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    VEGFA vascular endothelial growth factor A [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 7422, updated on 27-Jan-2020

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    VEGFAprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    vascular endothelial growth factor Aprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:12680
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000112715 MIM:192240
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    VPF; VEGF; MVCD1
    Summary
    This gene is a member of the PDGF/VEGF growth factor family. It encodes a heparin-binding protein, which exists as a disulfide-linked homodimer. This growth factor induces proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells, and is essential for both physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Disruption of this gene in mice resulted in abnormal embryonic blood vessel formation. This gene is upregulated in many known tumors and its expression is correlated with tumor stage and progression. Elevated levels of this protein are found in patients with POEMS syndrome, also known as Crow-Fukase syndrome. Allelic variants of this gene have been associated with microvascular complications of diabetes 1 (MVCD1) and atherosclerosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. There is also evidence for alternative translation initiation from upstream non-AUG (CUG) codons resulting in additional isoforms. A recent study showed that a C-terminally extended isoform is produced by use of an alternative in-frame translation termination codon via a stop codon readthrough mechanism, and that this isoform is antiangiogenic. Expression of some isoforms derived from the AUG start codon is regulated by a small upstream open reading frame, which is located within an internal ribosome entry site. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2015]
    Expression
    Broad expression in thyroid (RPKM 146.9), prostate (RPKM 69.5) and 21 other tissues See more
    Orthologs

    Genomic context

    See VEGFA in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    6p21.1
    Exon count:
    9
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109.20191205 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 6 NC_000006.12 (43770209..43786487)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 6 NC_000006.11 (43737946..43754224)

    Chromosome 6 - NC_000006.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene radial spoke head component 9 Neighboring gene mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18A Neighboring gene exosome component 8 pseudogene Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105375070 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107986598 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105375069

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

    What's a GeneRIF?

    Phenotypes

    Associated conditions

    Description Tests
    Microvascular complications of diabetes 1
    MedGen: C2676832 OMIM: 603933 GeneReviews: Not available
    Compare labs

    Copy number response

    Description
    Copy number response
    Triplosensitivity

    No evidence available (Last evaluated (2012-04-25)

    ClinGen Genome Curation Page
    Haploinsufficency

    Little evidence for dosage pathogenicity (Last evaluated (2012-04-25)

    ClinGen Genome Curation PagePubMed

    NHGRI GWAS Catalog

    Description
    A genome-wide association study for coronary artery disease identifies a novel susceptibility locus in the major histocompatibility complex.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    A meta-analysis of thyroid-related traits reveals novel loci and gender-specific differences in the regulation of thyroid function.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Common variants near FRK/COL10A1 and VEGFA are associated with advanced age-related macular degeneration.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genome-wide association analyses identify 18 new loci associated with serum urate concentrations.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Identification of cis- and trans-acting genetic variants explaining up to half the variation in circulating vascular endothelial growth factor levels.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Meta-analysis of genome-wide association data and large-scale replication identifies additional susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    New loci associated with kidney function and chronic kidney disease.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Novel loci for adiponectin levels and their influence on type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits: a multi-ethnic meta-analysis of 45,891 individuals.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Seven new loci associated with age-related macular degeneration.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog

    HIV-1 interactions

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 gp120 modulates expression of the cytokines IL1beta, IL3, IL6, IL10, IL13, IL15, IFNbeta2A, IFNgamma, IFNomega, TNFalpha, VEGF, VEGF B, and LIF in PBMCs and MDMs PubMed
    Nef nef HIV-1 Nef synergizes with IL-6 to enhance vascular tube formation, cell proliferation, VEGF expression, and phosphorylated AKT activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef increases expression of both VEGF and its transcriptional regulator, hypoxia-inducible factor 2alpha (HIF-2alpha), in a Src kinase-and Stat3-dependent manner PubMed
    Tat tat HIV-1 Tat increases permeability of human glomerular endothelial cells by activating Rho-A, pMLC, and c-Src pathways, which involves VEGF-A or FGF-2. PubMed
    tat VEGF can compete with HIV-1 Tat chemotactic activity in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) cells, indicating Tat may cooperate with VEGF in activation of VEGFR-2 on KS precursor spindle and endothelial cells and contribute to the aggressiveness of AIDS-KS lesions PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates VEGFA (VEGF) expression in HUVEC and EA.hy926 cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates members of the PDGF/VEGF growth factor family (PDGFA, VEGFA,VEGFB, VEGFC) in mammary epithelial cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat enhances vIL-6-induced angiogenesis and tumorigenesis of fibroblasts and human endothelial cells, which correlates with upregulation of CD31, CD34, SMA, VEGF, b-FGF, and cyclin D1 expression PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat enhances Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus vIL-6-induced cell proliferation, cellular transformation, vascular tube formation, and VEGF production in tumor cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat inhibits the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to endothelial cells by downregulating the expression of VEGF-induced endothelial markers such as Flt-1, KDR and vWF PubMed
    tat The chemokine like region of HIV-1 Tat (amino acids 24-51) induces the release of angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an effect linked to Tat induced angiogenesis PubMed
    Vpu vpu HIV-1 Vpu-expressing U937 monocytes coculture with LX2 stellate cells to upregulate expression of profibrogenic markers COL-1, PCT, SMA-1, VEGF, and MMP2, which is inhibited by MIF treatment PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Pathways from PubChem

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Clone Names

    • MGC70609

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    chemoattractant activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    chemoattractant activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytokine activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytokine activity ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    extracellular matrix binding IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
    PubMed 
    fibronectin binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    growth factor activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    growth factor activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    growth factor activity ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    heparin binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    heparin binding IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    identical protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    platelet-derived growth factor receptor binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein heterodimerization activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein homodimerization activity ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    receptor ligand activity IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    vascular endothelial growth factor receptor binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    vascular endothelial growth factor receptor binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    VEGF-activated neuropilin signaling pathway ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    activation of protein kinase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    angiogenesis IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    angiogenesis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    artery morphogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    branching involved in blood vessel morphogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    branching morphogenesis of an epithelial tube ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    camera-type eye morphogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    cardiac muscle fiber development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    cardiac vascular smooth muscle cell development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    cell maturation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    cell migration involved in sprouting angiogenesis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to hypoxia IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factor stimulus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular stress response to acid chemical IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    commissural neuron axon guidance ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    coronary artery morphogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    coronary vein morphogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    cytokine-mediated signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    dopaminergic neuron differentiation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    endothelial cell chemotaxis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    epithelial cell differentiation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    eye photoreceptor cell development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    heart morphogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    in utero embryonic development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    induction of positive chemotaxis IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    induction of positive chemotaxis NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    kidney development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    lactation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    lung development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    lymph vessel morphogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    macrophage differentiation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    mammary gland alveolus development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    mesoderm development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    monocyte differentiation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    motor neuron migration ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    negative regulation of adherens junction organization IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of apoptotic process IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of cell-cell adhesion mediated by cadherin IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of establishment of endothelial barrier IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of gene expression IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    nervous system development TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    outflow tract morphogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    ovarian follicle development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    platelet degranulation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    positive chemotaxis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of CREB transcription factor activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of MAP kinase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of angiogenesis IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of angiogenesis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of angiogenesis IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of axon extension involved in axon guidance ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell proliferation involved in sprouting angiogenesis IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of cell adhesion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cell division IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of cell migration IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cell migration involved in sprouting angiogenesis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cell migration involved in sprouting angiogenesis IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cell migration involved in sprouting angiogenesis IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cell proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cell proliferation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cell proliferation by VEGF-activated platelet derived growth factor receptor signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cellular component movement IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cold-induced thermogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of endothelial cell chemotaxis by VEGF-activated vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of endothelial cell migration IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of focal adhesion assembly IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of gene expression IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of histone deacetylase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of leukocyte migration TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of mast cell chemotaxis IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of neuroblast proliferation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of p38MAPK cascade IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine autophosphorylation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of positive chemotaxis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of protein autophosphorylation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of protein complex assembly IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of protein kinase C signaling IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of protein kinase D signaling IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of receptor internalization IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of retinal ganglion cell axon guidance ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of sprouting angiogenesis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of sprouting angiogenesis IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to hypoxia IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    NOT positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of vascular permeability IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    post-embryonic camera-type eye development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    primitive erythrocyte differentiation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    regulation of cell shape IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of nitric oxide mediated signal transduction IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of retinal ganglion cell axon guidance ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to hypoxia TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    response to hypoxia IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    response to hypoxia IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    sprouting angiogenesis IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    surfactant homeostasis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    tube formation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    vasculogenesis TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    cell surface IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cell-cell adherens junction IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular matrix NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular space IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular space IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular space ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    membrane IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    platelet alpha granule lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    secretory granule IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    vascular endothelial growth factor A
    Names
    vascular endothelial growth factor A121
    vascular endothelial growth factor A165
    vascular permeability factor

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_008732.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      4996..21272
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001025366.3NP_001020537.2  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform a

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (a) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the 5'-most CUG start codon. This is the longest isoform.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF024710, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741, S85192
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS34457.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15692
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A087WUD8
      Related
      ENSP00000361125.4, ENST00000372055.8
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:230312
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:364412
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
    2. NM_001025367.3NP_001020538.2  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform c

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (3) uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (c) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the 5'-most CUG start codon, and is shorter than isoform a.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF024710, AJ010438, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS47433.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15692
      Related
      ENSP00000389864.3, ENST00000413642.7
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:230312
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:341389
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
    3. NM_001025368.3NP_001020539.2  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform d

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (4) lacks an alternate in-frame exon in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (d) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the 5'-most CUG start codon, and is shorter than isoform a.
      Source sequence(s)
      AB021221, AF024710, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS34458.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15692
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A087X0B2
      Related
      ENSP00000361137.3, ENST00000372067.7
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:230312
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:318371
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
    4. NM_001025369.3NP_001020540.2  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform e

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001020540.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (5) lacks an alternate in-frame exon, and uses an alternate splice site that causes a frameshift in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (e) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the 5'-most CUG start codon, and has a distinct C-terminus and is shorter than isoform a.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF024710, AF091352, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS47435.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15692
      Related
      ENSP00000388663.2, ENST00000417285.6
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:230312
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:318353
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
    5. NM_001025370.3NP_001020541.2  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform f

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (6) lacks two alternate in-frame exons in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (f) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the 5'-most CUG start codon, and is shorter than isoform a.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF024710, AF214570, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS47434.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15692
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A087WTP4
      Related
      ENSP00000361134.4, ENST00000372064.8
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      smart00141
      Location:230312
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    6. NM_001033756.3NP_001028928.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform g

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001028928.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (7) lacks an alternate in-frame exon and uses an alternate splice site that causes a frameshift in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (g) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the 5'-most CUG start codon, and has a distinct C-terminus and is shorter than isoform a.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF024710, AF430806, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS47432.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15692
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A087X1L1
      Related
      ENSP00000421561.1, ENST00000482630.6
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:230312
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:318365
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
    7. NM_001171622.2NP_001165093.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform h

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (8) lacks three alternate in-frame exons in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (h) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the 5'-most CUG start codon, and is shorter than isoform a.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF024710, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741, DQ229900
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS55007.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15692
      Related
      ENSP00000317598.6, ENST00000324450.10
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      smart00141
      Location:230311
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    8. NM_001171623.1NP_001165094.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform i precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001165094.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (i, also referred to as VEGF206) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the AUG start codon, and is shorter at the N-terminus, compared to isoform a.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF024710, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741, S85192
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS55010.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15692
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A024RD33
      Related
      ENSP00000430479.1, ENST00000523873.5
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:50132
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:184232
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
    9. NM_001171624.1NP_001165095.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform j precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001165095.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (j, also referred to as VEGF189) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the AUG start codon, and is shorter than isoform a.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF024710, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741, M27281
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS55009.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15692
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A024RD37
      Related
      ENSP00000428321.1, ENST00000520948.5
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:50132
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:167215
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
    10. NM_001171625.1NP_001165096.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform k precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001165096.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (3) uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (k, also referred to as VEGF183) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the AUG start codon, and is shorter than isoform a.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF024710, AJ010438, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS55008.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15692
      Related
      ENSP00000430829.1, ENST00000518689.5
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:50132
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:161209
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
    11. NM_001171626.1NP_001165097.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform VEGF-A precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001165097.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (4) lacks an alternate in-frame exon in the 3' coding region compared to variant 1. It can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from an in-frame downstream AUG. This RefSeq represents isoform VEGF-A (also referred to as VEGF165 or VEGF-A165), which is derived from the AUG start codon, and is shorter than isoform a. This variant also encodes a C-terminally extended isoform (VEGF-Ax) that results from the use of an alternative in-frame, downstream translation termination codon (UGA). Isoform VEGF-Ax is represented in NM_001317010.1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AB021221, AF024710, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS55012.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15692
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A0Y0IMM4
      Related
      ENSP00000429643.1, ENST00000523950.5
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:50132
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:143191
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
    12. NM_001171627.1NP_001165098.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform m precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001165098.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (5) lacks an alternate in-frame exon, and uses an alternate splice site that causes a frameshift in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (m, also referred to as VEGF148) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the AUG start codon, and has a distinct C-terminus and is shorter than isoform a.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF024710, AF091352, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS55011.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15692
      Related
      ENSP00000429008.1, ENST00000523125.5
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:50132
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:143173
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
    13. NM_001171628.1NP_001165099.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform n precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001165099.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (6) lacks two alternate in-frame exons in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (n, also referred to as VEGF121) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the AUG start codon, and is shorter than isoform a.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF024710, AF214570, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS55014.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15692
      Related
      ENSP00000361148.4, ENST00000372077.8
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      smart00141
      Location:50132
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    14. NM_001171629.1NP_001165100.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform o precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001165100.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (7) lacks an alternate in-frame exon and uses an alternate splice site that causes a frameshift in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (o, also referred to as VEGF165b) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the AUG start codon, and has a distinct C-terminus and is shorter than isoform a.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF024710, AF430806, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS55013.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15692
      Related
      ENSP00000430002.1, ENST00000518824.5
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:50132
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:143185
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
    15. NM_001171630.1NP_001165101.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform p precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001165101.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (8) lacks three alternate in-frame exons in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (p, also referred to as VEGF111) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the AUG start codon, and is shorter than isoform a.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF024710, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741, DQ229900
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS55015.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15692
      Related
      ENSP00000409911.2, ENST00000457104.6
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      smart00141
      Location:50131
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    16. NM_001204384.1NP_001191313.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform q precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001191313.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (9) uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the 3' coding region and lacks an alternate in-frame exon compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform (q, also referred to as VEGF145) represented in this RefSeq is derived from the AUG start codon, and is shorter than isoform a.
      Source sequence(s)
      AL136131, BC065522, M27281
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15692
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      smart00141
      Location:50132
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    17. NM_001204385.2NP_001191314.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform r

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (9) uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the 3' coding region and lacks an alternate in-frame exon compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform represented in this RefSeq (isoform r) is derived from the 5'-most CUG start codon, and is shorter than isoform a.
      Source sequence(s)
      AL136131, BC065522, M27281
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15692
      Related
      ENSP00000430594.1, ENST00000519767.5
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      smart00141
      Location:230312
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    18. NM_001287044.2NP_001273973.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform s

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001273973.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (10) has an alternate 5' exon, which results in translation initiation at a downstream AUG start codon, and lacks an in-frame exon in the coding region, compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (s) has a shorter N-terminus and lacks an internal segment, compared to isoform a.
      Source sequence(s)
      AL136131, BC058855, BC065522, BX442364, HY066915
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS69125.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15692
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A2A2V4
      Related
      ENSP00000230480.6, ENST00000230480.10
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:22104
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:115163
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
    19. NM_001317010.1NP_001303939.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform VEGF-Ax precursor

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (4) is identical to NM_001171626.1; however, it uses an alternative in-frame, downstream translation termination codon (UGA), which results in a longer, C-terminally extended isoform (VEGF-Ax) compared to isoform VEGF-A (also referred to as VEGF165 or VEGF-A165). Unlike isoform VEGF-A, which is proangiogenic, VEGF-Ax exhibits antiangiogenic activity. As the upstream UGA stop codon has been shown to be recoded as serine (PMID:24949972), its location in the VEGF-Ax isoform (aa 192) is denoted by an 'S'.
      Source sequence(s)
      AB021221, AF024710, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15692
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:50132
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:140191
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
    20. NM_003376.6NP_003367.4  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform b

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_003367.4

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This variant can initiate translation from four non-AUG (CUG) sites, and also from a downstream, in-frame AUG. The isoform represented in this RefSeq (isoform b) is derived from the 5'-most CUG start codon, and is shorter than isoform a.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF024710, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741, M27281
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS4907.2
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15692
      Related
      ENSP00000388465.2, ENST00000425836.6
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:230312
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:347395
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20191205

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000006.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

      Range
      43770209..43786487
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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