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    GDF15 growth differentiation factor 15 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 9518, updated on 19-Nov-2017
    Official Symbol
    GDF15provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    growth differentiation factor 15provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:30142
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000130513 MIM:605312; Vega:OTTHUMG00000183360
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    PDF; MIC1; PLAB; MIC-1; NAG-1; PTGFB; GDF-15
    Summary
    This gene encodes a secreted ligand of the TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) superfamily of proteins. Ligands of this family bind various TGF-beta receptors leading to recruitment and activation of SMAD family transcription factors that regulate gene expression. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate each subunit of the disulfide-linked homodimer. The protein is expressed in a broad range of cell types, acts as a pleiotropic cytokine and is involved in the stress response program of cells after cellular injury. Increased protein levels are associated with disease states such as tissue hypoxia, inflammation, acute injury and oxidative stress. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2016]
    Orthologs
    Location:
    19p13.11
    Exon count:
    2
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 19 NC_000019.10 (18386158..18389176)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 19 NC_000019.9 (18496968..18499986)

    Chromosome 19 - NC_000019.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene RNA, 7SL, cytoplasmic 513, pseudogene Neighboring gene pyroglutamyl-peptidase I Neighboring gene microRNA 3189 Neighboring gene leucine rich repeat containing 25 Neighboring gene single stranded DNA binding protein 4 Neighboring gene inositol-3-phosphate synthase 1

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    cytokine activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    growth factor activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    BMP signaling pathway IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    SMAD protein signal transduction IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cell development IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    cell-cell signaling TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of myoblast fusion IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    regulation of MAPK cascade IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    regulation of apoptotic process IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    regulation of receptor activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    signal transduction TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular exosome IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular space IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    nucleus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Preferred Names
    growth/differentiation factor 15
    Names
    NRG-1
    NSAID (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug)-activated protein 1
    NSAID-activated gene 1 protein
    NSAID-regulated gene 1 protein
    PTGF-beta
    macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1
    non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1
    placental TGF-beta
    placental bone morphogenetic protein
    prostate differentiation factor

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_004864.3NP_004855.2  growth/differentiation factor 15 preproprotein

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_004855.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      BC008962, BQ901034, CA441527
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS12376.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q99988
      Related
      ENSP00000252809.3, OTTHUMP00000271537, ENST00000252809.3, OTTHUMT00000466340
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00204
      Location:211308
      TGFB; Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family
      cl26309
      Location:23147
      MscS_TM; Mechanosensitive ion channel inner membrane domain 1

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000019.10 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

      Range
      18386158..18389176
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018930.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      18497209..18500231
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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