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    GNA11 G protein subunit alpha 11 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 2767, updated on 18-Sep-2018

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    GNA11provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    G protein subunit alpha 11provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:4379
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000088256 MIM:139313; Vega:OTTHUMG00000180631
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    FBH; FBH2; FHH2; HHC2; GNA-11; HYPOC2
    Summary
    The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which function as modulators or transducers in various transmembrane signaling systems. G proteins are composed of 3 units: alpha, beta and gamma. This gene encodes one of the alpha subunits (subunit alpha-11). Mutations in this gene have been associated with hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type II (HHC2) and hypocalcemia dominant 2 (HYPOC2). Patients with HHC2 and HYPOC2 exhibit decreased or increased sensitivity, respectively, to changes in extracellular calcium concentrations. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]
    Expression
    Broad expression in small intestine (RPKM 57.6), duodenum (RPKM 46.4) and 23 other tissues See more
    Orthologs

    Genomic context

    See GNA11 in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    19p13.3
    Exon count:
    7
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 19 NC_000019.10 (3094410..3124002)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 19 NC_000019.9 (3094408..3121468)

    Chromosome 19 - NC_000019.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105372242 Neighboring gene amino-terminal enhancer of split Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L35 pseudogene Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC100996351 Neighboring gene G protein subunit alpha 15

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    HIV-1 interactions

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env PLC-beta activation and intracellular Ca2+ release are required for HIV-1 gp120-mediated Rac-1 activation and membrane fusion via the G-alpha(q/11) family of G proteins PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Pathways from BioSystems

    • ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 1, organism-specific biosystemCo-activation of P2Y1 and P2Y12 is necessary for complete platelet activation. P2Y1 is coupled to Gq and helps trigger the release of calcium from internal stores, leading to weak and reversible plat...
    • Acetylcholine regulates insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Acetylcholine regulates insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystemAcetylcholine released by parasympathetic nerve endings in the pancreas causes a potentiation of insulin release when glucose is present at concentrations greater than about 7 mM. Acetylcholine binds...
    • Aldosterone synthesis and secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Aldosterone synthesis and secretion, organism-specific biosystemAldosterone is a steroid hormone synthesized in and secreted from the outer layer of the adrenal cortex, the zona glomerulosa. Aldosterone plays an important role in the regulation of systemic blood ...
    • Aldosterone synthesis and secretion, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Aldosterone synthesis and secretion, conserved biosystemAldosterone is a steroid hormone synthesized in and secreted from the outer layer of the adrenal cortex, the zona glomerulosa. Aldosterone plays an important role in the regulation of systemic blood ...
    • Amoebiasis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Amoebiasis, organism-specific biosystemEntamoeba histolytica, an extracellular protozoan parasite is a human pathogen that invades the intestinal epithelium. Infection occurs on ingestion of contaminated water and food. The pathogenesis o...
    • Amoebiasis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Amoebiasis, conserved biosystemEntamoeba histolytica, an extracellular protozoan parasite is a human pathogen that invades the intestinal epithelium. Infection occurs on ingestion of contaminated water and food. The pathogenesis o...
    • Arf6 signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Arf6 signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
      Arf6 signaling events
    • Calcium Regulation in the Cardiac Cell, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Calcium Regulation in the Cardiac Cell, organism-specific biosystemCalcium is a common signaling mechanism, as once it enters the cytoplasm it exerts allosteric regulatory affects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction after influx resu...
    • Calcium signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Calcium signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemCa2+ that enters the cell from the outside is a principal source of signal Ca2+. Entry of Ca2+ is driven by the presence of a large electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane. Cells use this...
    • Calcium signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Calcium signaling pathway, conserved biosystemCa2+ that enters the cell from the outside is a principal source of signal Ca2+. Entry of Ca2+ is driven by the presence of a large electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane. Cells use this...
    • Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), organism-specific biosystemTrypanosoma cruzi is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease. The parasite life cycle involves hematophagous reduviid bugs as vectors. Once parasites enter the host body, they ...
    • Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), conserved biosystemTrypanosoma cruzi is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease. The parasite life cycle involves hematophagous reduviid bugs as vectors. Once parasites enter the host body, they ...
    • Cholinergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Cholinergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemAcetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter widely distributed in the central (and also peripheral, autonomic and enteric) nervous system (CNS). In the CNS, ACh facilitates many functions, such as lear...
    • Circadian rythm related genes, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Circadian rythm related genes, organism-specific biosystemThis is currently not a pathway but a list of circadian rhythm related genes and proteins. The source for this information is the gene ontology. The genes and proteins were filtered for "circadian rh...
    • Corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemCorticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a neuropeptide secreted abundantly in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, amygdala, cerebral cortex and cerebellum in the central nervous system ...
    • Fatty Acids bound to GPR40 (FFAR1) regulate insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Fatty Acids bound to GPR40 (FFAR1) regulate insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystemFatty acids augment the glucose triggered secretion of insulin through two mechanisms: intracellular metabolism and activation of FFAR1 (GPR40), a G-protein coupled receptor. Based on studies with in...
    • Free fatty acids regulate insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Free fatty acids regulate insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystemFree fatty acids augment the glucose-triggered secretion of insulin. The augmentation is believed to be due to the additive effects of the activation of the free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1 or GPR40...
    • G Protein Signaling Pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      G Protein Signaling Pathways, organism-specific biosystemG proteins, short for guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins involved in second messenger cascades. G proteins are so called because they function as "molecular switches". They...
    • G alpha (q) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      G alpha (q) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe classic signalling route for G alpha (q) is activation of phospholipase C beta thereby triggering phosphoinositide hydrolysis, calcium mobilization and protein kinase C activation. This provides ...
    • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
    • Gap junction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Gap junction, organism-specific biosystemGap junctions contain intercellular channels that allow direct communication between the cytosolic compartments of adjacent cells. Each gap junction channel is formed by docking of two 'hemichannels'...
    • Gap junction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Gap junction, conserved biosystemGap junctions contain intercellular channels that allow direct communication between the cytosolic compartments of adjacent cells. Each gap junction channel is formed by docking of two 'hemichannels'...
    • Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystemGastrin is a hormone whose main function is to stimulate secretion of hydrochloric acid by the gastric mucosa, which results in gastrin formation inhibition. This hormone also acts as a mitogenic fac...
    • GnRH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      GnRH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnR...
    • GnRH signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      GnRH signaling pathway, conserved biosystemGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnR...
    • Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystemHemostasis is a physiological response that culminates in the arrest of bleeding from an injured vessel. Under normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhe...
    • Insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystemPancreatic beta cells are specialised endocrine cells that continuously sense the levels of blood sugar and other fuels and, in response, secrete insulin to maintain normal fuel homeostasis. Glucose-...
    • Integration of energy metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Integration of energy metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMany hormones that affect individual physiological processes including the regulation of appetite, absorption, transport, and oxidation of foodstuffs influence energy metabolism pathways. While insul...
    • LPA receptor mediated events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      LPA receptor mediated events, organism-specific biosystem
      LPA receptor mediated events
    • Long-term depression, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Long-term depression, organism-specific biosystemCerebellar long-term depression (LTD), thought to be a molecular and cellular basis for cerebellar learning, is a process involving a decrease in the synaptic strength between parallel fiber (PF) and...
    • Long-term depression, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Long-term depression, conserved biosystemCerebellar long-term depression (LTD), thought to be a molecular and cellular basis for cerebellar learning, is a process involving a decrease in the synaptic strength between parallel fiber (PF) and...
    • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
    • Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
      Pathways in cancer
    • Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet activation begins with the initial binding of adhesive ligands and of the excitatory platelet agonists (released or generated at the sites of vascular trauma) to cognate receptors on the pla...
    • Regulation of insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Regulation of insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystemPancreatic beta cells integrate signals from several metabolites and hormones to control the secretion of insulin. In general, glucose triggers insulin secretion while other factors can amplify or in...
    • S1P2 pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      S1P2 pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      S1P2 pathway
    • S1P3 pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      S1P3 pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      S1P3 pathway
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signal amplification, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal amplification, organism-specific biosystemIn the initial response to injury, platelets adhere to damaged blood vessels, responding to the exposure of collagen from the vascular epithelium. Once adhered they degranulate, releasing stored seco...
    • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
    • Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) pathway
    • Thrombin signalling through proteinase activated receptors (PARs), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Thrombin signalling through proteinase activated receptors (PARs), organism-specific biosystemThrombin activates proteinase activated receptors (PARs) that signal through heterotrimeric G proteins of the G12/13 and Gq families, thereby connecting to a host of intracellular signaling pathways....
    • Thromboxane signalling through TP receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Thromboxane signalling through TP receptor, organism-specific biosystemThromboxane (TXA2) binds to the thromboxane receptor (TP). There are 2 splice variant forms of TP, differing in their cytoplasmic carboxyl terminal tails. TP beta was first identified in endothelial ...
    • Vascular smooth muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Vascular smooth muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystemThe vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is a highly specialized cell whose principal function is contraction. On contraction, VSMCs shorten, thereby decreasing the diameter of a blood vessel to regula...
    • Vascular smooth muscle contraction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Vascular smooth muscle contraction, conserved biosystemThe vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is a highly specialized cell whose principal function is contraction. On contraction, VSMCs shorten, thereby decreasing the diameter of a blood vessel to regula...
    • cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemCyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated i...
    • cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, conserved biosystemCyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated i...

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    G protein-coupled receptor binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    G-protein beta/gamma-subunit complex binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    GTP binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    GTPase activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    metal ion binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    type 2A serotonin receptor binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    G protein-coupled acetylcholine receptor signaling pathway ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    action potential IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    adenylate cyclase-modulating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to pH IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    developmental pigmentation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    entrainment of circadian clock ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    heart development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    phospholipase C-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    phototransduction, visible light ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    platelet activation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    regulation of melanocyte differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    signal transduction TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    skeletal system development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    cytoplasm TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
    heterotrimeric G-protein complex IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    lysosomal membrane HDA PubMed 
    photoreceptor outer segment ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    plasma membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha-11
    Names
    g alpha-11
    guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 11 (Gq class)
    guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(y) subunit alpha

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_033852.2 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5001..34593
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_002067.4NP_002058.2  guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha-11

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002058.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AC005262, BC089041, HY118575, KF456478
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS12103.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P29992
      Related
      ENSP00000078429.3, OTTHUMP00000264806, ENST00000078429.8, OTTHUMT00000452261
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd00066
      Location:40353
      G-alpha; Alpha subunit of G proteins (guanine nucleotide binding)

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000019.10 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

      Range
      3094410..3124002
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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