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    PPBP pro-platelet basic protein [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 5473, updated on 17-Jun-2019

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    PPBPprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    pro-platelet basic proteinprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:9240
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000163736 MIM:121010
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    PBP; TC1; TC2; TGB; LDGF; MDGF; TGB1; B-TG1; CTAP3; CXCL7; NAP-2; SCYB7; THBGB; LA-PF4; THBGB1; Beta-TG; CTAPIII; CTAP-III
    Summary
    The protein encoded by this gene is a platelet-derived growth factor that belongs to the CXC chemokine family. This growth factor is a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophils. It has been shown to stimulate various cellular processes including DNA synthesis, mitosis, glycolysis, intracellular cAMP accumulation, prostaglandin E2 secretion, and synthesis of hyaluronic acid and sulfated glycosaminoglycan. It also stimulates the formation and secretion of plasminogen activator by synovial cells. The protein also is an antimicrobial protein with bactericidal and antifungal activity. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]
    Expression
    Biased expression in bone marrow (RPKM 35.8), spleen (RPKM 5.3) and 2 other tissues See more
    Orthologs

    Genomic context

    See PPBP in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    4q13.3
    Exon count:
    3
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109.20190607 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 4 NC_000004.12 (73986439..73988190, complement)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 4 NC_000004.11 (74852156..74853907, complement)

    Chromosome 4 - NC_000004.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 pseudogene 1 Neighboring gene platelet factor 4 Neighboring gene C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 5 Neighboring gene RNA, 7SL, cytoplasmic 218, pseudogene

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Phenotypes

    NHGRI GWAS Catalog

    Description
    Novel Loci for metabolic networks and multi-tissue expression studies reveal genes for atherosclerosis.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog

    HIV-1 interactions

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Nef nef HIV-1 Nef specifically incorporates CSF2, PPBP (NAP2), CCL5, TNF, FAS, CXCL1, IL12B, MIF and OSM into plasma extracellular vesicles from HIV-1 infected patient samples PubMed
    retropepsin gag-pol Connective tissue-activating peptide (CTAPIII) and neutrophil-activating peptide 2 (NAP/2) are generated by digestion of a ubiquitin-CTAPIII conjugate with yeast ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase (YUH1) and HIV protease, respectively PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Pathways from BioSystems

    • Chemokine receptors bind chemokines, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Chemokine receptors bind chemokines, organism-specific biosystemChemokine receptors are cytokine receptors found on the surface of certain cells, which interact with a type of cytokine called a chemokine. Following interaction, these receptors trigger a flux of i...
    • Chemokine signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Chemokine signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation upon foreign insult. Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for th...
    • Chemokine signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Chemokine signaling pathway, conserved biosystemInflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation upon foreign insult. Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for th...
    • Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystemRhodopsin-like receptors (class A/1) are the largest group of GPCRs and are the best studied group from a functional and structural point of view. They show great diversity at the sequence level and ...
    • Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystemCytokines are soluble extracellular proteins or glycoproteins that are crucial intercellular regulators and mobilizers of cells engaged in innate as well as adaptive inflammatory host defenses, cell ...
    • Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, conserved biosystemCytokines are soluble extracellular proteins or glycoproteins that are crucial intercellular regulators and mobilizers of cells engaged in innate as well as adaptive inflammatory host defenses, cell ...
    • G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe classical signalling mechanism for G alpha (i) is inhibition of the cAMP dependent pathway through inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Decreased production of cAMP from ATP results in decreased act...
    • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
    • GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystemThere are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all...
    • Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystemHemostasis is a physiological response that culminates in the arrest of bleeding from an injured vessel. Under normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhe...
    • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
    • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
    • Neutrophil degranulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Neutrophil degranulation, organism-specific biosystemNeutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes (white blood cells), indispensable in defending the body against invading microorganisms. In response to infection, neutrophils leave the circulation and ...
    • Peptide ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Peptide ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystemThese receptors, a subset of the Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like) family, all bind peptide ligands which include the chemokines, opioids and somatostatins.
    • Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet activation begins with the initial binding of adhesive ligands and of the excitatory platelet agonists (released or generated at the sites of vascular trauma) to cognate receptors on the pla...
    • Platelet degranulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Platelet degranulation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelets function as exocytotic cells, secreting a plethora of effector molecules at sites of vascular injury. Platelets contain a number of distinguishable storage granules including alpha granules...
    • Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+, organism-specific biosystemActivation of phospholipase C enzymes results in the generation of second messengers of the phosphatidylinositol pathway. The events resulting from this pathway are a rise in intracellular calcium an...
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    chemokine activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    glucose transmembrane transporter activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    growth factor activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    antimicrobial humoral immune response mediated by antimicrobial peptide IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to lipopolysaccharide IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    chemokine-mediated signaling pathway IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    defense response to bacterium IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    glucose transmembrane transport TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    immune response IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    inflammatory response IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    leukocyte chemotaxis IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    neutrophil chemotaxis IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    neutrophil degranulation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    platelet degranulation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    positive regulation of cell division IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular space IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    platelet alpha granule lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    tertiary granule lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    platelet basic protein
    Names
    C-X-C motif chemokine 7
    CXC chemokine ligand 7
    beta-thromboglobulin
    chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 7
    connective tissue-activating peptide III
    leukocyte-derived growth factor
    low-affinity platelet factor IV
    macrophage-derived growth factor
    neutrophil-activating peptide 2
    small inducible cytokine B7
    small inducible cytokine subfamily B, member 7
    thrombocidin 1
    thrombocidin 2
    thromboglobulin, beta-1

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_002704.3NP_002695.1  platelet basic protein preproprotein

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002695.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AC097709, DA419455
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS3563.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P02775
      Related
      ENSP00000296028.3, ENST00000296028.4
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd00273
      Location:60122
      Chemokine_CXC; Chemokine_CXC: 1 of 4 subgroup designations based on the arrangement of the two N-terminal cysteine residues; includes a number of secreted growth factors and interferons involved in mitogenic, chemotactic, and inflammatory activity; many members ...

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000004.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

      Range
      73986439..73988190 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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