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    CD28 CD28 molecule [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 940, updated on 6-Jun-2017
    Official Symbol
    CD28provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    CD28 moleculeprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:1653
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000178562 MIM:186760; Vega:OTTHUMG00000132878
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    Tp44
    Summary
    The protein encoded by this gene is essential for T-cell proliferation and survival, cytokine production, and T-helper type-2 development. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]
    Orthologs
    Location:
    2q33.2
    Exon count:
    4
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 2 NC_000002.12 (203706475..203739756)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 2 NC_000002.11 (204571198..204603635)

    Chromosome 2 - NC_000002.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene zinc finger protein 207 pseudogene Neighboring gene NDUFA4, mitochondrial complex associated pseudogene Neighboring gene keratin 18 pseudogene 39 Neighboring gene nucleophosmin 1 pseudogene 33

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    NHGRI GWAS Catalog

    Description
    A genome-wide association study identifies two new risk loci for Graves' disease.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    A genome-wide search for quantitative trait loci affecting the cortical surface area and thickness of Heschl's gyrus.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genetics of rheumatoid arthritis contributes to biology and drug discovery.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Multiple common variants for celiac disease influencing immune gene expression.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env In the presence of HIV-1 gp120, stimulation through the CD28 pathway partially restores IL-2 and IFN-gamma production by T cell lines in response to anti-CD3 antibodies PubMed
    env Molecular interactions of CD2 with LFA-3 and CD28 with B7-1 in conjunction with TCR occupancy prevent T cells from programmed apoptosis mediated by binding of CD4 to HIV-1 gp120, resulting in increased levels of IL-2 and IL-4 secretion from the T cells PubMed
    env The binding of HIV-1 gp120 to CD4 molecules on T cells interrupts the sequential cascade of intercellular interactions involving antigen/MHC class II-TCR/CD4, CD40L-CD40, and B71-CD28 PubMed
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env CD3/28-treated resting CD4+ T cells produce more Env protein than untreated cells PubMed
    env Antibodies against cell surface molecules LFA-1, ICAM-1, HLA-DR, and CD28 inhibit the HIV-1 gp160-induced B cell differentiation response; gp160 also induces IL-6R and CD23 molecule expression on B cells PubMed
    Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env HIV-1 gp41 peptide (amino acids 581-597) inhibits lymphoproliferation stimulated via the T-cell-activation molecules CD3, CD2, and CD28, as well as via direct stimulation mediated by phorbol ester combined with ionomycin PubMed
    Nef nef HIV-1 Nef downregulates CD28, a major co-stimulatory receptor that mediates effective T-cell activation, by accelerating CD28 endocytosis via the AP-2 pathway PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef utilizes beta-COP in CD28 downregulation PubMed
    nef CD28 co-localizes with the AP-2 clathrin adaptor and an HIV-1 Nef-GFP fusion protein PubMed
    nef HIV-1 group N and group O Nef alleles only weakly downregulate CD4, CD28, and class I and II MHC molecules PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef directly interacts with clathrin adaptor complexes (AP) to downregulate numerous cellular proteins, including CD4, MHC-I, LIGHT, DC-SIGN, CD28 and MHC-II, by misrouting them to the endosomal degradation compartment or the trans Golgi-network PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef upregulates IL-2 secretion and HIV-1 transcription in T cells stimulated via CD3 or CD28 PubMed
    nef Amino acid residues 57-59 in HIV-1 Nef interact with the cytoplasmic domain at positions 185-193 of CD28, resulting in CD28 downregulation by endocytosis via the AP-2 pathway PubMed
    Pr55(Gag) gag CD3/28-treated resting CD4+ T cells produce more HIV-1 Gag protein than untreated cells PubMed
    Tat tat Recruitment of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to CD28 inhibits HIV-1 Tat-mediated transcription PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat interacts with CD3 and CD28 to co-stimulate IL-2 and IL-8 expression PubMed
    Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr significantly downregulates CD28 expression in infected T cells PubMed
    matrix gag IL-2-induced down modulation of CD28 is completely prevented by p17 MA, and cells derived from p17-stimulated cultures show a strong Tc1 polarization PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    • Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystemAdaptive immunity refers to antigen-specific immune response efficiently involved in clearing the pathogens. The adaptive immune system is comprised of B and T lymphocytes that express receptors with...
    • Allograft Rejection, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Allograft Rejection, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway illustrates molecular interactions involved in the fundamental adaptive immune response for allograft destruction. This pathway was adapted in large part from the KEGG pathway http://www...
    • Allograft rejection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Allograft rejection, organism-specific biosystemAllograft rejection is the consequence of the recipient's alloimmune response to nonself antigens expressed by donor tissues. After transplantation of organ allografts, there are two pathways of anti...
    • Allograft rejection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Allograft rejection, conserved biosystemAllograft rejection is the consequence of the recipient's alloimmune response to nonself antigens expressed by donor tissues. After transplantation of organ allografts, there are two pathways of anti...
    • Autoimmune thyroid disease, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Autoimmune thyroid disease, organism-specific biosystemThe classification of autoimmune throid disease (AITD) includes Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) or chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and its variants, Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune atrophic thyroidi...
    • Autoimmune thyroid disease, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Autoimmune thyroid disease, conserved biosystemThe classification of autoimmune throid disease (AITD) includes Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) or chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and its variants, Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune atrophic thyroidi...
    • CD28 co-stimulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      CD28 co-stimulation, organism-specific biosystemIn naive T cells, CD28 costimulation enhances cell cycle entry, potently stimulates expression of both the mitogenic lymphokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) and its receptor, and stimulates the activation o...
    • CD28 dependent PI3K/Akt signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      CD28 dependent PI3K/Akt signaling, organism-specific biosystemPI3Ks can be activated by a number of different receptors, including the TcR (T cell receptor), co-stimulatory receptors (CD28), cytokine receptors and chemokine receptors. However, the specific role...
    • CD28 dependent Vav1 pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      CD28 dependent Vav1 pathway, organism-specific biosystemCD28 binds to several intracellular proteins including PI3 kinase, Grb-2, Gads and ITK. Grb-2 specifically co-operates with Vav-1 in the up-regulation of NFAT/AP-1 transcription. CD28 costimulation r...
    • Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), organism-specific biosystemCell adhesion molecules are (glyco)proteins expressed on the cell surface and play a critical role in a wide array of biologic processes that include hemostasis, the immune response, inflammation, em...
    • Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), conserved biosystemCell adhesion molecules are (glyco)proteins expressed on the cell surface and play a critical role in a wide array of biologic processes that include hemostasis, the immune response, inflammation, em...
    • Constitutive Signaling by Aberrant PI3K in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Constitutive Signaling by Aberrant PI3K in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemSignaling by PI3K/AKT is frequently constitutively activated in cancer via gain-of-function mutations in one of the two PI3K subunits - PI3KCA (encoding the catalytic subunit p110alpha) or PIK3R1 (en...
    • Costimulation by the CD28 family, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Costimulation by the CD28 family, organism-specific biosystemOptimal activation of T-lymphocytes requires at least two signals. A primary one is delivered by the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex after antigen recognition and additional costimulatory signals are d...
    • DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystemDNAX activation protein of 12kDa (DAP12) is an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-bearing adapter molecule that transduces activating signals in natural killer (NK) and myeloid cel...
    • DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystemIn response to receptor ligation, the tyrosine residues in DAP12's immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) are phosphorylated by Src family kinases. These phosphotyrosines form the dock...
    • Disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Disease, organism-specific biosystemBiological processes are captured in Reactome by identifying the molecules (DNA, RNA, protein, small molecules) involved in them and describing the details of their interactions. From this molecular ...
    • Diseases of signal transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Diseases of signal transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignaling processes are central to human physiology (e.g., Pires-da Silva & Sommer 2003), and their disruption by either germ-line and somatic mutation can lead to serious disease. Here, the molecula...
    • Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystemThe role of autophosphorylation sites on PDGF receptors are to provide docking sites for downstream signal transduction molecules which contain SH2 domains. The SH2 domain is a conserved motif of aro...
    • Downstream signaling events of B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Downstream signaling events of B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystemSecond messengers (calcium, diacylglycerol, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and phosphatidyinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate) trigger signaling pathways: NF-kappaB is activated via protein kinase C beta, RA...
    • Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystemMast cells (MC) are distributed in tissues throughout the human body and have long been recognized as key cells of type I hypersensitivity reactions. They also play important roles in inflammatory an...
    • GAB1 signalosome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GAB1 signalosome, organism-specific biosystemGAB1 is recruited to the activated EGFR indirectly, through GRB2. GAB1 acts as an adaptor protein that enables formation of an active PIK3, through recruitment of PIK3 regulatory subunit PIK3R1 (also...
    • Graft-versus-host disease, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Graft-versus-host disease, organism-specific biosystemGraft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a lethal complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) where immunocompetent donor T cells attack the genetically disparate host cells....
    • Graft-versus-host disease, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Graft-versus-host disease, conserved biosystemGraft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a lethal complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) where immunocompetent donor T cells attack the genetically disparate host cells....
    • HIV Infection, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      HIV Infection, organism-specific biosystemThe global pandemic of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection has resulted in tens of millions of people infected by the virus and millions more affected. UNAIDS estimates around 40 million ...
    • Host Interactions of HIV factors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Host Interactions of HIV factors, organism-specific biosystemLike all viruses, HIV-1 must co-opt the host cell macromolecular transport and processing machinery. HIV-1 Vpr and Rev proteins play key roles in this co-optation. Efficient HIV-1 replication likewis...
    • IL12 signaling mediated by STAT4, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      IL12 signaling mediated by STAT4, organism-specific biosystem
      IL12 signaling mediated by STAT4
    • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
    • Infectious disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Infectious disease, organism-specific biosystem
      Infectious disease
    • Inflammatory Response Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Inflammatory Response Pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      Inflammatory Response Pathway
    • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
    • Intestinal immune network for IgA production, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Intestinal immune network for IgA production, organism-specific biosystemThe intestine is the largest lymphoid tissue in the body. One striking feature of intestinal immunity is its ability to generate great amounts of noninflammatory immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies tha...
    • Intestinal immune network for IgA production, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Intestinal immune network for IgA production, conserved biosystemThe intestine is the largest lymphoid tissue in the body. One striking feature of intestinal immunity is its ability to generate great amounts of noninflammatory immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies tha...
    • Measles, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Measles, organism-specific biosystemMeasles virus (MV) is highly contagious virus that leads infant death worldwide. Humans are the unique natural reservoir for this virus. It causes severe immunosuppression favouring secondary bacteri...
    • Measles, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Measles, conserved biosystemMeasles virus (MV) is highly contagious virus that leads infant death worldwide. Humans are the unique natural reservoir for this virus. It causes severe immunosuppression favouring secondary bacteri...
    • NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemTrk receptors signal from the plasma membrane and from intracellular membranes, particularly from early endosomes. Signalling from the plasma membrane is fast but transient; signalling from endosomes...
    • Nef mediated downregulation of CD28 cell surface expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Nef mediated downregulation of CD28 cell surface expression, organism-specific biosystemDown-regulation of CD28 receptors involves a dileucine-based motif in the second disordered loop of Nef, which connects Nef to adaptor protein (AP) complex, which is a part of cellular endocytosis ma...
    • Nef-mediates down modulation of cell surface receptors by recruiting them to clathrin adapters, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Nef-mediates down modulation of cell surface receptors by recruiting them to clathrin adapters, organism-specific biosystemThe maximal virulence of HIV-1 requires Nef, a virally encoded peripheral membrane protein. Nef binds to the adaptor protein (AP) complexes of coated vesicles, inducing an expansion of the endosomal ...
    • Negative regulation of the PI3K/AKT network, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Negative regulation of the PI3K/AKT network, organism-specific biosystemThe PI3K/AKT network is negatively regulated by phosphatases that dephosphorylate PIP3, thus hampering AKT activation.
    • PI3K/AKT Signaling in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      PI3K/AKT Signaling in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemClass IA PI3K is a heterodimer of a p85 regulatory subunit (encoded by PIK3R1, PIK3R2 or PIK3R3) and a p110 catalytic subunit (encoded by PIK3CA, PIK3CB or PIK3CD). In the absence of activating signa...
    • PI3K/AKT activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      PI3K/AKT activation, organism-specific biosystemPI3K/AKT signalling is a major regulator of neuron survival. It blocks cell death by both impinging on the cytoplasmic cell death machinery and by regulating the expression of genes involved in cell...
    • PI5P, PP2A and IER3 Regulate PI3K/AKT Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      PI5P, PP2A and IER3 Regulate PI3K/AKT Signaling, organism-specific biosystemPhosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate (PI5P) may modulate PI3K/AKT signaling in several ways. PI5P is used as a substrate for production of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, PI(4,5)P2 (Rameh et al. 1...
    • PIP3 activates AKT signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      PIP3 activates AKT signaling, organism-specific biosystemSignaling by AKT is one of the key outcomes of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation. AKT is activated by the cellular second messenger PIP3, a phospholipid that is generated by PI3K. In ustimula...
    • Rheumatoid arthritis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Rheumatoid arthritis, organism-specific biosystemRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune joint disease where persistent inflammation affects bone remodeling leading to progressive bone destruction. In RA, abnormal activation of the immune...
    • Rheumatoid arthritis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Rheumatoid arthritis, conserved biosystemRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune joint disease where persistent inflammation affects bone remodeling leading to progressive bone destruction. In RA, abnormal activation of the immune...
    • Role of LAT2/NTAL/LAB on calcium mobilization, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Role of LAT2/NTAL/LAB on calcium mobilization, organism-specific biosystemThe lipid raft resident adaptor molecules LAT1 and Non-T cell activation linker (NTAL), also known as linker for activation of B cells (LAB)/LAT2 are known participants in the regulation of mast cell...
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystemThe epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one member of the ERBB family of transmembrane glycoprotein tyrosine receptor kinases (RTK). Binding of EGFR to its ligands induces conformational chang...
    • Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet-derived Growth Factor (PDGF) is a potent stimulator of growth and motility of connective tissue cells such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells as well as other cells such as capillary end...
    • Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystemStem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor with membrane bound and soluble forms. It is expressed by fibroblasts and endothelial cells throughout the body, promoting proliferation, migration, survival...
    • Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystemMature B cells express IgM and IgD immunoglobulins which are complexed at the plasma membrane with Ig-alpha (CD79A, MB-1) and Ig-beta (CD79B, B29) to form the B cell receptor (BCR) (Fu et al. 1974, F...
    • Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4/5) play pivotal roles in survival, differentiation, and plasticity of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. They are produced, and secreted in mi...
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Systemic lupus erythematosus, organism-specific biosystemSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease characterised by the production of IgG autoantibodies that are specific for self-antigens, such as DNA, nuclear proteins and cert...
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Systemic lupus erythematosus, conserved biosystemSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease characterised by the production of IgG autoantibodies that are specific for self-antigens, such as DNA, nuclear proteins and cert...
    • T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
    • T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
    • T-Cell Receptor and Co-stimulatory Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      T-Cell Receptor and Co-stimulatory Signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe activation and translocation of transcription factors NFAT, AP-1 and NF-kappa-B via the co-stimulatory signaling cascade triggered by MHC peptide, B7 proteins and PD-L1. The activation of NFAT in...
    • T-Cell antigen Receptor (TCR) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      T-Cell antigen Receptor (TCR) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) complex is composed of a ligand-binding subunit, the ? and ? chains, and a signaling subunit, namely the CD3?, ? and ? chains and the TCR? chain. This complex partic...
    • T-Cell antigen Receptor (TCR) pathway during Staphylococcus aureus infection, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      T-Cell antigen Receptor (TCR) pathway during Staphylococcus aureus infection, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is based on Figure 4 of "A Model of an Integrated Immune System Pathway in Homo sapiens and Its Interaction with Superantigen Producing Expression Regulatory Pathway in Staphylococcus au...
    • TCR signaling in naive CD4+ T cells, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      TCR signaling in naive CD4+ T cells, organism-specific biosystem
      TCR signaling in naive CD4+ T cells
    • TCR signaling in naive CD8+ T cells, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      TCR signaling in naive CD8+ T cells, organism-specific biosystem
      TCR signaling in naive CD8+ T cells
    • The role of Nef in HIV-1 replication and disease pathogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      The role of Nef in HIV-1 replication and disease pathogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThe HIV-1 Nef protein is a 27-kDa myristoylated protein that is abundantly produced during the early phase of viral replication cycle. It is highly conserved in all primate lentiviruses, suggesting t...
    • Type I diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Type I diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystemType I diabetes mellitus is a disease that results from autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta-cells. Certain beta-cell proteins act as autoantigens after being processed by antigen-pre...
    • Type I diabetes mellitus, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Type I diabetes mellitus, conserved biosystemType I diabetes mellitus is a disease that results from autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta-cells. Certain beta-cell proteins act as autoantigens after being processed by antigen-pre...
    • Viral myocarditis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Viral myocarditis, organism-specific biosystemMyocarditis is a cardiac disease associated with inflammation and injury of the myocardium. It results from various etiologies, both noninfectious and infectious, but coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is stil...
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Clone Names

    • MGC138290

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    SH3/SH2 adaptor activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    coreceptor activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    identical protein binding NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    protease binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein kinase binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    T cell costimulation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    T cell receptor signaling pathway IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    apoptotic signaling pathway IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cell surface receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytokine biosynthetic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    humoral immune response TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of gene expression IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative thymic T cell selection IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    phosphatidylinositol phosphorylation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    phosphatidylinositol-mediated signaling TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    positive regulation of T cell proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of T cell proliferation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of T cell proliferation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of alpha-beta T cell proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of gene expression IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of interleukin-10 production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of interleukin-2 biosynthetic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of interleukin-2 biosynthetic process ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of interleukin-4 production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of isotype switching to IgG isotypes IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of translation NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of viral genome replication NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of defense response to virus by virus TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    regulatory T cell differentiation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    cell surface IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    external side of plasma membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    immunological synapse IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    integral component of plasma membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    plasma membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    plasma membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    protein complex involved in cell adhesion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Preferred Names
    T-cell-specific surface glycoprotein CD28
    Names
    CD28 antigen

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_029618.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5001..37438
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001243077.1NP_001230006.1  T-cell-specific surface glycoprotein CD28 isoform 2 precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001230006.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate, in-frame donor splice site at one of the coding exons compared to variant 1. This results in a shorter isoform (2) missing an internal protein segment compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AA311148, AC125238, AF222341, AK303421, AW241446, BF509568, DA939711, J02988
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P10747
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      B4E0L1
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cl11960
      Location:2142
      Ig; Immunoglobulin domain
    2. NM_001243078.1NP_001230007.1  T-cell-specific surface glycoprotein CD28 isoform 3 precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001230007.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (3) lacks an in-frame coding exon compared to variant 1. This results in a shorter isoform (3) missing an internal protein segment compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AA311148, AC125238, AF222342, AK303421, AW241446, BF509568, DA939711, J02988
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS58749.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P10747
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      B4E0L1
      Related
      ENSP00000363605.4, ENST00000374481.7
    3. NM_006139.3NP_006130.1  T-cell-specific surface glycoprotein CD28 isoform 1 precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_006130.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the predominant transcript, and encodes the longest isoform (1).
      Source sequence(s)
      AA311148, AC125238, AK292986, AW241446, BF509568, DA939711, J02988
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS2361.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P10747
      Related
      ENSP00000324890.7, OTTHUMP00000163782, ENST00000324106.8, OTTHUMT00000256366
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd05721
      Location:21136
      IgV_CTLA-4; Immunoglobulin (Ig) domain of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4)

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...Open this link in a new tab

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000002.12 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

      Range
      203706475..203739756
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_011512194.2XP_011510496.1  T-cell-specific surface glycoprotein CD28 isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011510496.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P10747
      Related
      ENSP00000393648.2, OTTHUMP00000206300, ENST00000458610.6, OTTHUMT00000336359
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd05721
      Location:35150
      IgV_CTLA-4; Immunoglobulin (Ig) domain of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4)
    2. XM_011512195.2XP_011510497.1  T-cell-specific surface glycoprotein CD28 isoform X2

      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cl11960
      Location:3561
      Ig; Immunoglobulin domain
    3. XM_011512197.2XP_011510499.1  T-cell-specific surface glycoprotein CD28 isoform X3

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011510499.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P10747
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cl11960
      Location:2147
      Ig; Immunoglobulin domain

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018913.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      204577787..204610219
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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