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    CXCL1 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 2919, updated on 2-Oct-2018

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    CXCL1provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:4602
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000163739 MIM:155730; Vega:OTTHUMG00000160866
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    FSP; GRO1; GROa; MGSA; NAP-3; SCYB1; MGSA-a
    Summary
    This antimicrobial gene encodes a member of the CXC subfamily of chemokines. The encoded protein is a secreted growth factor that signals through the G-protein coupled receptor, CXC receptor 2. This protein plays a role in inflammation and as a chemoattractant for neutrophils. Aberrant expression of this protein is associated with the growth and progression of certain tumors. A naturally occurring processed form of this protein has increased chemotactic activity. Alternate splicing results in coding and non-coding variants of this gene. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 4. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
    Expression
    Biased expression in spleen (RPKM 42.1), urinary bladder (RPKM 38.5) and 12 other tissues See more
    Orthologs

    Genomic context

    See CXCL1 in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    4q13.3
    Exon count:
    4
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 4 NC_000004.12 (73869392..73871302)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 4 NC_000004.11 (74735109..74737019)

    Chromosome 4 - NC_000004.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene pro-platelet basic protein pseudogene 1 Neighboring gene platelet factor 4 variant 1 Neighboring gene heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 pseudogene 55 Neighboring gene C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 pseudogene 1

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Phenotypes

    NHGRI GWAS Catalog

    Description
    Genome-wide and gene-based association studies of anxiety disorders in European and african american samples.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Host-microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog

    HIV-1 interactions

    Replication interactions

    Interaction Pubs
    HIV-1 infected clinical samples have plasma extracellular vesicles that contain elevated CCL1 (I309), IGFBP1, CCL5 (RANTES), GMCSF, ANG, ADIPOQ (ACRP30), CSF3 (GCSF), CXCL1 (GRO), ICAM1, IL2RA, IL6R, TNFRSF1A, and TIMP1 when compared to healthy donors PubMed

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 IIIB Env (gp120) upregulates production of TNF (TNF-a), IL-17A, CCL2 (MCP1), CCL5 (RANTES), IL6, IL10, CXCL8 (IL8), CXCL1 (GRO-a), and CCL1 (I309) in stimulated monocyte derived macrophages PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120-treated vaginal epithelial cells show upregulation of CXCL1 expression as compared to untreated control PubMed
    env In endometrial epithelium-derived cells, gp120 from CCR5-tropic HIV-1 increases the release of monocytes/chemokines-attracting chemokines (IL-8 and GRO) and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-beta and IL-1alpha) PubMed
    env Production of the C-X-C chemokine growth-regulated oncogene alpha (GRO-alpha) is markedly stimulated by CXCR4-tropic HIV-1; HIV-1 gp120 engagement of CXCR4 initiates the stimulation of GRO-alpha production, which is blocked by antibodies to CXCR4 PubMed
    Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env A synthetic peptide corresponding to the immunosuppressive domain (amino acids 574-592) of HIV-1 gp41 inhibits activation of PBMCs and upregulates the expression of CXCL1 in peptide-treated PBMCs PubMed
    Nef nef HIV-1 Nef specifically incorporates CSF2, PPBP (NAP2), CCL5, TNF, FAS, CXCL1, IL12B, MIF and OSM into plasma extracellular vesicles from HIV-1 infected patient samples PubMed
    Tat tat Microarray analysis indicates HIV-1 Tat-induced upregulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) in primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates the expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) in human primary T cells PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Pathways from BioSystems

    • Amoebiasis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Amoebiasis, organism-specific biosystemEntamoeba histolytica, an extracellular protozoan parasite is a human pathogen that invades the intestinal epithelium. Infection occurs on ingestion of contaminated water and food. The pathogenesis o...
    • Amoebiasis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Amoebiasis, conserved biosystemEntamoeba histolytica, an extracellular protozoan parasite is a human pathogen that invades the intestinal epithelium. Infection occurs on ingestion of contaminated water and food. The pathogenesis o...
    • Chemokine receptors bind chemokines, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Chemokine receptors bind chemokines, organism-specific biosystemChemokine receptors are cytokine receptors found on the surface of certain cells, which interact with a type of cytokine called a chemokine. Following interaction, these receptors trigger a flux of i...
    • Chemokine signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Chemokine signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation upon foreign insult. Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for th...
    • Chemokine signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Chemokine signaling pathway, conserved biosystemInflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation upon foreign insult. Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for th...
    • Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystemRhodopsin-like receptors (class A/1) are the largest group of GPCRs and are the best studied group from a functional and structural point of view. They show great diversity at the sequence level and ...
    • Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystemCytokines are small proteins that regulate and mediate immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. They are secreted in response to immune stimuli, and usually act briefly, locally, at very low concen...
    • Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystemCytokines are soluble extracellular proteins or glycoproteins that are crucial intercellular regulators and mobilizers of cells engaged in innate as well as adaptive inflammatory host defenses, cell ...
    • Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, conserved biosystemCytokines are soluble extracellular proteins or glycoproteins that are crucial intercellular regulators and mobilizers of cells engaged in innate as well as adaptive inflammatory host defenses, cell ...
    • Cytokines and Inflammatory Response, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Cytokines and Inflammatory Response, organism-specific biosystemInflammation is a protective response to infection by the immune system that requires communication between different classes of immune cells to coordinate their actions. Acute inflammation is an imp...
    • Epithelial cell signaling in Helicobacter pylori infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Epithelial cell signaling in Helicobacter pylori infection, organism-specific biosystemTwo major virulence factors of H. pylori are the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) and the cag type-IV secretion system (T4SS) and its translocated effector protein, cytotoxin-associated antigen A (CagA)....
    • Epithelial cell signaling in Helicobacter pylori infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Epithelial cell signaling in Helicobacter pylori infection, conserved biosystemTwo major virulence factors of H. pylori are the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) and the cag type-IV secretion system (T4SS) and its translocated effector protein, cytotoxin-associated antigen A (CagA)....
    • G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe classical signalling mechanism for G alpha (i) is inhibition of the cAMP dependent pathway through inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Decreased production of cAMP from ATP results in decreased act...
    • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
    • GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystemThere are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all...
    • IL-17 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      IL-17 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe interleukin 17 (IL-17) family, a subset of cytokines consisting of IL-17A-F, plays crucial roles in both acute and chronic inflammatory responses. IL-17A, the hallmark cytokine of the newly defi...
    • IL-17 signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      IL-17 signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe interleukin 17 (IL-17) family, a subset of cytokines consisting of IL-17A-F, plays crucial roles in both acute and chronic inflammatory responses. IL-17A, the hallmark cytokine of the newly defi...
    • IL23-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      IL23-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
      IL23-mediated signaling events
    • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
    • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
    • Interleukin-10 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Interleukin-10 signaling, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin-10 (IL10) was originally described as a factor named cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor that inhibited T-helper (Th) 1 activation and Th1 cytokine production (Fiorentino et al. 1989). ...
    • Legionellosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Legionellosis, organism-specific biosystemLegionellosis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila and other legionella species. Two distinct clinical and epidemiological syndromes are associated...
    • Legionellosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Legionellosis, conserved biosystemLegionellosis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila and other legionella species. Two distinct clinical and epidemiological syndromes are associated...
    • NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting various pathogens and generating innate immune responses. The intracellular NOD-like receptor (NLR) family contains mo...
    • NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting various pathogens and generating innate immune responses. The intracellular NOD-like receptor (NLR) family contains mo...
    • Neutrophil degranulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Neutrophil degranulation, organism-specific biosystemNeutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes (white blood cells), indispensable in defending the body against invading microorganisms. In response to infection, neutrophils leave the circulation and ...
    • Peptide ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Peptide ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystemThese receptors, a subset of the Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like) family, all bind peptide ligands which include the chemokines, opioids and somatostatins.
    • Rheumatoid arthritis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Rheumatoid arthritis, organism-specific biosystemRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune joint disease where persistent inflammation affects bone remodeling leading to progressive bone destruction. In RA, abnormal activation of the immune...
    • Rheumatoid arthritis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Rheumatoid arthritis, conserved biosystemRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune joint disease where persistent inflammation affects bone remodeling leading to progressive bone destruction. In RA, abnormal activation of the immune...
    • Salmonella infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Salmonella infection, organism-specific biosystemSalmonella infection usually presents as a self-limiting gastroenteritis or the more severe typhoid fever and bacteremia. The common disease-causing Salmonella species in human is a single species, S...
    • Salmonella infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Salmonella infection, conserved biosystemSalmonella infection usually presents as a self-limiting gastroenteritis or the more severe typhoid fever and bacteremia. The common disease-causing Salmonella species in human is a single species, S...
    • Senescence and Autophagy in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Senescence and Autophagy in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemSenescense and Autophagy Pathways in Cancer
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
    • Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystemInterleukins are low molecular weight proteins that bind to cell surface receptors and act in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion. They were first identified as factors produced by leukocytes but a...
    • Spinal Cord Injury, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Spinal Cord Injury, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway provides an overview of cell types, therapeutic targets, drugs, new proposed targets and pathways implicated in spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is a complex multistep process that...
    • TNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      TNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemTumor necrosis factor (TNF), as a critical cytokine, can induce a wide range of intracellular signal pathways including apoptosis and cell survival as well as inflammation and immunity. Activated TNF...
    • TNF signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      TNF signaling pathway, conserved biosystemTumor necrosis factor (TNF), as a critical cytokine, can induce a wide range of intracellular signal pathways including apoptosis and cell survival as well as inflammation and immunity. Activated TNF...

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    chemokine activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    enzyme activator activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    growth factor activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    signaling receptor binding TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    actin cytoskeleton organization TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    antimicrobial humoral immune response mediated by antimicrobial peptide IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    cell proliferation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to lipopolysaccharide IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    chemokine-mediated signaling pathway IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    chemotaxis TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytokine-mediated signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    immune response IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    inflammatory response IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    intracellular signal transduction TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    leukocyte chemotaxis IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of cell proliferation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    nervous system development TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    neutrophil chemotaxis IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    neutrophil degranulation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    positive regulation of catalytic activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    regulation of signaling receptor activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    signal transduction TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular space IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    specific granule lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    tertiary granule lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    growth-regulated alpha protein
    Names
    C-X-C motif chemokine 1
    GRO-alpha(1-73)
    GRO1 oncogene (melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha)
    GRO1 oncogene (melanoma growth-stimulating activity)
    MGSA alpha
    chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha)
    fibroblast secretory protein
    melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha
    melanoma growth stimulatory activity alpha
    neutrophil-activating protein 3

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001511.3NP_001502.1  growth-regulated alpha protein precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001502.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the functional protein.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC092438, BM554448, BM996663
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS47074.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P09341
      Related
      ENSP00000379110.3, OTTHUMP00000219186, ENST00000395761.3, OTTHUMT00000362734
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd00273
      Location:40102
      Chemokine_CXC; Chemokine_CXC: 1 of 4 subgroup designations based on the arrangement of the two N-terminal cysteine residues; includes a number of secreted growth factors and interferons involved in mitogenic, chemotactic, and inflammatory activity; many members ...

    RNA

    1. NR_046035.1 RNA Sequence

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate splice site, compared to variant 1. This variant is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most expected translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders the transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
      Source sequence(s)
      AC092438, BG121608, BM996663, X12510

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000004.12 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

      Range
      73869392..73871302
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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