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    ENO2 enolase 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 2026, updated on 8-Jul-2018
    Official Symbol
    ENO2provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    enolase 2provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:3353
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000111674 MIM:131360; Vega:OTTHUMG00000168967
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    NSE; HEL-S-279
    Summary
    This gene encodes one of the three enolase isoenzymes found in mammals. This isoenzyme, a homodimer, is found in mature neurons and cells of neuronal origin. A switch from alpha enolase to gamma enolase occurs in neural tissue during development in rats and primates. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
    Expression
    Biased expression in brain (RPKM 167.6), adrenal (RPKM 26.3) and 9 other tissues See more
    Orthologs
    See ENO2 in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    12p13.31
    Exon count:
    12
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 12 NC_000012.12 (6914450..6923696)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 12 NC_000012.11 (7023614..7032860)

    Chromosome 12 - NC_000012.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105369632 Neighboring gene destrin, actin depolymerizing factor pseudogene 2 Neighboring gene leucine rich repeat containing 23 Neighboring gene atrophin 1 Neighboring gene atrophin 1 repeat instability region Neighboring gene chromosome 12 open reading frame 57 Neighboring gene RNA, U7 small nuclear 1

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    • Biosynthesis of amino acids, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Biosynthesis of amino acids, organism-specific biosystemThis map presents a modular architecture of the biosynthesis pathways of twenty amino acids, which may be viewed as consisting of the core part and its extensions. The core part is the KEGG module fo...
    • Biosynthesis of amino acids, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Biosynthesis of amino acids, conserved biosystemThis map presents a modular architecture of the biosynthesis pathways of twenty amino acids, which may be viewed as consisting of the core part and its extensions. The core part is the KEGG module fo...
    • Carbon metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Carbon metabolism, organism-specific biosystemCarbon metabolism is the most basic aspect of life. This map presents an overall view of central carbon metabolism, where the number of carbons is shown for each compound denoted by a circle, excludi...
    • Carbon metabolism, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Carbon metabolism, conserved biosystemCarbon metabolism is the most basic aspect of life. This map presents an overall view of central carbon metabolism, where the number of carbons is shown for each compound denoted by a circle, excludi...
    • Gluconeogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Gluconeogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThe reactions of gluconeogenesis convert mitochondrial pyruvate to cytosolic glucose 6-phosphate which in turn can be hydrolyzed to glucose and exported from the cell. Gluconeogenesis is confined to ...
    • Gluconeogenesis, oxaloacetate => fructose-6P, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Gluconeogenesis, oxaloacetate => fructose-6P, organism-specific biosystemPathway module; Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; Central carbohydrate metabolism
    • Gluconeogenesis, oxaloacetate => fructose-6P, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Gluconeogenesis, oxaloacetate => fructose-6P, conserved biosystemPathway module; Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; Central carbohydrate metabolism
    • Glucose metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Glucose metabolism, organism-specific biosystemGlucose is the major form in which dietary sugars are made available to cells of the human body. Its breakdown is a major source of energy for all cells, and is essential for the brain and red blood ...
    • Glycolysis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Glycolysis, organism-specific biosystemThe reactions of glycolysis (e.g., van Wijk and van Solinge 2005) convert glucose 6-phosphate to pyruvate. The entire process is cytosolic. Glucose 6-phosphate is reversibly isomerized to form fructo...
    • Glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof pathway), glucose => pyruvate, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof pathway), glucose => pyruvate, organism-specific biosystemPathway module; Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; Central carbohydrate metabolism
    • Glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof pathway), glucose => pyruvate, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof pathway), glucose => pyruvate, conserved biosystemPathway module; Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; Central carbohydrate metabolism
    • Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis, organism-specific biosystemGlycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing power). It is a central pathway that produces important precursor metabol...
    • Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis, conserved biosystemGlycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing power). It is a central pathway that produces important precursor metabol...
    • Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis, organism-specific biosystemGlycolysis is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO? + H+. The free energy released in this process is used to form the ATP and NADH. Gluconeogenesis is a metab...
    • Glycolysis, core module involving three-carbon compounds, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Glycolysis, core module involving three-carbon compounds, organism-specific biosystemPathway module; Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; Central carbohydrate metabolism
    • Glycolysis, core module involving three-carbon compounds, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Glycolysis, core module involving three-carbon compounds, conserved biosystemPathway module; Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; Central carbohydrate metabolism
    • HIF-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      HIF-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemHypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that functions as a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis. It consists of two subunits: an inducibly-expressed HIF-1alpha subunit and a c...
    • Metabolic pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Metabolic pathways, organism-specific biosystem
      Metabolic pathways
    • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
    • Metabolism of carbohydrates, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism of carbohydrates, organism-specific biosystemThese pathways together are responsible for: 1) the extraction of energy and carbon skeletons for biosyntheses from dietary sugars and related molecules; 2) the short-term storage of glucose in the b...
    • RNA degradation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      RNA degradation, organism-specific biosystemThe correct processing, quality control and turnover of cellular RNA molecules are critical to many aspects in the expression of genetic information. In eukaryotes, two major pathways of mRNA decay e...
    • RNA degradation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      RNA degradation, conserved biosystemThe correct processing, quality control and turnover of cellular RNA molecules are critical to many aspects in the expression of genetic information. In eukaryotes, two major pathways of mRNA decay e...
    • gluconeogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from BIOCYC)
      gluconeogenesis, organism-specific biosystem
      gluconeogenesis
    • gluconeogenesis III, conserved biosystem (from BIOCYC)
      gluconeogenesis III, conserved biosystemGeneral Background Blood glucose levels in mammals are maintained during fasting by utilization of liver glycogen stores. When this reserve is depleted, glucose must be generated from non-sugar carb...
    • glycolysis, organism-specific biosystem (from BIOCYC)
      glycolysis, organism-specific biosystemGeneral Background Glycolysis is one of the oldest metabolic pathways which occurs within the cell cytosol in nearly all organisms. The free energy released by the conversion of : Glucopyranose "glu...
    • glycolysis III (from glucose), conserved biosystem (from BIOCYC)
      glycolysis III (from glucose), conserved biosystemGeneral Background Glycolysis, which was first studied as a pathway for the utilization of glucose, is one of the major pathways of central metabolism, the other two being the |FRAME:PENTOSE-P-PWY| ...
    • homolactic fermentation, conserved biosystem (from BIOCYC)
      homolactic fermentation, conserved biosystemGeneral Background Lactic acid fermentation is a process by which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose are converted into cellular energy and the metabolic byproduct lactate. It occurs in m...
    • superpathway of conversion of glucose to acetyl CoA and entry into the TCA cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from BIOCYC)
      superpathway of conversion of glucose to acetyl CoA and entry into the TCA cycle, organism-specific biosystem
      superpathway of conversion of glucose to acetyl CoA and entry into the TCA cycle
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    magnesium ion binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    phosphopyruvate hydratase activity ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
    PubMed 
    phosphopyruvate hydratase activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    canonical glycolysis TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    gluconeogenesis TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    glycolytic process ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    cytosol IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
    extracellular space HDA PubMed 
    membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    myelin sheath IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    perikaryon IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    phosphopyruvate hydratase complex IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    photoreceptor inner segment IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    plasma membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    Preferred Names
    gamma-enolase
    Names
    2-phospho-D-glycerate hydro-lyase
    2-phospho-D-glycerate hydrolyase
    enolase 2 (gamma, neuronal)
    epididymis secretory protein Li 279
    neural enolase
    neuron specific gamma enolase
    neuron-specific enolase
    neuronal enriched enolase
    neurone-specific enolase
    NP_001966.1

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001975.2NP_001966.1  gamma-enolase

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001966.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      X51956
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS8570.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P09104
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      Q6FHV6
      Related
      ENSP00000229277.1, ENST00000229277.5
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      PLN00191
      Location:2432
      PLN00191; enolase

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000012.12 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

      Range
      6914450..6923696
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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