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    GRM2 glutamate metabotropic receptor 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 2912, updated on 10-May-2017
    Official Symbol
    GRM2provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    glutamate metabotropic receptor 2provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:4594
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000164082 MIM:604099; Vega:OTTHUMG00000156902
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    GLUR2; mGlu2; GPRC1B; MGLUR2
    Summary
    L-glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and activates both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in most aspects of normal brain function and can be perturbed in many neuropathologic conditions. The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a family of G protein-coupled receptors, that have been divided into 3 groups on the basis of sequence homology, putative signal transduction mechanisms, and pharmacologic properties. Group I includes GRM1 and GRM5 and these receptors have been shown to activate phospholipase C. Group II includes GRM2 and GRM3 while Group III includes GRM4, GRM6, GRM7 and GRM8. Group II and III receptors are linked to the inhibition of the cyclic AMP cascade but differ in their agonist selectivities. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2017]
    Orthologs
    Location:
    3p21.2
    Exon count:
    8
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 3 NC_000003.12 (51707033..51718616)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 3 NC_000003.11 (51741081..51752629)

    Chromosome 3 - NC_000003.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene RAD54 like 2 (S. cerevisiae) Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105377086 Neighboring gene testis expressed 264 Neighboring gene RNA, 5S ribosomal pseudogene 132 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105377087 Neighboring gene IQ motif containing F6 Neighboring gene IQ motif containing F5 pseudogene

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    • Class C/3 (Metabotropic glutamate/pheromone receptors), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Class C/3 (Metabotropic glutamate/pheromone receptors), organism-specific biosystemThe class C G-protein-coupled receptors are a class of G-protein coupled receptors that include the metabotropic glutamate receptors and several additional receptors (Brauner-Osborne H et al, 2007). ...
    • Cocaine addiction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Cocaine addiction, organism-specific biosystemDrug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder in which compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior persists despite serious negative consequences.There is strong evidence that the dopaminergic...
    • Cocaine addiction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Cocaine addiction, conserved biosystemDrug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder in which compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior persists despite serious negative consequences.There is strong evidence that the dopaminergic...
    • G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe classical signalling mechanism for G alpha (i) is inhibition of the cAMP dependent pathway through inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Decreased production of cAMP from ATP results in decreased act...
    • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
    • GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystemThere are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all...
    • GPCRs, Class C Metabotropic glutamate, pheromone, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      GPCRs, Class C Metabotropic glutamate, pheromone, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway was created using the GPCRDB (Horn et al., 1998), http://www.gpcr.org/7tm/ (originally at http://www.cmbi.kun.nl/7tm/). The groupings are based on the GPCR phylogenetic tree available fr...
    • Glutamatergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Glutamatergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemGlutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system(CNS). Glutamate is packaged into synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic terminal. Once released into the synap...
    • Glutamatergic synapse, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Glutamatergic synapse, conserved biosystemGlutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system(CNS). Glutamate is packaged into synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic terminal. Once released into the synap...
    • Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem
      Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
    • Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, conserved biosystem
      Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
    • Phospholipase D signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Phospholipase D signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemPhospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membra...
    • Phospholipase D signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Phospholipase D signaling pathway, conserved biosystemPhospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membra...
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    G-protein coupled receptor activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    calcium channel regulator activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    glutamate receptor activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    group II metabotropic glutamate receptor activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    G-protein coupled glutamate receptor signaling pathway IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G-protein coupled glutamate receptor signaling pathway IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    chemical synaptic transmission TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    glutamate secretion IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    axon IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cell junction IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    dendrite IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    integral component of plasma membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    intracellular IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    plasma membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    presynaptic membrane IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Preferred Names
    metabotropic glutamate receptor 2
    Names
    glutamate receptor homolog
    glutamate receptor, metabotropic 2

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_000839.4NP_000830.2  metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 isoform a precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000830.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longest isoform (a).
      Source sequence(s)
      AC099050, AK315816, BC041447, DA528713
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS2834.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q14416
      Related
      ENSP00000378492.3, OTTHUMP00000210984, ENST00000395052.7, OTTHUMT00000346542
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      cd06375
      Location:30480
      PBP1_mGluR_groupII; Ligand binding domain of the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor
      pfam00003
      Location:579816
      7tm_3; 7 transmembrane sweet-taste receptor of 3 GCPR
      pfam01094
      Location:60456
      ANF_receptor; Receptor family ligand binding region
      pfam07562
      Location:498545
      NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
    2. NM_001349116.1NP_001336045.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 isoform c

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs in the 5' UTR and coding sequence compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (c) is shorter at the N-terminus compared to isoform a.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC099050
    3. NM_001349117.1NP_001336046.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 isoform d

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (4) contains an alternate internal exon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (d) has a shorter and distinct N-terminus compared to isoform a.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC099050, AK313056, BC041447, DA528713

    RNA

    1. NR_146059.1 RNA Sequence

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks two alternate exons compared to variant 1. This variant is represented as non-coding because the predicted protein does not meet RefSeq quality criteria.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC099050, BC041447, DA528713

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...Open this link in a new tab

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000003.12 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

      Range
      51707033..51718616
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_011533646.2XP_011531948.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 isoform X5

      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      pfam00003
      Location:201438
      7tm_3; 7 transmembrane sweet-taste receptor of 3 GCPR
      pfam07562
      Location:120167
      NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
      cl10011
      Location:1102
      Periplasmic_Binding_Protein_Type_1; Type 1 periplasmic binding fold superfamily
    2. XM_011533635.1XP_011531937.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 isoform X2

      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      pfam00003
      Location:547784
      7tm_3; 7 transmembrane sweet-taste receptor of 3 GCPR
      pfam01094
      Location:60433
      ANF_receptor; Receptor family ligand binding region
      pfam07562
      Location:466513
      NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
      cl10011
      Location:30448
      Periplasmic_Binding_Protein_Type_1; Type 1 periplasmic binding fold superfamily
    3. XM_011533636.1XP_011531938.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 isoform X3

      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      pfam00003
      Location:397634
      7tm_3; 7 transmembrane sweet-taste receptor of 3 GCPR
      pfam07562
      Location:316363
      NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
      cl10011
      Location:30298
      Periplasmic_Binding_Protein_Type_1; Type 1 periplasmic binding fold superfamily
    4. XM_017006271.1XP_016861760.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 isoform X1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q14416
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      cd06375
      Location:30480
      PBP1_mGluR_groupII; Ligand binding domain of the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor
      pfam00003
      Location:579816
      7tm_3; 7 transmembrane sweet-taste receptor of 3 GCPR
      pfam01094
      Location:60456
      ANF_receptor; Receptor family ligand binding region
      pfam07562
      Location:498545
      NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
    5. XM_011533642.1XP_011531944.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 isoform X6

      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd06375
      Location:30470
      PBP1_mGluR_groupII; Ligand binding domain of the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor
      pfam01094
      Location:60456
      ANF_receptor; Receptor family ligand binding region
    6. XM_011533647.1XP_011531949.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 isoform X9

      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      pfam00003
      Location:166403
      7tm_3; 7 transmembrane sweet-taste receptor of 3 GCPR
      pfam07562
      Location:88132
      NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
    7. XM_011533641.2XP_011531943.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 isoform X4

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011531943.1

      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      pfam00003
      Location:385622
      7tm_3; 7 transmembrane sweet-taste receptor of 3 GCPR
      pfam01094
      Location:1262
      ANF_receptor; Receptor family ligand binding region
      pfam07562
      Location:304351
      NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
      cl10011
      Location:1286
      Periplasmic_Binding_Protein_Type_1; Type 1 periplasmic binding fold superfamily
    8. XM_011533638.2XP_011531940.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 isoform X4

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011531940.1

      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      pfam00003
      Location:385622
      7tm_3; 7 transmembrane sweet-taste receptor of 3 GCPR
      pfam01094
      Location:1262
      ANF_receptor; Receptor family ligand binding region
      pfam07562
      Location:304351
      NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
      cl10011
      Location:1286
      Periplasmic_Binding_Protein_Type_1; Type 1 periplasmic binding fold superfamily
    9. XM_011533639.2XP_011531941.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 isoform X4

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011531941.1

      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      pfam00003
      Location:385622
      7tm_3; 7 transmembrane sweet-taste receptor of 3 GCPR
      pfam01094
      Location:1262
      ANF_receptor; Receptor family ligand binding region
      pfam07562
      Location:304351
      NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
      cl10011
      Location:1286
      Periplasmic_Binding_Protein_Type_1; Type 1 periplasmic binding fold superfamily
    10. XM_011533640.2XP_011531942.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 isoform X4

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011531942.1

      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      pfam00003
      Location:385622
      7tm_3; 7 transmembrane sweet-taste receptor of 3 GCPR
      pfam01094
      Location:1262
      ANF_receptor; Receptor family ligand binding region
      pfam07562
      Location:304351
      NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
      cl10011
      Location:1286
      Periplasmic_Binding_Protein_Type_1; Type 1 periplasmic binding fold superfamily
    11. XM_011533637.1XP_011531939.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 isoform X4

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011531939.1

      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      pfam00003
      Location:385622
      7tm_3; 7 transmembrane sweet-taste receptor of 3 GCPR
      pfam01094
      Location:1262
      ANF_receptor; Receptor family ligand binding region
      pfam07562
      Location:304351
      NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
      cl10011
      Location:1286
      Periplasmic_Binding_Protein_Type_1; Type 1 periplasmic binding fold superfamily
    12. XM_011533643.1XP_011531945.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 isoform X7

      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      pfam00003
      Location:147384
      7tm_3; 7 transmembrane sweet-taste receptor of 3 GCPR
      pfam07562
      Location:69113
      NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
    13. XM_011533644.1XP_011531946.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 isoform X8

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011531946.1

      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      pfam00003
      Location:110347
      7tm_3; 7 transmembrane sweet-taste receptor of 3 GCPR
      pfam07562
      Location:3276
      NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
    14. XM_011533645.1XP_011531947.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 isoform X8

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011531947.1

      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      pfam00003
      Location:110347
      7tm_3; 7 transmembrane sweet-taste receptor of 3 GCPR
      pfam07562
      Location:3276
      NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR

    RNA

    1. XR_940421.1 RNA Sequence

      Related
      ENST00000296479.9, OTTHUMT00000346543

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018914.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      51693893..51705447
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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