclear receptor activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    phosphatase binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein domain specific binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein-containing complex binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    sequence-specific DNA binding ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    signaling receptor activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    steroid hormone receptor activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    transcription coactivator binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    transcription factor binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    transcription factor binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    ubiquitin conjugating enzyme binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    zinc ion binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    behavioral response to nicotine IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cell differentiation IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to starvation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    circadian regulation of gene expression ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    enamel mineralization IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    epidermis development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    fatty acid metabolic process IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    fatty acid transport TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    heart development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    hormone-mediated signaling pathway IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    intracellular receptor signaling pathway IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    lipid metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    lipoprotein metabolic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of appetite ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    negative regulation of blood pressure IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of cell growth involved in cardiac muscle cell development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of cholesterol storage IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of cholesterol storage IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of glycolytic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of inflammatory response IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of inflammatory response IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of leukocyte cell-cell adhesion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of macrophage derived foam cell differentiation IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of macrophage derived foam cell differentiation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of neuron death IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of protein binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of receptor biosynthetic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of sequestering of triglyceride IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of fatty acid beta-oxidation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of fatty acid metabolic process IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of fatty acid oxidation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of gluconeogenesis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of cellular ketone metabolic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of circadian rhythm ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    regulation of fatty acid metabolic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of lipid metabolic process IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of lipid metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    response to hypoxia IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to insulin IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to lipid IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    steroid hormone mediated signaling pathway IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    wound healing IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    RNA polymerase II transcription factor complex IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    host cell nucleus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    nuclear chromatin ISA
    Inferred from Sequence Alignment
    more info
     
    nucleoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    nucleoplasm TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    nucleus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    nucleus TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha
    Names
    PPAR-alpha
    nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group C member 1
    peroxisome proliferative activated receptor, alpha
    peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptor alpha variant 3

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_012204.2 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5262..98223
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001001928.3NP_001001928.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001001928.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AL078611, FP325332
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS33669.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q07869
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      F1D8S4
      Related
      ENSP00000262735.5, ENST00000262735.9
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd06932
      Location:201467
      NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
      cd06965
      Location:101184
      NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
    2. NM_001362872.2NP_001349801.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AL078611, FP325332
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS33669.1
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd06932
      Location:201467
      NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
      cd06965
      Location:101184
      NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
    3. NM_001362873.1NP_001349802.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AK289821, AL078611, BP253825, HY113201
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS33669.1
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd06932
      Location:201467
      NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
      cd06965
      Location:101184
      NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
    4. NM_005036.6NP_005027.2  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_005027.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AL078611, FP325332
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS33669.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q07869
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      F1D8S4
      Related
      ENSP00000385523.1, ENST00000407236.5
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd06932
      Location:201467
      NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
      cd06965
      Location:101184
      NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000022.11 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

      Range
      46150526..46243756
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_011530244.2XP_011528546.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha isoform X2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011528546.1

      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd06932
      Location:67333
      NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
    2. XM_011530240.2XP_011528542.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011528542.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q07869
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      F1D8S4
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd06932
      Location:201467
      NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
      cd06965
      Location:101184
      NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
    3. XM_017028839.1XP_016884328.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha isoform X2

      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd06932
      Location:67333
      NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
    4. XM_024452252.1XP_024308020.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha isoform X2

      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd06932
      Location:67333
      NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
    5. XM_011530239.2XP_011528541.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011528541.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q07869
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      F1D8S4
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd06932
      Location:201467
      NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
      cd06965
      Location:101184
      NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
    6. XM_011530245.2XP_011528547.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha isoform X2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011528547.1

      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd06932
      Location:67333
      NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
    7. XM_006724270.3XP_006724333.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006724333.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q07869
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      F1D8S4
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd06932
      Location:201467
      NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
      cd06965
      Location:101184
      NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
    8. XM_024452253.1XP_024308021.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha isoform X3

      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd06932
      Location:32264
      NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
    9. XM_011530241.2XP_011528543.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011528543.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q07869
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      F1D8S4
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd06932
      Location:201467
      NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
      cd06965
      Location:101184
      NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
    10. XM_005261656.3XP_005261713.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_005261713.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q07869
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      F1D8S4
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd06932
      Location:201467
      NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
      cd06965
      Location:101184
      NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
    11. XM_011530243.2XP_011528545.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011528545.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q07869
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      F1D8S4
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd06932
      Location:201467
      NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
      cd06965
      Location:101184
      NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
    12. XM_011530242.2XP_011528544.1  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011528544.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q07869
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      F1D8S4
      Related
      ENSP00000385246.1, ENST00000402126.1
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd06932
      Location:201467
      NR_LBD_PPAR; The ligand binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
      cd06965
      Location:101184
      NR_DBD_Ppar; DNA-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers

    RNA

    1. XR_001755253.1 RNA Sequence

    2. XR_937869.2 RNA Sequence

    3. XR_937870.2 RNA Sequence

    Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

    The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

    1. NM_001001929.2: Suppressed sequence

      Description
      NM_001001929.2: This RefSeq was temporarily suppressed because currently there is not sufficient data to support this transcript.
    2. NM_001001930.2: Suppressed sequence

      Description
      NM_001001930.2: This RefSeq was temporarily suppressed because currently there is not sufficient data to support this transcript.
    3. NM_032644.3: Suppressed sequence

      Description
      NM_032644.3: This RefSeq was temporarily suppressed because currently there is not sufficient data to support this transcript.
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