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    GNRH2 gonadotropin releasing hormone 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 2797, updated on 20-Mar-2019

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    GNRH2provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    gonadotropin releasing hormone 2provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:4420
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000125787 MIM:602352
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    GnRH-II; LH-RHII
    Summary
    This gene is a member of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) gene family. Proteins encoded by members of this gene family are proteolytically cleaved to form neuropeptides which, in part, regulate reproductive functions by stimulating the production and release of the gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The human GNRH2 gene is predicted to encode a preproprotein from which a mature neuropeptide of 10 amino acids is cleaved. However, while the human genome retains the sequence for a functional GNRH2 decapeptide, translation of the human GNRH2 gene has not yet been demonstrated and the GNRH2 gene of chimpanzees, gorilla, and Sumatran orangutan have a premature stop at codon eight of the decapeptide sequence which suggests GNRH2 was a pseudogene in the hominid lineage. The GNRH2 gene is also believed to be a pseudogene in many other mammalian species such as mouse and cow. The receptor for this gene (GNRHR2) is predicted to be a pseudogene in human as well as many other mammalian species. The closely related GNRH1 and GNRHR1 genes are functional in human and other mammals and are generally functional in vertebrates. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2019]
    Annotation information
    Note: It is uncertain if this is a protein-coding gene or if it is a transcribed pseudogene in humans. [19 Mar 2019]
    Expression
    Low expression observed in reference dataset See more
    Orthologs

    Genomic context

    See GNRH2 in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    20p13
    Exon count:
    5
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 20 NC_000020.11 (3039061..3045896)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 20 NC_000020.10 (3024268..3026391)

    Chromosome 20 - NC_000020.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene PC-esterase domain containing 1A Neighboring gene VPS16 core subunit of CORVET and HOPS complexes Neighboring gene protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type A Neighboring gene mitochondrial ribosomal protein S26 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101929098 Neighboring gene oxytocin/neurophysin I prepropeptide

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Pathways from BioSystems

    • Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystemRhodopsin-like receptors (class A/1) are the largest group of GPCRs and are the best studied group from a functional and structural point of view. They show great diversity at the sequence level and ...
    • G alpha (q) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      G alpha (q) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe classic signalling route for G alpha (q) is activation of phospholipase C beta thereby triggering phosphoinositide hydrolysis, calcium mobilization and protein kinase C activation. This provides ...
    • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
    • GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystemThere are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all...
    • Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystemGastrin is a hormone whose main function is to stimulate secretion of hydrochloric acid by the gastric mucosa, which results in gastrin formation inhibition. This hormone also acts as a mitogenic fac...
    • GnRH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      GnRH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnR...
    • GnRH signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      GnRH signaling pathway, conserved biosystemGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnR...
    • Hormone ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Hormone ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystemThe class A (rhodopsin-like) GPCRs that bind to hormone ligands are annotated here. The hormones follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and hu...
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    hormone activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    multicellular organism development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    regulation of signaling receptor activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    reproduction IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    signal transduction TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular space IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    progonadoliberin-2
    Names
    GnRH-associated peptide 2
    GnRH-associated peptide II
    Gonadoliberin II
    Gonadoliberin-2
    luliberin II
    luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone II
    progonadoliberin II

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001310220.1NP_001297149.1  progonadoliberin-2 isoform a preproprotein

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001297149.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR compared to variant 1. Variants 1 and 4 encode the same isoform (a).
      Source sequence(s)
      AF036330, BC115400
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS13040.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      O43555
    2. NM_001501.1NP_001492.1  progonadoliberin-2 isoform a preproprotein

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001492.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longest isoform (a). Variants 1 and 4 encode the same isoform (a).
      Source sequence(s)
      AF036330, BC069362
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS13040.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      O43555
      Related
      ENSP00000245983.2, ENST00000245983.6
    3. NM_178331.1NP_847901.1  progonadoliberin-2 isoform c preproprotein

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_847901.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (3) uses an alternate in-frame splice site compared to variant 1, resulting in a shorter isoform (c) compared to isoform a.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF036330, BC115399
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS13041.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      O43555
      Related
      ENSP00000352003.2, ENST00000359100.6
    4. NM_178332.1NP_847902.1  progonadoliberin-2 isoform b preproprotein

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_847902.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate in-frame splice site compared to variant 1, resulting in a shorter isoform (b) compared to isoform a.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF036330, BF061974
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS13042.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      O43555
      Related
      ENSP00000369704.2, ENST00000380346.2

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000020.11 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

      Range
      3039061..3045896
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_017027823.1XP_016883312.1  progonadoliberin-2 isoform X1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      O43555
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