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    IL2 interleukin 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 3558, updated on 20-Feb-2017
    Official Symbol
    IL2provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    interleukin 2provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:6001
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000109471 MIM:147680; Vega:OTTHUMG00000133075
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    IL-2; TCGF; lymphokine
    Summary
    The protein encoded by this gene is a secreted cytokine that is important for the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes. The receptor of this cytokine is a heterotrimeric protein complex whose gamma chain is also shared by interleukin 4 (IL4) and interleukin 7 (IL7). The expression of this gene in mature thymocytes is monoallelic, which represents an unusual regulatory mode for controlling the precise expression of a single gene. The targeted disruption of a similar gene in mice leads to ulcerative colitis-like disease, which suggests an essential role of this gene in the immune response to antigenic stimuli. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
    Orthologs
    Location:
    4q27
    Exon count:
    5
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 4 NC_000004.12 (122449479..122456495, complement)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 4 NC_000004.11 (123372625..123377650, complement)

    Chromosome 4 - NC_000004.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene KIAA1109 Neighboring gene adenosine deaminase domain containing 1 Neighboring gene IL21 antisense RNA 1 Neighboring gene interleukin 21 Neighboring gene Bardet-Biedl syndrome 12 Neighboring gene centrin 4, pseudogene

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    NHGRI GWAS Catalog

    Description
    A genome-wide association study for celiac disease identifies risk variants in the region harboring IL2 and IL21.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    A genome-wide meta-analysis of genetic variants associated with allergic rhinitis and grass sensitization and their interaction with birth order.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genetics of rheumatoid arthritis contributes to biology and drug discovery.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genome-wide association analysis of autoantibody positivity in type 1 diabetes cases.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genome-wide association study and meta-analysis find that over 40 loci affect risk of type 1 diabetes.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genome-wide association study in alopecia areata implicates both innate and adaptive immunity.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genome-wide association study meta-analysis identifies seven new rheumatoid arthritis risk loci.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genome-wide association study of celiac disease in North America confirms FRMD4B as new celiac locus.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Host-microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Identification of common variants influencing risk of the tauopathy progressive supranuclear palsy.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Meta-analysis identifies 29 additional ulcerative colitis risk loci, increasing the number of confirmed associations to 47.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies ten loci influencing allergic sensitization.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Multiple common variants for celiac disease influencing immune gene expression.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Newly identified genetic risk variants for celiac disease related to the immune response.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Asp asp ASP-YL9 peptide (89YLYNSLLQL97) induces release of IL-2, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, or MIP-1beta in antigen-specific CD8+ T-cells PubMed
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 gp120-treated myeloid dendritic cell (mDC) downregulates IL-2 and IFN-gamma production compared to LPS-treated mDC PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 upregulates IL2 secretion in TZM-bl cells PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 exerts a dose-dependent reduction of IL-2 mRNA expression, IL-2 production, and surface IL-2 receptor expression in CD4+ lymphocytes PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120-specific cell mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) is enhanced by IL-2 or the combination of IL-2 and IFN-alpha PubMed
    env Secretion of IL-2 and IFN-gamma stimulated with anti-CD3 antibodies is inhibited by HIV-1 gp120 in T cell lines PubMed
    env Binding of HIV-1 gp120 to CD4 downregulates Bcl-2 protein in CD4+ T lymphocytes and facilitates Fas/Fas-ligand triggered apoptosis; addition of IL-2 rescues CD4+ T cells from CD4/gp120-induced Bcl-2 down modulation and apoptosis induction PubMed
    env CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 gp120 proteins suppress the ability of NK cells to proliferate in the presence of IL-2 PubMed
    env IL-2-induced activation of JAK/STAT5 in human CD4+ T cells is inhibited by HIV-1 gp120 and anti-CD4 antibodies PubMed
    env In the presence of HIV-1 gp120, stimulation through the CD28 pathway partially restores IL-2 and IFN-gamma production by T cell lines in response to anti-CD3 antibodies PubMed
    env Proliferative responses of lymphocytes to cytomegalovirus are inhibited by relatively high concentrations (greater than or equal to 10 micrograms/ml) of recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein and this immunosuppression is completely overcome by IL2 PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 and anti-CD4 antibodies induce a specific, significant decrease in the binding activity of NF-AT, NF-kappa B and AP-1, which leads to an inhibition of IL-2 production and cell proliferation PubMed
    env Molecular interactions of CD2 with LFA-3 and CD28 with B7-1 in conjunction with TCR occupancy prevent T cells from programmed apoptosis mediated by binding of CD4 to HIV-1 gp120, resulting in increased levels of IL-2 and IL-4 secretion from the T cells PubMed
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env Pretreatment of CD4+ cells with HIV-1 gp160 significantly reduces PHA-induced secretion of IFN-gamma and IL-2 but augments IL-4 production PubMed
    Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env HIV-1 gp41 or gp120 synthetic peptides induce the production of interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF); in contrast, gp41 or gp120 synthetic peptides are able to depress the production of interferon (IFN)-alpha, IFN-gamma, and IL-2 PubMed
    env An HIV-1 gp41 peptide (amino acid residues 581-597) inhibits both protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent interleukin 2 (IL 2) production and the [Ca2+]i influx-dependent but PKC-independent induction of IL 2 receptor expression PubMed
    Nef nef HIV-1 Nef-mediated CTLA-4 downregulation is associated with upregulation of IL-2 production in infected primary CD4+ T-cells PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef upregulates IL2 secretion when Jurkat cells are stimulated with both CD3 and CD28 PubMed
    nef Primary quiescent CD4+ T lymphocytes release both TNF-alpha and IL-2 in response to the treatment with exosomes from cells infected by HIV-1, but not by delta-Nef HIV-1 or Nef (62EEEE/AAAA65) HIV-1 strains PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef induces the production of IL-2 and interferon-gamma in human T cells PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef increases IL-2 secretion when Jurkat and primary human CD4 T cells are stimulated through the T cell receptor and the co-stimulus receptor (CD28); this effect depends on Nef myristoylation PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef inhibits the induction of interleukin 2-directed gene expression PubMed
    nef The overall level of IL2 secretion in HIV-1/SIV chimeric Nef expressing cells is higher than that in HIV-1 Nef expressing cells, suggesting that the N-terminal half of Nef harbors molecular determinants that are responsible for T-cell activation PubMed
    nef The upregulation of IL2 is impaired by HIV-1 Nef in sub-optimally activated/resting T cells PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef can facilitate HIV-1 replication in human lymphoid tissue ex vivo by increasing the numbers of productively infected cells and by increasing the responsiveness to IL-2 stimulation PubMed
    nef Upon TcR triggering with antigens, HIV-1 Nef specifically downregulates IL-2 and interferon-gamma production in human T cells PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef suppresses the IL-2-dependent proliferation of CD4+ cells; this suppression is due to the enhanced production of several lymphokines, including interferon-gamma PubMed
    Tat tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates IL-2 and IFN-gamma production in stimulated CD8+ T cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates IL-2 expression in activated T-cells and Jurkat T-cells through activation of the IL-2 promoter, an effect involving NF-kappa B, NFAT, and cyclic nucleoside phosphodiesterase 4 PubMed
    tat Four mutations (C27S, K51T, R55L, and G79A) on HIV-1 Tat result in the loss of the deleterious effects of Tat on the expression of MHC I, IL-2, and CD25 genes compared with wild-type Tat in Jurkat cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat downregulates IL-2 expression in Jurkat T-cells stably transfected with Tat, H9 T-cells, as well as other T-cells, through an effect on the rel/AP1 complex and IL-2 promoter, resulting in functional unresponsiveness in T-cells PubMed
    tat Treatment of T lymphocytes with IL-2, IL-6 and TNFalpha increases CDK9 and cyclin T1 protein levels, suggesting a mechanism for activation of HIV-1 Tat function and reactivation of HIV-1 in CD4+ T lymphocytes harboring a latent provirus PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat downregulates IL-2 expression in T-cells by inhibiting CD26 which interferes with the delivery or amplification of a signal necessary for IL-2 production PubMed
    Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr upregulates the gene expression of IL-2 in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr suppresses expression of IL-2 through suppression of NF-kappa B activity via the induction of I kappa B alpha PubMed
    capsid gag PLA-p24- or p24-loaded human monocyte-derived dendritic cells enhance HIV-1-specific T-cell response by increased levels of IFN-gamma and IL-2 in comparison with PLA-loaded cells alone PubMed
    gag Levels of p24 are significantly higher in cell cultures from HIV-1-exposed infants compared to healthy controls after immune activation by IL-2 or GM-CSF PubMed
    gag Unactivated memory CD4+ T cells infected by HIV-1 in the presence of IL-2 and IL-15 alone or IL-6/IL-7/TNF-alpha combination, upregulate granzyme B and HIV-1 CA production PubMed
    gag IL-2 enhances HIV-1 p24 Gag expression in STAT5delta silenced CD8-depleted PBMCs of HIV-positive individuals PubMed
    gag IFN-gamma and/or IL-2 responses characterized by secreting cells contribute more to the HIV-1 CA specific response in acute infection early disease (AIED) than in chronically infected individuals PubMed
    integrase gag-pol Treatment of resting CD4+ T cells with cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, or IL15 enhances HIV-1 IN mutant D116N to generate de novo virus production PubMed
    matrix gag HIV-1 matrix protein colocalizes with syndecan-2, syndecan-4, and CD44v3 on activated CD4+ T cells to modulate TNF-alpha and IL2 production PubMed
    gag IL-2-induced down modulation of CD28 is completely prevented by p17 MA, and cells derived from p17-stimulated cultures show a strong Tc1 polarization PubMed
    gag HIV-1 Matrix upregulates levels of IL-2, IL-12 and IL-15 in natural killer cells and induces natural killer cell proliferation PubMed
    gag HIV-1 Matrix enhances lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 induced production of interferon gamma and TNF-alpha PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

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    • Calcium signaling in the CD4+ TCR pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
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    • Graft-versus-host disease, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Graft-versus-host disease, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • IL2 signaling events mediated by STAT5, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
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    • IL2-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
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    • IL23-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
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      NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth, organism-specific biosystemThe neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and is involved in a variety of cellular processes of importance for the formation and maintenance of the n...
    • NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemTrk receptors signal from the plasma membrane and from intracellular membranes, particularly from early endosomes. Signalling from the plasma membrane is fast but transient; signalling from endosomes...
    • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
    • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
    • Photodynamic therapy-induced AP-1 survival signaling., organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Photodynamic therapy-induced AP-1 survival signaling., organism-specific biosystemPhotodynamic therapy may induce an acute stress response mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (MAP3K5), its downstream MAPKs that target c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, MAPK8) a...
    • Photodynamic therapy-induced NF-kB survival signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Photodynamic therapy-induced NF-kB survival signaling, organism-specific biosystemPhotodynamic therapy may induce a pro-inflammatory and angiogenic response mediated by NF-?B.
    • Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet activation begins with the initial binding of adhesive ligands and of the excitatory platelet agonists (released or generated at the sites of vascular trauma) to cognate receptors on the pla...
    • Prolonged ERK activation events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Prolonged ERK activation events, organism-specific biosystemAfter NGF binding, activated Trk receptors provide multiple docking sites for adaptor proteins and enzymes. Two docking proteins, the Ankyrin-Rich Membrane Spanning protein (ARMS/Kidins220) and Fibro...
    • RAF/MAP kinase cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RAF/MAP kinase cascade, organism-specific biosystemThe RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway regulates processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, senescence and cell motility in response to growth factors, hormones and cytokines, among others. Bin...
    • RET signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RET signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe RET proto-oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed primarily in urogenital precursor cells, spermatogonocytes, dopaminergic neurons, motor neurons and neural crest progenitors and de...
    • Regulation of Telomerase, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Regulation of Telomerase, organism-specific biosystem
      Regulation of Telomerase
    • SHC1 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      SHC1 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystemGRB2 can bind EGFR directly or through another SH2-containing protein, SHC1. This association leads to RAS activation.
    • SOS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      SOS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemSOS is recruited to the plasma membrane and mediates activation of Ras.
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystemThe epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one member of the ERBB family of transmembrane glycoprotein tyrosine receptor kinases (RTK). Binding of EGFR to its ligands induces conformational chang...
    • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
    • Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in receptor autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues and the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (e.g. IRS and Shc) by the insulin receptor...
    • Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystemInterleukins are low molecular weight proteins that bind to cell surface receptors and act in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion. They were first identified as factors produced by leukocytes but a...
    • Signaling by Leptin, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Leptin, organism-specific biosystemLeptin (LEP, OB, OBS), a circulating adipokine, and its receptor LEPR (DB, OBR) control food intake and energy balance and are implicated in obesity-related diseases (recently reviewed in Amitani et ...
    • Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet-derived Growth Factor (PDGF) is a potent stimulator of growth and motility of connective tissue cells such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells as well as other cells such as capillary end...
    • Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystemStem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor with membrane bound and soluble forms. It is expressed by fibroblasts and endothelial cells throughout the body, promoting proliferation, migration, survival...
    • Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystemBinding of IGF1 (IGF-I) or IGF2 (IGF-II) to the extracellular alpha peptides of the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) triggers the activation of two major signaling pathways: the SOS...
    • Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystemIn normal development vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are crucial regulators of vascular development during embryogenesis (vasculogenesis) and blood-vessel formation in the adult (angioge...
    • Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4/5) play pivotal roles in survival, differentiation, and plasticity of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. They are produced, and secreted in mi...
    • Signalling to ERKs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling to ERKs, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins utilize multiple pathways to activate ERKs (ERK1 and ERK2), a subgroup of the large MAP kinase (MAPK) family, from the plasma membrane. The major signalling pathways to ERKs are via RAS...
    • Signalling to RAS, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling to RAS, organism-specific biosystemSignalling through Shc adaptor proteins appears to be identical for both NGF and EGF. It leads to a fast, but transient, MAPK/ERK activation, which is insufficient to explain the prolonged activation...
    • Signalling to p38 via RIT and RIN, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling to p38 via RIT and RIN, organism-specific biosystemRIT and RIN are two small guanine nucleotide binding proteins that share more than 50% sequence identity with RAS, including highly conserved core effector domains. Unlike RAS, the C termini of RIT a...
    • Spinal Cord Injury, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Spinal Cord Injury, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway provides an overview of cell types, therapeutic targets, drugs, new proposed targets and pathways implicated in spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is a complex multistep process that...
    • T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
    • T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
    • T-Cell Receptor and Co-stimulatory Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      T-Cell Receptor and Co-stimulatory Signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe activation and translocation of transcription factors NFAT, AP-1 and NF-kappa-B via the co-stimulatory signaling cascade triggered by MHC peptide, B7 proteins and PD-L1. The activation of NFAT in...
    • T-Cell antigen Receptor (TCR) pathway during Staphylococcus aureus infection, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      T-Cell antigen Receptor (TCR) pathway during Staphylococcus aureus infection, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is based on Figure 4 of "A Model of an Integrated Immune System Pathway in Homo sapiens and Its Interaction with Superantigen Producing Expression Regulatory Pathway in Staphylococcus au...
    • Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation, organism-specific biosystemImmunity to different classes of microorganisms is orchestrated by separate lineages of effector T helper (TH)-cells, which differentiate from naive CD4+ precursor cells in response to cues provided ...
    • Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation, conserved biosystemImmunity to different classes of microorganisms is orchestrated by separate lineages of effector T helper (TH)-cells, which differentiate from naive CD4+ precursor cells in response to cues provided ...
    • Th17 cell differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Th17 cell differentiation, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin (IL)-17-producing helper T (Th17) cells serve as a subset of CD4+ T cells involved in epithelial cell- and neutrophil mediated immune responses against extracellular microbes and in the p...
    • Th17 cell differentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Th17 cell differentiation, conserved biosystemInterleukin (IL)-17-producing helper T (Th17) cells serve as a subset of CD4+ T cells involved in epithelial cell- and neutrophil mediated immune responses against extracellular microbes and in the p...
    • Type I diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Type I diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystemType I diabetes mellitus is a disease that results from autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta-cells. Certain beta-cell proteins act as autoantigens after being processed by antigen-pre...
    • Type I diabetes mellitus, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Type I diabetes mellitus, conserved biosystemType I diabetes mellitus is a disease that results from autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta-cells. Certain beta-cell proteins act as autoantigens after being processed by antigen-pre...
    • VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystemAngiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vasculature. One of the most important proangiogenic factors is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF exerts its biologic...
    • VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation, organism-specific biosystemVEGFR2 stimulates ERK not via GRB2-SOS-RAS, but via pY1175-dependent phosphorylation of PLC gamma and subsequent activation of PKCs. PKC plays an important mediatory role in the proliferative Ras/Raf...
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    Ras guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    carbohydrate binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cytokine activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    glycosphingolipid binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    growth factor activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    interleukin-2 receptor binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    interleukin-2 receptor binding TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    kappa-type opioid receptor binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    kinase activator activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    MAPK cascade TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    T cell differentiation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    adaptive immune response IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cell adhesion TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    cell-cell signaling TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    immune response TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    natural killer cell activation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of B cell apoptotic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of apoptotic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of heart contraction IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of inflammatory response IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of lymphocyte proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of protein phosphorylation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of B cell proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of GTPase activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cell growth TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cell proliferation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of dendritic spine development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of immunoglobulin secretion IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of inflammatory response IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of interferon-gamma production IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of interleukin-17 production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of isotype switching to IgG isotypes IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of tissue remodeling IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 protein IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein kinase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    regulation of T cell homeostatic proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to ethanol IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular space TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    intracellular IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Preferred Names
    interleukin-2
    Names
    T cell growth factor
    aldesleukin
    involved in regulation of T-cell clonal expansion

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_016779.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5001..10026
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_000586.3NP_000577.2  interleukin-2 precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000577.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      BC070338, X01586
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS3726.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P60568
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      Q0GK43
      Related
      ENSP00000226730, OTTHUMP00000164090, ENST00000226730, OTTHUMT00000256715
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      pfam00715
      Location:7150
      IL2; Interleukin 2

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...Open this link in a new tab

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000004.12 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

      Range
      122449479..122456495 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_017008177.1XP_016863666.1  interleukin-2 isoform X1

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018915.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      123349113..123354138 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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