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    MAP2K2 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [ Bos taurus (cattle) ]

    Gene ID: 510434, updated on 14-Jan-2019

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    MAP2K2provided by VGNC
    Official Full Name
    mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2provided by VGNC
    Primary source
    VGNC:VGNC:55215
    See related
    BGD:BT25071; Ensembl:ENSBTAG00000024450
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    PROVISIONAL
    Organism
    Bos taurus
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Ruminantia; Pecora; Bovidae; Bovinae; Bos
    Orthologs

    Genomic context

    See MAP2K2 in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    chromosome: 7
    Exon count:
    12
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    106 current ARS-UCD1.2 (GCF_002263795.1) 7 NC_037334.1 (19909641..19932213)
    105 previous assembly Bos_taurus_UMD_3.1.1 (GCF_000003055.6) 7 AC_000164.1 (21132346..21154000)

    Chromosome 7 - NC_037334.1Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene sirtuin 6 Neighboring gene cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 like 3 Neighboring gene zinc finger and BTB domain containing 7A Neighboring gene protein inhibitor of activated STAT 4

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Pathways from BioSystems

    • ARMS-mediated activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      ARMS-mediated activation, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Acute myeloid leukemia, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Acute myeloid leukemia, organism-specific biosystemAcute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a disease that is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of clonal neoplastic cells and accumulation in the bone marrow of blasts with an impaired differentiation...
    • Acute myeloid leukemia, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Acute myeloid leukemia, conserved biosystemAcute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a disease that is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of clonal neoplastic cells and accumulation in the bone marrow of blasts with an impaired differentiation...
    • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), organism-specific biosystemAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, lethal, degenerative disorder of motor neurons. The hallmark of this disease is the selective death of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord...
    • Apelin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Apelin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemApelin is an endogenous peptide capable of binding the apelin receptor (APJ), which was originally described as an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor. Apelin and APJ are widely expressed in various ti...
    • Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystemApoptosis is a genetically programmed process for the elimination of damaged or redundant cells by activation of caspases (aspartate-specific cysteine proteases). The onset of apoptosis is controlled...
    • Apoptosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Apoptosis, conserved biosystemApoptosis is a genetically programmed process for the elimination of damaged or redundant cells by activation of caspases (aspartate-specific cysteine proteases). The onset of apoptosis is controlled...
    • Autophagy - animal, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Autophagy - animal, organism-specific biosystemAutophagy (or macroautophagy) is a cellular catabolic pathway involving in protein degradation, organelle turnover, and non-selective breakdown of cytoplasmic components, which is evolutionarily cons...
    • Autophagy - animal, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Autophagy - animal, conserved biosystemAutophagy (or macroautophagy) is a cellular catabolic pathway involving in protein degradation, organelle turnover, and non-selective breakdown of cytoplasmic components, which is evolutionarily cons...
    • Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • B Cell Receptor Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      B Cell Receptor Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe functional B-cell receptor is a multi-protein complex consisting of an antigen binding subunit and a signaling subunit. The antigen binding subunit is the membrane bound immunoglobulin and the si...
    • B cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      B cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemB cells are an important component of adaptive immunity. They produce and secrete millions of different antibody molecules, each of which recognizes a different (foreign) antigen. The B cell receptor...
    • B cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      B cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemB cells are an important component of adaptive immunity. They produce and secrete millions of different antibody molecules, each of which recognizes a different (foreign) antigen. The B cell receptor...
    • BDNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      BDNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemBrain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin essential for growth, differentiation, plasticity, and survival of neurons. BDNF is also required for processes such as energy metabolism, b...
    • Bladder Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Bladder Cancer, organism-specific biosystemThe urothelium covers the luminal surface of almost the entire urinary tract, extending from the renal pelvis, through the ureter and bladder, to the proximal urethra. The majority of urothelial carc...
    • Bladder cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Bladder cancer, organism-specific biosystemThe urothelium covers the luminal surface of almost the entire urinary tract, extending from the renal pelvis, through the ureter and bladder, to the proximal urethra. The majority of urothelial carc...
    • Bladder cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Bladder cancer, conserved biosystemThe urothelium covers the luminal surface of almost the entire urinary tract, extending from the renal pelvis, through the ureter and bladder, to the proximal urethra. The majority of urothelial carc...
    • Breast cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Breast cancer, organism-specific biosystemBreast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gla...
    • Breast cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Breast cancer, conserved biosystemBreast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gla...
    • Cardiac Hypertrophic Response, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Cardiac Hypertrophic Response, organism-specific biosystemIntegrated schematic of the more extensively characterized intracellular signal-transduction pathways that coordinate the cardiac hypertrophic response. During development and in response to physiolo...
    • Central carbon metabolism in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Central carbon metabolism in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMalignant transformation of cells requires specific adaptations of cellular metabolism to support growth and survival. In the early twentieth century, Otto Warburg established that there are fundamen...
    • Central carbon metabolism in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Central carbon metabolism in cancer, conserved biosystemMalignant transformation of cells requires specific adaptations of cellular metabolism to support growth and survival. In the early twentieth century, Otto Warburg established that there are fundamen...
    • Choline metabolism in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Choline metabolism in cancer, organism-specific biosystemAbnormal choline metabolism is emerging as a metabolic hallmark that is associated with oncogenesis and tumour progression. Following transformation, oncogenic signalling via pathways such as the RAS...
    • Choline metabolism in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Choline metabolism in cancer, conserved biosystemAbnormal choline metabolism is emerging as a metabolic hallmark that is associated with oncogenesis and tumour progression. Following transformation, oncogenic signalling via pathways such as the RAS...
    • Chronic myeloid leukemia, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Chronic myeloid leukemia, organism-specific biosystemChronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder of a pluripotent stem cell. The natural history of CML has a triphasic clinical course comprising of an initial chronic phase (C...
    • Chronic myeloid leukemia, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Chronic myeloid leukemia, conserved biosystemChronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder of a pluripotent stem cell. The natural history of CML has a triphasic clinical course comprising of an initial chronic phase (C...
    • Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • EGF/EGFR Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      EGF/EGFR Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemEpidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) also known as ErbB1/HER1 is a member of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases which also includes ErbB2 (Neu, HER2), ErbB3 (HER3) and ErbB4 (HER4). Sev...
    • EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance, organism-specific biosystemEGFR is a tyrosine kinase that participates in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. EGFR also serves as a stimulus for cancer growth. EGFR gene mutations and protein overexpression, both of which ...
    • EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance, conserved biosystemEGFR is a tyrosine kinase that participates in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. EGFR also serves as a stimulus for cancer growth. EGFR gene mutations and protein overexpression, both of which ...
    • EPO Receptor Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      EPO Receptor Signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe erythropoietin receptor is a 66 kDa peptide and is a member of the cytokine receptor family. The receptor is tyrosine phosphorylated upon binding by erythropoietin and associates with and activat...
    • Endocrine resistance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Endocrine resistance, organism-specific biosystemEndocrine therapy is a key treatment strategy to control or eradicate hormone-responsive breast cancer. The most commonly used endocrine therapy agents are selective estrogen receptor modulators (SER...
    • Endocrine resistance, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Endocrine resistance, conserved biosystemEndocrine therapy is a key treatment strategy to control or eradicate hormone-responsive breast cancer. The most commonly used endocrine therapy agents are selective estrogen receptor modulators (SER...
    • Endometrial cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Endometrial cancer, organism-specific biosystemEndometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynaecological malignancy and the fourth most common malignancy in women in the developed world after breast, colorectal and lung cancer. Two types of endom...
    • Endometrial cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Endometrial cancer, conserved biosystemEndometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynaecological malignancy and the fourth most common malignancy in women in the developed world after breast, colorectal and lung cancer. Two types of endom...
    • ErbB signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      ErbB signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) couples binding of extracellular growth factor ligands to intracellular signaling pathways regulating diverse biologic responses, including prolife...
    • ErbB signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      ErbB signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) couples binding of extracellular growth factor ligands to intracellular signaling pathways regulating diverse biologic responses, including prolife...
    • Estrogen signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Estrogen signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemEstrogens are steroid hormones that regulate a plethora of physiological processes in mammals, including reproduction, cardiovascular protection, bone integrity, cellular homeostasis, and behavior. E...
    • Estrogen signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Estrogen signaling pathway, conserved biosystemEstrogens are steroid hormones that regulate a plethora of physiological processes in mammals, including reproduction, cardiovascular protection, bone integrity, cellular homeostasis, and behavior. E...
    • FCERI mediated MAPK activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      FCERI mediated MAPK activation, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemFc epsilon RI-mediated signaling pathways in mast cells are initiated by the interaction of antigen (Ag) with IgE bound to the extracellular domain of the alpha chain of Fc epsilon RI. The activation...
    • Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway, conserved biosystemFc epsilon RI-mediated signaling pathways in mast cells are initiated by the interaction of antigen (Ag) with IgE bound to the extracellular domain of the alpha chain of Fc epsilon RI. The activation...
    • Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Focal Adhesion, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Focal Adhesion, organism-specific biosystemCell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the...
    • FoxO signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      FoxO signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe forkhead box O (FOXO) family of transcription factors regulates the expression of genes in cellular physiological events including apoptosis, cell-cycle control, glucose metabolism, oxidative str...
    • Frs2-mediated activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Frs2-mediated activation, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • GRB2 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GRB2 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Gap junction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Gap junction, organism-specific biosystemGap junctions contain intercellular channels that allow direct communication between the cytosolic compartments of adjacent cells. Each gap junction channel is formed by docking of two 'hemichannels'...
    • Gap junction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Gap junction, conserved biosystemGap junctions contain intercellular channels that allow direct communication between the cytosolic compartments of adjacent cells. Each gap junction channel is formed by docking of two 'hemichannels'...
    • Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Glioma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Glioma, organism-specific biosystemGliomas are the most common of the primary brain tumors and account for more than 40% of all central nervous system neoplasms. Gliomas include tumours that are composed predominantly of astrocytes (a...
    • Glioma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Glioma, conserved biosystemGliomas are the most common of the primary brain tumors and account for more than 40% of all central nervous system neoplasms. Gliomas include tumours that are composed predominantly of astrocytes (a...
    • GnRH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      GnRH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnR...
    • GnRH signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      GnRH signaling pathway, conserved biosystemGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnR...
    • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) signaling, organism-specific biosystemGonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) are the key factors stimulating gonadotropin release from the pituitary. GnRHs are decapeptides that act via G-protein coupled receptors (gonadotropin-releasing...
    • HIF-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      HIF-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemHypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that functions as a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis. It consists of two subunits: an inducibly-expressed HIF-1alpha subunit and a c...
    • Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped virus and contains a partially double-stranded relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) genome. After entry into hepatocytes, HBV RC-DNA is transported to the nucleus and...
    • Hypothetical Network for Drug Addiction, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Hypothetical Network for Drug Addiction, organism-specific biosystemAdapted from figure 2 in [http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.0040002 Li et al.].
    • IGF1R signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      IGF1R signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • IL-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      IL-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe IL-1 family of cytokines currently consists of 11 members which are encoded by distinct genes and includes IL-1?, IL-1?, and the IL-1 Receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). The major role of IL-1 type cyt...
    • IL-2 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      IL-2 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemIL-2 is a multifunctional cytokine with pleiotropic effects on several cells of the immune system. IL-2 was originally discovered as a T cell growth factor, but it was also found to have actions rela...
    • IL-5 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      IL-5 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin 5 (IL-5) ligand belongs to the cytokine superfamily. IL-5 is a glycoprotein which belongs to the cytokine superfamily. It possesses the four helical bundle motifs that is conserved among ...
    • IL-6 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      IL-6 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemIL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with important role in immune regulation, hematopoiesis, inflammation and oncogenesis. IL-6-type cytokines exert their action via the signal transducer gp130 that assoc...
    • IL-7 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      IL-7 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin-7 (IL-7) was discovered in the year 1988 as a factor that enhanced the growth of murine B-cell precursors in bone marrow culture system. It was also known as lymphopoietin 1and pre-B cell...
    • IL-9 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      IL-9 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemIL-9 is a multifunctional cytokine, belong to a family of cytokines. IL-9 was initially reported as a T cell growth factor in mice. It is now known to target multiple cell types. It plays an importan...
    • IRS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      IRS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Immune System, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Influenza A, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Influenza A, organism-specific biosystemInfluenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. Novel strains ...
    • Influenza A, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Influenza A, conserved biosystemInfluenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. Novel strains ...
    • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Insulin Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Insulin Signaling, organism-specific biosystemInsulin signaling influences energy metabolism as well as growth. The presence of insulin signals the fed state, and this signal is passed via the AKT branch, which leads to the uptake of glucose fro...
    • Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
    • Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
    • Integrin-mediated Cell Adhesion, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Integrin-mediated Cell Adhesion, organism-specific biosystemIntegrins are receptors that mediate attachment between a cell and the tissues surrounding it, which may be other cells or the extracellular matrix (ECM). They also play a role in cell signaling and ...
    • Interleukin receptor SHC signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Interleukin receptor SHC signaling, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Interleukin-11 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Interleukin-11 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemIL-11 is a multifunctional cytokine that belongs to the gp130 family. It was first isolated from a primate bone marrow derived cell line, PU-34 for its ability to stimulate the proliferation of a pla...
    • Interleukin-2 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Interleukin-2 signaling, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Kit receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Kit receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemKit is a cytokine receptor that belongs to the type III receptor tyrosine kinase family. It is structurally similar to platelet-derived growth factor recpetors (PDGFRs), colony stimulating factor-1 r...
    • L1CAM interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      L1CAM interactions, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Leptin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Leptin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemLeptin is a peptide hormone mainly synthesised and secreted from adipocytes. It is also expressed in other tissues including placenta, stomach and skeletal muscle. Leptin mediates its effects by bind...
    • Long-term depression, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Long-term depression, organism-specific biosystemCerebellar long-term depression (LTD), thought to be a molecular and cellular basis for cerebellar learning, is a process involving a decrease in the synaptic strength between parallel fiber (PF) and...
    • Long-term depression, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Long-term depression, conserved biosystemCerebellar long-term depression (LTD), thought to be a molecular and cellular basis for cerebellar learning, is a process involving a decrease in the synaptic strength between parallel fiber (PF) and...
    • Long-term potentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Long-term potentiation, organism-specific biosystemHippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy, is the molecular basis for learning and memory. Tetanic stimulation of afferents in the CA1 region of the hippo...
    • Long-term potentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Long-term potentiation, conserved biosystemHippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy, is the molecular basis for learning and memory. Tetanic stimulation of afferents in the CA1 region of the hippo...
    • MAP2K and MAPK activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MAP2K and MAPK activation, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • MAPK (ERK1/2) signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      MAPK (ERK1/2) signaling, organism-specific biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
    • MAPK (ERK1/2) signaling, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      MAPK (ERK1/2) signaling, conserved biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
    • MAPK Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      MAPK Cascade, organism-specific biosystem
      MAPK Cascade
    • MAPK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      MAPK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
    • MAPK family signaling cascades, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MAPK family signaling cascades, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
    • MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
    • MAPK1 (ERK2) activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MAPK1 (ERK2) activation, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • MAPK1/MAPK3 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MAPK1/MAPK3 signaling, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Melanogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Melanogenesis, organism-specific biosystemCutaneous melanin pigment plays a critical role in camouflage, mimicry, social communication, and protection against harmful effects of solar radiation. Melanogenesis is under complex regulatory cont...
    • Melanogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Melanogenesis, conserved biosystemCutaneous melanin pigment plays a critical role in camouflage, mimicry, social communication, and protection against harmful effects of solar radiation. Melanogenesis is under complex regulatory cont...
    • Melanoma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Melanoma, organism-specific biosystemMelanoma is a form of skin cancer that has a poor prognosis and which is on the rise in Western populations. Melanoma arises from the malignant transformation of pigment-producing cells, melanocytes...
    • Melanoma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Melanoma, conserved biosystemMelanoma is a form of skin cancer that has a poor prognosis and which is on the rise in Western populations. Melanoma arises from the malignant transformation of pigment-producing cells, melanocytes...
    • MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or...
    • MicroRNAs in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      MicroRNAs in cancer, conserved biosystemMicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or...
    • NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Nanoparticle-mediated activation of receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Nanoparticle-mediated activation of receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystemNanoparticle-mediated activation of receptor signaling. Several NP formulations were shown to interact with cellular receptors such as the EGFR and integrins, inducing cellular phenotypes such as pro...
    • Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, organism-specific biosystemNatural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that are involved in early defenses against both allogeneic (nonself) cells and autologous cells undergoing various forms of stre...
    • Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, conserved biosystemNatural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that are involved in early defenses against both allogeneic (nonself) cells and autologous cells undergoing various forms of stre...
    • Negative feedback regulation of MAPK pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Negative feedback regulation of MAPK pathway, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Negative regulation of MAPK pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Negative regulation of MAPK pathway, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
    • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
    • Non-small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Non-small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystemLung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of lung cancer and represents a heter...
    • Non-small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Non-small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystemLung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of lung cancer and represents a heter...
    • Oncostatin M Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Oncostatin M Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemOncostatin M (OSM) is a member of the multifunctional cytokine interleukin 6 (IL6) - type cytokine family. It is mainly produced in cell types such as activated T lymphocytes, macrophages, monocytes,...
    • Oxytocin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Oxytocin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemOxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide synthesized by the magno-cellular neurons located in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the hypothalamus. It exerts a wide variety of central and ...
    • Oxytocin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Oxytocin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemOxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide synthesized by the magno-cellular neurons located in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the hypothalamus. It exerts a wide variety of central and ...
    • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
    • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
    • Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
      Pathways in cancer
    • Phospholipase D signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Phospholipase D signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemPhospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membra...
    • Phospholipase D signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Phospholipase D signaling pathway, conserved biosystemPhospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membra...
    • Prion diseases, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prion diseases, organism-specific biosystemPrion diseases, also termed transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and a number of other animal species. The etiology of ...
    • Prion diseases, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prion diseases, conserved biosystemPrion diseases, also termed transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and a number of other animal species. The etiology of ...
    • Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
    • Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
    • Prolonged ERK activation events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Prolonged ERK activation events, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Prostate cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prostate cancer, organism-specific biosystemProstate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of...
    • Prostate cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prostate cancer, conserved biosystemProstate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of...
    • Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
    • Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
    • RAF activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RAF activation, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • RAF-independent MAPK1/3 activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RAF-independent MAPK1/3 activation, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • RAF/MAP kinase cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RAF/MAP kinase cascade, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • RET signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RET signaling, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
    • Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
    • Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras prote...
    • Regulation of Actin Cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Regulation of Actin Cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystemhttp://www.genome.jp/kegg/pathway/hsa/hsa04810.html
    • Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystem
      Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
    • Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, conserved biosystem
      Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
    • Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway
    • Renal cell carcinoma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Renal cell carcinoma, organism-specific biosystemRenal cell cancer (RCC) accounts for ~3% of human malignancies and its incidence appears to be rising. Although most cases of RCC seem to occur sporadically, an inherited predisposition to renal canc...
    • Renal cell carcinoma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Renal cell carcinoma, conserved biosystemRenal cell cancer (RCC) accounts for ~3% of human malignancies and its incidence appears to be rising. Although most cases of RCC seem to occur sporadically, an inherited predisposition to renal canc...
    • SHC1 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      SHC1 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • SOS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      SOS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Serotonin Receptor 2 and ELK-SRF/GATA4 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Serotonin Receptor 2 and ELK-SRF/GATA4 signaling, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is courtesy of Ariadne Genomics Pathway Studio.
    • Serotonin Receptor 4/6/7 and NR3C Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Serotonin Receptor 4/6/7 and NR3C Signaling, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is courtesy of Ariadne Genomics Pathway Studio.
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Signal transduction by L1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal transduction by L1, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Signaling Pathways in Glioblastoma, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Signaling Pathways in Glioblastoma, organism-specific biosystemThe most frequently altered genes in glioblastoma. This pathway originally accompanied the 2008 Nature publication on the comprehensive genomic characterization of human glioblastoma genes and core p...
    • Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Signaling by Leptin, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Leptin, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Signaling of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Signaling of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor, organism-specific biosystem
      Signaling of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor
    • Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, organism-specific biosystemPluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are basic cells with an indefinite self-renewal capacity and the potential to generate all the cell types of the three germinal layers. The types of PSCs known to date i...
    • Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, conserved biosystemPluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are basic cells with an indefinite self-renewal capacity and the potential to generate all the cell types of the three germinal layers. The types of PSCs known to date i...
    • Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Signalling to ERKs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling to ERKs, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Signalling to RAS, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling to RAS, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Signalling to p38 via RIT and RIN, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling to p38 via RIT and RIN, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Sphingolipid signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Sphingolipid signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) ...
    • Sphingolipid signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Sphingolipid signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) ...
    • Structural Pathway of Interleukin 1 (IL-1), organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Structural Pathway of Interleukin 1 (IL-1), organism-specific biosystemPathway published in http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pcbi.1003470 IL-1 signaling pathway reconstructed by combining related pathways and information from the litera...
    • T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
    • T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
    • TCR Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      TCR Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) complex is composed of a ligand-binding subunit, the ? and ? chains, and a signaling subunit, namely the CD3?, ? and ? chains and the TCR? chain. This complex partic...
    • TGF beta Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      TGF beta Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe signal transduction mechanisms underlying the pathophysiological activities of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) have been extensively studied since its discovery nearly 30 years ago. TGF-? li...
    • TSLP Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      TSLP Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      TSLP Signaling Pathway
    • Thyroid cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Thyroid cancer, organism-specific biosystemThyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and accounts for the majority of endocrine cancer- related deaths each year. More than 95% of thyroid carcinomas are derived from follicular cel...
    • Thyroid cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Thyroid cancer, conserved biosystemThyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and accounts for the majority of endocrine cancer- related deaths each year. More than 95% of thyroid carcinomas are derived from follicular cel...
    • Thyroid hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Thyroid hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe thyroid hormones (THs) are important regulators of growth, development and metabolism. The action of TH is mainly mediated by T3 (3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine). Thyroid hormones, L-thyroxine (T4) a...
    • Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
    • Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
    • Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
    • VEGF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      VEGF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThere is now much evidence that VEGFR-2 is the major mediator of VEGF-driven responses in endothelial cells and it is considered to be a crucial signal transducer in both physiologic and pathologic a...
    • VEGF signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      VEGF signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThere is now much evidence that VEGFR-2 is the major mediator of VEGF-driven responses in endothelial cells and it is considered to be a crucial signal transducer in both physiologic and pathologic a...
    • VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Vascular smooth muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Vascular smooth muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystemThe vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is a highly specialized cell whose principal function is contraction. On contraction, VSMCs shorten, thereby decreasing the diameter of a blood vessel to regula...
    • Vascular smooth muscle contraction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Vascular smooth muscle contraction, conserved biosystemThe vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is a highly specialized cell whose principal function is contraction. On contraction, VSMCs shorten, thereby decreasing the diameter of a blood vessel to regula...
    • Vascular smooth muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Vascular smooth muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystemVascular smooth muscle refers to the particular type of smooth muscle found within, and composing the majority of the wall of blood vessels. The main function of vascular smooth muscle tonus is to re...
    • cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...
    • cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...
    • cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemCyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated i...
    • cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, conserved biosystemCyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated i...
    • mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, which exists in two complexes termed mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 conta...
    • mTOR signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      mTOR signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, which exists in two complexes termed mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 conta...

    General gene information

    Homology

    Clone Names

    • MGC134398, MGC140486

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2
    NP_001033160.2
    XP_005208988.2

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001038071.2NP_001033160.2  dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001033160.2

      Status: PROVISIONAL

      Source sequence(s)
      BC118362
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      Q17QH2
      Related
      ENSBTAP00000063221.1, ENSBTAT00000081829.1
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd06649
      Location:66396
      PKc_MEK2; Catalytic domain of the dual-specificity Protein Kinase, Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP)/Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) Kinase 2

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Bos taurus Annotation Release 106 details...Open this link in a new tab

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference ARS-UCD1.2 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_037334.1 Reference ARS-UCD1.2 Primary Assembly

      Range
      19909641..19932213
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_005208931.4XP_005208988.2  dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 isoform X1

      Related
      ENSBTAP00000011377.6, ENSBTAT00000011377.6
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd06615
      Location:70365
      PKc_MEK; Catalytic domain of the dual-specificity Protein Kinase, Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP)/Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) Kinase
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