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    RHOG ras homolog family member G [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 391, updated on 15-Apr-2019

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    RHOGprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    ras homolog family member Gprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:672
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000177105 MIM:179505
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    VALIDATED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    ARHG
    Summary
    This gene encodes a member of the Rho family of small GTPases, which cycle between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound states and function as molecular switches in signal transduction cascades. Rho proteins promote reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and regulate cell shape, attachment, and motility. The encoded protein facilitates translocation of a functional guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) complex from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane where ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 is activated to promote lamellipodium formation and cell migration. Two related pseudogene have been identified on chromosomes 20 and X. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
    Expression
    Broad expression in bone marrow (RPKM 74.8), spleen (RPKM 41.3) and 24 other tissues See more
    Orthologs

    Genomic context

    See RHOG in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    11p15.4
    Exon count:
    4
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 11 NC_000011.10 (3826978..3840983, complement)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 11 NC_000011.9 (3848208..3862213, complement)

    Chromosome 11 - NC_000011.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene nucleoporin 98 Neighboring gene RNA, U7 small nuclear 50 pseudogene Neighboring gene post-GPI attachment to proteins 2 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105376527 Neighboring gene microRNA 4687 Neighboring gene stromal interaction molecule 1

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    HIV-1 interactions

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr-expressing Jurkat T cell clones showed a significant upregulation of RhoG expression PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Pathways from BioSystems

    • Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystemAxon guidance / axon pathfinding is the process by which neurons send out axons to reach the correct targets. Growing axons have a highly motile structure at the growing tip called the growth cone, w...
    • Bacterial invasion of epithelial cells, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Bacterial invasion of epithelial cells, organism-specific biosystemMany pathogenic bacteria can invade phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells and colonize them intracellularly, then become disseminated to other cells. Invasive bacteria induce their own uptake by non-ph...
    • Bacterial invasion of epithelial cells, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Bacterial invasion of epithelial cells, conserved biosystemMany pathogenic bacteria can invade phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells and colonize them intracellularly, then become disseminated to other cells. Invasive bacteria induce their own uptake by non-ph...
    • Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemBrain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin essential for growth, differentiation, plasticity, and survival of neurons. BDNF is also required for processes such as energy metabolism, b...
    • Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystemAs a first step towards capturing the array of processes by which a fertilized egg gives rise to the diverse tissues of the body, examples of three kinds of processes have been annotated. These are a...
    • G alpha (12/13) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      G alpha (12/13) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe G12/13 family is probably the least well characterized subtype, partly because G12/13 coupling is difficult to determine when compared with the other subtypes which predominantly rely on assay te...
    • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
    • GPVI-mediated activation cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GPVI-mediated activation cascade, organism-specific biosystemThe GPVI receptor is a complex of the GPVI protein with Fc epsilon R1 gamma (FcR). The Src family kinases Fyn and Lyn constitutively associate with the GPVI-FcR complex in platelets and initiate plat...
    • Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystemHemostasis is a physiological response that culminates in the arrest of bleeding from an injured vessel. Under normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhe...
    • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
    • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
    • Neurotrophic factor-mediated Trk receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Neurotrophic factor-mediated Trk receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem
      Neurotrophic factor-mediated Trk receptor signaling
    • Neutrophil degranulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Neutrophil degranulation, organism-specific biosystemNeutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes (white blood cells), indispensable in defending the body against invading microorganisms. In response to infection, neutrophils leave the circulation and ...
    • Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet activation begins with the initial binding of adhesive ligands and of the excitatory platelet agonists (released or generated at the sites of vascular trauma) to cognate receptors on the pla...
    • RHO GTPase Effectors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RHO GTPase Effectors, organism-specific biosystemRHO GTPases regulate cell behaviour by activating a number of downstream effectors that regulate cytoskeletal organization, intracellular trafficking and transcription (reviewed by Sahai and Marshall...
    • RHO GTPases activate KTN1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RHO GTPases activate KTN1, organism-specific biosystemGTP-bound active forms of RHO GTPases RHOA, RHOG, RAC1 and CDC42 bind kinectin (KTN1), a protein inserted in endoplasmic reticulum membranes that interacts with the cargo-binding site of kinesin and ...
    • Rho GTPase cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Rho GTPase cycle, organism-specific biosystemThe cycling of Rho GTPases is tightly controlled by three classes of protein. These are (1) guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors or GDIs, which maintain Rho proteins in an inactive state in the...
    • Salmonella infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Salmonella infection, organism-specific biosystemSalmonella infection usually presents as a self-limiting gastroenteritis or the more severe typhoid fever and bacteremia. The common disease-causing Salmonella species in human is a single species, S...
    • Salmonella infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Salmonella infection, conserved biosystemSalmonella infection usually presents as a self-limiting gastroenteritis or the more severe typhoid fever and bacteremia. The common disease-causing Salmonella species in human is a single species, S...
    • Sema4D in semaphorin signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Sema4D in semaphorin signaling, organism-specific biosystemSemaphorin 4D (Sema 4D/CD100) is an axon guidance molecule with two disulfide-linked 150-kDa subunits. SEMA4D is structurally defined by a conserved 500-amino acid extracellular domain with 16 cyste...
    • Sema4D induced cell migration and growth-cone collapse, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Sema4D induced cell migration and growth-cone collapse, organism-specific biosystemSema4D-mediated attraction of endothelial cells requires Rho, but not R-Ras, signaling. Sema4D-mediated plexinB1 activation activates Rho and its downstream effector ROCK. ROCK then phosphorylates ML...
    • Semaphorin interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Semaphorin interactions, organism-specific biosystemSemaphorins are a large family of cell surface and secreted guidance molecules divided into eight classes on the basis of their structures. They all have an N-terminal conserved sema domain. Semaphor...
    • Shigellosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Shigellosis, organism-specific biosystemShigellosis, or bacillary dysentery, is an intestinal infection caused by Shigella, a genus of enterobacteria. Shigella are potential food-borne pathogens that are capable of colonizing the intestina...
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
    • Signaling by Rho GTPases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Rho GTPases, organism-specific biosystemThe Rho family of small guanine nucleotide binding proteins is one of five generally recognized branches of the Ras superfamily. Like most Ras superfamily members, typical Rho proteins function as bi...

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Clone Names

    • MGC125835, MGC125836

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    GTP binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    GTPase activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    GTPase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein kinase binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    Rac protein signal transduction IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Rho protein signal transduction IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    Rho protein signal transduction IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    actin cytoskeleton organization IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    actin cytoskeleton organization IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    actin filament organization IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    activation of GTPase activity IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    cell chemotaxis IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    establishment or maintenance of cell polarity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    neutrophil degranulation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    positive regulation of cell proliferation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    positive regulation of protein localization to plasma membrane IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of cell shape IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of ruffle assembly IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    cell cortex IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    cell projection IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytoplasm IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
    focal adhesion HDA PubMed 
    plasma membrane IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    plasma membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    secretory granule membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    rho-related GTP-binding protein RhoG
    Names
    ras homolog gene family, member G (rho G)

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001665.4NP_001656.2  rho-related GTP-binding protein RhoG precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001656.2

      Status: VALIDATED

      Source sequence(s)
      AA424888, BC104178, CB125569
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS7748.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P84095
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      Q6ICQ8
      Related
      ENSP00000339467.4, ENST00000351018.5
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd01875
      Location:1191
      RhoG; Ras homolog family, member G (RhoG) of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases)

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000011.10 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

      Range
      3826978..3840983 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_005252916.2XP_005252973.1  rho-related GTP-binding protein RhoG isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_005252973.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P84095
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      Q6ICQ8
      Related
      ENSP00000380175.1, ENST00000396978.1
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd01875
      Location:1191
      RhoG; Ras homolog family, member G (RhoG) of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases)
    2. XM_017017719.1XP_016873208.1  rho-related GTP-binding protein RhoG isoform X1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P84095
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      Q6ICQ8
      Related
      ENSP00000436932.1, ENST00000533217.1
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd01875
      Location:1191
      RhoG; Ras homolog family, member G (RhoG) of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases)
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