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    S100B S100 calcium binding protein B [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 6285, updated on 19-Nov-2017
    Official Symbol
    S100Bprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    S100 calcium binding protein Bprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:10500
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000160307 MIM:176990; Vega:OTTHUMG00000090715
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    NEF; S100; S100-B; S100beta
    Summary
    The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21; however, this gene is located at 21q22.3. This protein may function in Neurite extension, proliferation of melanoma cells, stimulation of Ca2+ fluxes, inhibition of PKC-mediated phosphorylation, astrocytosis and axonal proliferation, and inhibition of microtubule assembly. Chromosomal rearrangements and altered expression of this gene have been implicated in several neurological, neoplastic, and other types of diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Down's syndrome, epilepsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, melanoma, and type I diabetes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
    Orthologs
    Location:
    21q22.3
    Exon count:
    3
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 21 NC_000021.9 (46598618..46605242, complement)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 21 NC_000021.8 (48018531..48025035, complement)

    Chromosome 21 - NC_000021.9Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene DIP2A intronic transcript 1 Neighboring gene disco interacting protein 2 homolog A Neighboring gene RNA, U6 small nuclear 396, pseudogene Neighboring gene protein arginine methyltransferase 2 Neighboring gene destrin, actin depolymerizing factor pseudogene 1 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L23a pseudogene 4

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

    Related articles in PubMed

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    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr upregulates the gene expression of S100B in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    • Activated TLR4 signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Activated TLR4 signalling, organism-specific biosystemTLR4 is unique among the TLR family in its ability to recruit four adapters to activate two distinct signaling pathways. One pathway is activated by the pair of the adapters Mal or TIRAP (Toll/inter...
    • Advanced glycosylation endproduct receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Advanced glycosylation endproduct receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystemAdvanced Glycosylation End- product-specific Receptor (AGER) also known as Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products (RAGE) is a multi-ligand membrane receptor belonging to the immunoglobulin supe...
    • Cytosolic sensors of pathogen-associated DNA, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Cytosolic sensors of pathogen-associated DNA, organism-specific biosystemPresence of pathogen-associated DNA in cytosol induces type I IFN production. Several intracellular receptors have been implicated to some degree. These include DNA-dependent activator of interferon ...
    • DEx/H-box helicases activate type I IFN and inflammatory cytokines production, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      DEx/H-box helicases activate type I IFN and inflammatory cytokines production, organism-specific biosystemDHX36 and DHX9 are aspartate-glutamate-any amino acid aspartate/histidine (DExD/H) box helicase (DHX) proteins that localize in the cytosol. The DHX RNA helicases family includes a large number of pr...
    • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
    • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
    • MyD88 cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MyD88 cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemMammalian myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is Toll/interleukin (IL)-1 (TIR)-domain containing adapter protein which plays crucial role in TLR signaling. All TLRs, with only one exception of...
    • MyD88 dependent cascade initiated on endosome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MyD88 dependent cascade initiated on endosome, organism-specific biosystemUpon binding of their ligands, TLR7/8 and TLR9 recruit a cytoplasmic adaptor MyD88 and IRAKs, downstream of which the signaling pathways are divided to induce either inflammatory cytokines or type I ...
    • MyD88-independent TLR3/TLR4 cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MyD88-independent TLR3/TLR4 cascade, organism-specific biosystemMyD88-independent signaling pathway is shared by TLR3 and TLR4 cascades. TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-beta (TRIF or TICAM1) is a key adapter molecule in transducing signals from ...
    • MyD88:Mal cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MyD88:Mal cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemThe first known downstream component of TLR4 and TLR2 signaling is the adaptor MyD88. Another adapter MyD88-adaptor-like (Mal; also known as TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein or TIRAP) has also b...
    • Nuclear signaling by ERBB4, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Nuclear signaling by ERBB4, organism-specific biosystemBesides signaling as a transmembrane receptor, ligand activated homodimers of ERBB4 JM-A isoforms (ERBB4 JM-A CYT1 and ERBB4 JM-A CYT2) undergo proteolytic cleavage by ADAM17 (TACE) in the juxtamembr...
    • RIG-I/MDA5 mediated induction of IFN-alpha/beta pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RIG-I/MDA5 mediated induction of IFN-alpha/beta pathways, organism-specific biosystemRIG-I-like helicases (RLHs) the retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation associated gene 5 (MDA5) are RNA helicases that recognize viral RNA present within the cytoplasm. F...
    • RIP-mediated NFkB activation via ZBP1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RIP-mediated NFkB activation via ZBP1, organism-specific biosystemOverexpression of human or murine ZBP1 (DAI) in human embryonic kidney 293T cells (HEK293T) activated NF-kB-dependent promoter in a dose-dependent manner. Two RHIM-contaning kinases RIP1 and RIP3 are...
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signaling by ERBB4, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by ERBB4, organism-specific biosystemERBB4, also known as HER4, belongs to the ERBB family of receptors, which also includes ERBB1 (EGFR i.e. HER1), ERBB2 (HER2 i.e. NEU) and ERBB3 (HER3). Similar to EGFR, ERBB4 has an extracellular lig...
    • TAK1 activates NFkB by phosphorylation and activation of IKKs complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      TAK1 activates NFkB by phosphorylation and activation of IKKs complex, organism-specific biosystemNF-kappaB is sequestered in the cytoplasm in a complex with inhibitor of NF-kappaB (IkB). Almost all NF-kappaB activation pathways are mediated by IkB kinase (IKK), which phosphorylates IkB resulting...
    • TRAF6 mediated NF-kB activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      TRAF6 mediated NF-kB activation, organism-specific biosystemThe TRAF6/TAK1 signal activates a canonical IKK complex, resulting in the activation of NF-kB as well as MAPK cascades leading to the activation of AP-1. Although TRAF6/TAK1 has been implicated in To...
    • TRAF6 mediated induction of NFkB and MAP kinases upon TLR7/8 or 9 activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      TRAF6 mediated induction of NFkB and MAP kinases upon TLR7/8 or 9 activation, organism-specific biosystemTRAF6 mediates NFkB activation via canonical phosphorylation of IKK complex by TAK1. TRAF6 and TAK1 also regulate MAPK cascades leading to the activation of AP-1.
    • TRIF-mediated TLR3/TLR4 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      TRIF-mediated TLR3/TLR4 signaling, organism-specific biosystemTRIF(TICAM1) was shown to induce IRF3/7 and NF-?B activation and apoptosis through distinct intracellular signaling pathways [Han KJ et al 2004; Kaiser WJ and Offermann MK et al 2005]. TRIF consists...
    • Toll Like Receptor 10 (TLR10) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 10 (TLR10) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemLittle is known about TLR10 ligands. It has been established that the receptor homodimerizes upon binding and signals in an MyD88-dependent manner (Hasan U et al 2005; Nyman T et al 2008). It may als...
    • Toll Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR2 is involved in recognition of peptidoglycan from gram-positive bacteria, bacterial lipoproteins, mycoplasma lipoprotein and mycobacterial products. It is quite possible that recognition of at le...
    • Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemToll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) as was shown for mammals is expressed on myeloid dendritic cells, respiratory epithelium, macrophages, and appears to play a central role in mediating the antiviral and in...
    • Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemToll-like Receptor 4 is a Microbe Associated Molecular Pattern receptor well known for it's sensitivity to Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS is assembled within diverse Gram-negative bacteria,...
    • Toll Like Receptor 5 (TLR5) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 5 (TLR5) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR5 is the receptor for flagellin, the protein that forms bacterial flagella. Unlike most other Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs), flagellin does not undergo any posttranslational modif...
    • Toll Like Receptor 7/8 (TLR7/8) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 7/8 (TLR7/8) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemRNA can serve as a danger signal, both in its double-stranded form (that is associated with viral infection), as well as single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). Specifically, guanosine (G)- and uridine (U)-rich...
    • Toll Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemCpG DNA is an unusual Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP). Cytosine methylation exists in mammalian but not bacterial cells, and most (but not all) CpG in the mammalian genome is methylated....
    • Toll Like Receptor TLR1:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor TLR1:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR1 is expressed by monocytes. TLR1 and TLR2 cotranslationally form heterodimeric complexes on the cell surface and in the cytosol. The TLR2:TLR1 complex recognizes Neisserial PorB and Mycobacterial...
    • Toll Like Receptor TLR6:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor TLR6:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR2 and TLR4 recognize different bacterial cell wall components. While TLR4 is trained onto Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide components, TLR2 - in combination with TLR6 - plays a major role in recog...
    • Toll-Like Receptors Cascades, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll-Like Receptors Cascades, organism-specific biosystemIn human, ten members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family (TLR1-TLR10) have been identified (TLR11 has been found in mouse, but not in human). All TLRs have a similar Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) doma...
    • ZBP1(DAI) mediated induction of type I IFNs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      ZBP1(DAI) mediated induction of type I IFNs, organism-specific biosystemZ-DNA-binding protein-1 (ZBP1), also known as, DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI) was reported to initiate innate immune responses in murine L929 cells upon stimulation by multip...
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    RAGE receptor binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    S100 protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    calcium ion binding NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    calcium-dependent protein binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    identical protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein homodimerization activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein homodimerization activity IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    tau protein binding ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    zinc ion binding ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    astrocyte differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    axonogenesis TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    cell proliferation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to hypoxia IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    central nervous system development TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    innate immune response TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    learning or memory ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    long-term synaptic potentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    memory IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of skeletal muscle cell differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of apoptotic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of cell proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of myelination IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    regulation of cell shape IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    regulation of neuronal synaptic plasticity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to glucocorticoid IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to methylmercury IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytoplasm ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular space IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    neuronal cell body IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    nucleus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    perinuclear region of cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    ruffle IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Preferred Names
    protein S100-B
    Names
    S-100 calcium-binding protein, beta chain
    S-100 protein subunit beta
    S100 calcium-binding protein, beta (neural)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_006272.2NP_006263.1  protein S100-B

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_006263.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AA310307, AP000339, BC001766, EB386131
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS13736.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P04271
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A0S2Z4C5
      Related
      ENSP00000291700.4, OTTHUMP00000115888, ENST00000291700.8, OTTHUMT00000207427
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd05027
      Location:289
      S-100B; S-100B: S-100B domain found in proteins similar to S100B. S100B is a calcium-binding protein belonging to a large S100 vertebrate-specific protein family within the EF-hand superfamily of calcium-binding proteins. Note that the S-100 hierarchy, to which ...

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000021.9 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

      Range
      46598618..46605242 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_017028424.1XP_016883913.1  protein S100-B isoform X1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P04271
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A0S2Z4C5
      Related
      ENSP00000380769.1, OTTHUMP00000174958, ENST00000397648.1, OTTHUMT00000207429
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd05027
      Location:289
      S-100B; S-100B: S-100B domain found in proteins similar to S100B. S100B is a calcium-binding protein belonging to a large S100 vertebrate-specific protein family within the EF-hand superfamily of calcium-binding proteins. Note that the S-100 hierarchy, to which ...

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018932.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      47579370..47585892 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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