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    YWHAB tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein beta [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 7529, updated on 12-Mar-2017
    Official Symbol
    YWHABprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein betaprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:12849
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000166913 MIM:601289; Vega:OTTHUMG00000032549
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    HS1; GW128; YWHAA; KCIP-1; HEL-S-1
    Summary
    This gene encodes a protein belonging to the 14-3-3 family of proteins, members of which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. This highly conserved protein family is found in both plants and mammals. The encoded protein has been shown to interact with RAF1 and CDC25 phosphatases, suggesting that it may play a role in linking mitogenic signaling and the cell cycle machinery. Two transcript variants, which encode the same protein, have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
    Orthologs
    Location:
    20q13.12
    Exon count:
    8
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 20 NC_000020.11 (44885599..44908532)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 20 NC_000020.10 (43514240..43537173)

    Chromosome 20 - NC_000020.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene potassium two pore domain channel subfamily K member 15 Neighboring gene regulating synaptic membrane exocytosis 4 Neighboring gene piggyBac transposable element derived 4 pseudogene 2 Neighboring gene poly(A) binding protein cytoplasmic 1 like Neighboring gene translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 34 Neighboring gene STK4 antisense RNA 1 (head to head)

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env The mRNA expression levels for alpha-tubulin, TRADD, IFN-gamma R2, GAS1, MADD, NF-kappaB, I-kappa B, 14-3-3 protein, APaf1, PARP, IGF-1 receptor, RB1, Rb2/p130, ARC, and caspase 6 are upregulated in human neuronal cells after treatment with HIV-1 gp120 PubMed
    Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr inhibits insulin-induced association of 14-3-3 and Foxo3a in HeLa cells PubMed
    vpr Interaction of HIV-1 Vpr with human 14-3-3 protein is presumed based on homology to yeast DNA damage checkpoint protein rad25 which enhances HIV-1 Vpr-induced G2 arrest in vitro, most likely through the inhibition of Cdc25 PubMed
    integrase gag-pol HIV-1 IN is identified to have a physical interaction with 14-3-3 protein beta/alpha (YWHAB) in human HEK293 and/or Jurkat cell lines by using affinity tagging and purification mass spectrometry analyses PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    • ARMS-mediated activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      ARMS-mediated activation, organism-specific biosystemARMS (Ankyrin-Rich Membrane Spanning/Kidins 220) is a 220kD tetraspanning adaptor protein which becomes rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated by active Trk receptors. ARMS is another adaptor protein which ...
    • Activation of BAD and translocation to mitochondria, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Activation of BAD and translocation to mitochondria, organism-specific biosystemThe switching on/off of its phosphorylation by growth/survival factors regulates BAD activity. BAD remains sequestered by 14-3-3 scaffold proteins after phosphorylation by Akt1. Calcineurin activate...
    • Activation of BH3-only proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Activation of BH3-only proteins, organism-specific biosystemThe BH3-only members act as sentinels that selectively trigger apoptosis in response to developmental cues or stress-signals like DNA damages. Widely expressed mammalian BH3-only proteins are thought...
    • Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystemAdaptive immunity refers to antigen-specific immune response efficiently involved in clearing the pathogens. The adaptive immune system is comprised of B and T lymphocytes that express receptors with...
    • Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystemApoptosis is a distinct form of cell death that is functionally and morphologically different from necrosis. Nuclear chromatin condensation, cytoplasmic shrinking, dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and ...
    • Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystemAxon guidance / axon pathfinding is the process by which neurons send out axons to reach the correct targets. Growing axons have a highly motile structure at the growing tip called the growth cone, w...
    • Butyrate Response Factor 1 (BRF1) binds and destabilizes mRNA, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Butyrate Response Factor 1 (BRF1) binds and destabilizes mRNA, organism-specific biosystemButyrate Response Factor 1 (BRF1, ZFP36L1, not to be confused with transcription factor IIIB) binds AU-rich elements in the 3' region of mRNAs. After binding, BRF1 recruits exonucleases (XRN1 and the...
    • Calcium Regulation in the Cardiac Cell, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Calcium Regulation in the Cardiac Cell, organism-specific biosystemCalcium is a common signaling mechanism, as once it enters the cytoplasm it exerts allosteric regulatory affects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction after influx resu...
    • Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystemThe cell cycle is the series of events that takes place in a cell leading to its division and duplication (replication). Regulation of the cell cycle involves processes crucial to the survival of a c...
    • Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem
      Cell Cycle
    • Cell Cycle Checkpoints, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Cell Cycle Checkpoints, organism-specific biosystemA hallmark of the human cell cycle in normal somatic cells is its precision. This remarkable fidelity is achieved by a number of signal transduction pathways, known as checkpoints, which monitor cell...
    • Cell cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Cell cycle, organism-specific biosystemMitotic cell cycle progression is accomplished through a reproducible sequence of events, DNA replication (S phase) and mitosis (M phase) separated temporally by gaps known as G1 and G2 phases. Cycli...
    • Cell cycle, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Cell cycle, conserved biosystemMitotic cell cycle progression is accomplished through a reproducible sequence of events, DNA replication (S phase) and mitosis (M phase) separated temporally by gaps known as G1 and G2 phases. Cycli...
    • Chk1/Chk2(Cds1) mediated inactivation of Cyclin B:Cdk1 complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Chk1/Chk2(Cds1) mediated inactivation of Cyclin B:Cdk1 complex, organism-specific biosystemDNA damage induced activation of the checkpoint kinases Chk1/Chk2(Cds1) results in the conversion and/or maintenance of CyclinB:Cdc2 complex in its Tyrosine 15 phosphorylated (inactive) state. Cdc2...
    • Class I PI3K signaling events mediated by Akt, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Class I PI3K signaling events mediated by Akt, organism-specific biosystem
      Class I PI3K signaling events mediated by Akt
    • Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystemCytokines are small proteins that regulate and mediate immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. They are secreted in response to immune stimuli, and usually act briefly, locally, at very low concen...
    • DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystemDNAX activation protein of 12kDa (DAP12) is an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-bearing adapter molecule that transduces activating signals in natural killer (NK) and myeloid cel...
    • DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystemIn response to receptor ligation, the tyrosine residues in DAP12's immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) are phosphorylated by Src family kinases. These phosphotyrosines form the dock...
    • Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystemAs a first step towards capturing the array of processes by which a fertilized egg gives rise to the diverse tissues of the body, examples of three kinds of processes have been annotated. These are a...
    • Disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Disease, organism-specific biosystemBiological processes are captured in Reactome by identifying the molecules (DNA, RNA, protein, small molecules) involved in them and describing the details of their interactions. From this molecular ...
    • Diseases of signal transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Diseases of signal transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignaling processes are central to human physiology (e.g., Pires-da Silva & Sommer 2003), and their disruption by either germ-line and somatic mutation can lead to serious disease. Here, the molecula...
    • Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystemThe role of autophosphorylation sites on PDGF receptors are to provide docking sites for downstream signal transduction molecules which contain SH2 domains. The SH2 domain is a conserved motif of aro...
    • Epstein-Barr virus infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Epstein-Barr virus infection, organism-specific biosystemEpstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is associated with oncogenesis. EBV infection to primary human B lymphocytes leads to induction of EBV-specific HLA-restricted cytotoxi...
    • Epstein-Barr virus infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Epstein-Barr virus infection, conserved biosystemEpstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is associated with oncogenesis. EBV infection to primary human B lymphocytes leads to induction of EBV-specific HLA-restricted cytotoxi...
    • ErbB1 downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      ErbB1 downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem
      ErbB1 downstream signaling
    • FCERI mediated MAPK activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      FCERI mediated MAPK activation, organism-specific biosystemFormation of the LAT signaling complex leads to activation of MAPK and production of cytokines. The sequence of events that leads from LAT to cytokine production has not been as clearly defined as th...
    • Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystemMast cells (MC) are distributed in tissues throughout the human body and have long been recognized as key cells of type I hypersensitivity reactions. They also play important roles in inflammatory an...
    • FoxO family signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      FoxO family signaling, organism-specific biosystem
      FoxO family signaling
    • Frs2-mediated activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Frs2-mediated activation, organism-specific biosystemThe adaptor protein Frs2 (Fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2) can mediate the prolonged activation of the MAPK (ERK) cascade.
    • G2/M Checkpoints, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      G2/M Checkpoints, organism-specific biosystemG2/M checkpoints include the checks for damaged DNA, unreplicated DNA, and checks that ensure that the genome is replicated once and only once per cell cycle. If cells pass these checkpoints, they f...
    • G2/M DNA damage checkpoint, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      G2/M DNA damage checkpoint, organism-specific biosystemThroughout the cell cycle, the genome is constantly monitored for damage, resulting either from errors of replication, by-products of metabolism or through extrinsic sources such as ultra-violet or i...
    • GRB2 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GRB2 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystemAutophosphorylated EGFR tyrosine residues are docking sites for many downstream effectors in EGFR signaling. The adaptor protein GRB2 binds to phosphotyrosine residues in the C-tail of EGFR through i...
    • Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystemGastrin is a hormone whose main function is to stimulate secretion of hydrochloric acid by the gastric mucosa, which results in gastrin formation inhibition. This hormone also acts as a mitogenic fac...
    • Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystemGene Expression covers the pathways by which genomic DNA is transcribed to yield RNA, the regulation of these transcription processes, and the pathways by which newly-made RNA Transcripts are process...
    • Generic Transcription Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Generic Transcription Pathway, organism-specific biosystemOVERVIEW OF TRANSCRIPTION REGULATION: Detailed studies of gene transcription regulation in a wide variety of eukaryotic systems has revealed the general principles and mechanisms by which cell- or t...
    • Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped virus and contains a partially double-stranded relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) genome. After entry into hepatocytes, HBV RC-DNA is transported to the nucleus and...
    • Hippo signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Hippo signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemHippo signaling is an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that controls organ size from flies to humans. In humans and mice, the pathway consists of the MST1 and MST2 kinases, their cofactor S...
    • Hippo signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Hippo signaling pathway, conserved biosystemHippo signaling is an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that controls organ size from flies to humans. In humans and mice, the pathway consists of the MST1 and MST2 kinases, their cofactor S...
    • IGF1R signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      IGF1R signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystemAfter autophosphorylation the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) binds and phosphorylates scaffold proteins, IRS1/2/4 and SHC1, which in turn bind effectors possessing enzymatic activ...
    • IL-3 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      IL-3 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin 3 (IL-3) is a potent growth factor belonging to the super family of cytokines. IL-3 is a 20- 32kDa glycoprotein involved in the process of hematopoiesis. It is involved in the proliferati...
    • IRS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      IRS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemRelease of phospho-IRS from the insulin receptor triggers a cascade of signalling events via PI3K, SOS, RAF and the MAP kinases.
    • IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphorylated type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor phosphorylates IR1, IRS2, IRS4 and possibly other IRS/DOK family members (reviewed in Pavelic et al. 2007, Chitnis et al. 2008, Maki et a...
    • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
    • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
    • Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystemAutophosphorylation of the insulin receptor triggers a series of signalling events, mediated by SHC or IRS, and resulting in activation of the Ras/RAF and MAP kinase cascades. A second effect of the ...
    • Insulin-mediated glucose transport, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Insulin-mediated glucose transport, organism-specific biosystem
      Insulin-mediated glucose transport
    • Interleukin receptor SHC signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Interleukin receptor SHC signaling, organism-specific biosystemPhosphorylation of Shc at three tyrosine residues, 239, 240 (Gotoh et al. 1996) and 317 (Salcini et al. 1994) involves unidentified tyrosine kinases presumed to be part of the activated receptor comp...
    • Interleukin-2 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Interleukin-2 signaling, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin-2 (IL-2) is a cytokine that is produced by T cells in response to antigen stimulation. Originally, IL-2 was discovered because of its potent growth factor activity on activated T cells in...
    • Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe Interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-5 and Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptors form a family of heterodimeric receptors that have specific alpha chains but share a common beta...
    • Intrinsic Pathway for Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Intrinsic Pathway for Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystemThe intrinsic (Bcl-2 inhibitable or mitochondrial) pathway of apoptosis functions in response to various types of intracellular stress including growth factor withdrawal, DNA damage, unfolding stress...
    • LKB1 signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      LKB1 signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
      LKB1 signaling events
    • MAP2K and MAPK activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MAP2K and MAPK activation, organism-specific biosystemActivated RAF proteins are restricted substrate kinases whose primary downstream targets are the two MAP2K proteins, MAPK2K1 and MAP2K2 (also known as MEK1 and MEK2) (reviewed in Roskoski, 2010, Rosk...
    • MAPK family signaling cascades, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MAPK family signaling cascades, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of conserved protein serine threonine kinases that respond to varied extracellular stimuli to activate intracellular processes including gen...
    • MAPK1/MAPK3 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MAPK1/MAPK3 signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2, also known as MAPK3 and MAPK1, are phosphorylated by the MAP2Ks 1 and 2 in response to a wide range of extracellular stimuli to promote diff...
    • Membrane Trafficking, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Membrane Trafficking, organism-specific biosystemThe secretory membrane system allows a cell to regulate delivery of newly synthesized proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids to the cell surface, a necessity for growth and homeostasis. The system is ma...
    • Myometrial Relaxation and Contraction Pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Myometrial Relaxation and Contraction Pathways, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway illustrates signaling networks implicated in uterine muscle contraction at labor and quiescence throughout gestation (pregnancy). The muscle of the uterus, responsible for contractile ac...
    • NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth, organism-specific biosystemThe neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and is involved in a variety of cellular processes of importance for the formation and maintenance of the n...
    • NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemTrk receptors signal from the plasma membrane and from intracellular membranes, particularly from early endosomes. Signalling from the plasma membrane is fast but transient; signalling from endosomes...
    • Negative regulation of MAPK pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Negative regulation of MAPK pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe duration and extent of activated MAPK signaling is regulated at many levels through mechanisms that include phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, changes to protein interacting partners and subc...
    • Oncogenic MAPK signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Oncogenic MAPK signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe importance of the RAS/RAF/MAPK cascade in regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival is highlighted by the fact that components of the pathway are mutated with high frequency...
    • Oocyte meiosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Oocyte meiosis, organism-specific biosystemDuring meiosis, a single round of DNA replication is followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation, called meiosis I and meiosis II. At meiosis I, homologous chromosomes recombine and then segrega...
    • Oocyte meiosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Oocyte meiosis, conserved biosystemDuring meiosis, a single round of DNA replication is followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation, called meiosis I and meiosis II. At meiosis I, homologous chromosomes recombine and then segrega...
    • PI3K Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      PI3K Cascade, organism-specific biosystem
      PI3K Cascade
    • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
    • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
    • PKB-mediated events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      PKB-mediated events, organism-specific biosystemPKB and PDK1 are activated via membrane-bound PIP3. Activated PDK1 phosphorylates PKB, which in turn phosphorylates PDE3B. The latter hydrolyses cAMP to 5'AMP, depleting cAMP pools.
    • Paradoxical activation of RAF signaling by kinase inactive BRAF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Paradoxical activation of RAF signaling by kinase inactive BRAF, organism-specific biosystemWhile BRAF-specific inhibitors inhibit MAPK/ERK activation in the presence of the BRAF V600E mutant, paradoxical activation of ERK signaling has been observed after treatment of cells with inhibitor ...
    • Programmed Cell Death, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Programmed Cell Death, organism-specific biosystemCell death is a fundamental cellular response that has a crucial role in shaping our bodies during development and in regulating tissue homeostasis by eliminating unwanted cells. There are a number o...
    • Prolonged ERK activation events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Prolonged ERK activation events, organism-specific biosystemAfter NGF binding, activated Trk receptors provide multiple docking sites for adaptor proteins and enzymes. Two docking proteins, the Ankyrin-Rich Membrane Spanning protein (ARMS/Kidins220) and Fibro...
    • RAF activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RAF activation, organism-specific biosystemMammals have three RAF isoforms, A, B and C, that are activated downstream of RAS and stimulate the MAPK pathway. Although CRAF (also known as RAF-1) was the first identified and remains perhaps the ...
    • RAF/MAP kinase cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RAF/MAP kinase cascade, organism-specific biosystemThe RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway regulates processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, senescence and cell motility in response to growth factors, hormones and cytokines, among others. Bin...
    • RET signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RET signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe RET proto-oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed primarily in urogenital precursor cells, spermatogonocytes, dopaminergic neurons, motor neurons and neural crest progenitors and de...
    • RHO GTPase Effectors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RHO GTPase Effectors, organism-specific biosystemRHO GTPases regulate cell behaviour by activating a number of downstream effectors that regulate cytoskeletal organization, intracellular trafficking and transcription (reviewed by Sahai and Marshall...
    • RHO GTPases activate PKNs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RHO GTPases activate PKNs, organism-specific biosystemProtein kinases N (PKN), also known as protein kinase C-related kinases (PKR) feature a C-terminal serine/threonine kinase domain and three RHO-binding motifs at the N-terminus. RHO GTPases RHOA, RHO...
    • Rap1 signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Rap1 signalling, organism-specific biosystemRap1 (Ras-proximate-1) is a small G protein in the Ras superfamily. Like all G proteins, Rap1 is activated when bound GDP is exchanged for GTP. Rap1 is targeted to lipid membranes by the covalent att...
    • Regulation of Wnt-mediated beta catenin signaling and target gene transcription, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Regulation of Wnt-mediated beta catenin signaling and target gene transcription, organism-specific biosystem
      Regulation of Wnt-mediated beta catenin signaling and target gene transcription
    • Regulation of mRNA stability by proteins that bind AU-rich elements, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Regulation of mRNA stability by proteins that bind AU-rich elements, organism-specific biosystemRNA elements rich in adenine and uracil residues (AU-rich elements) bind specific proteins which either target the RNA for degradation or, more rarely, stabilize the RNA. The activity of the AU-eleme...
    • Role of Calcineurin-dependent NFAT signaling in lymphocytes, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Role of Calcineurin-dependent NFAT signaling in lymphocytes, organism-specific biosystem
      Role of Calcineurin-dependent NFAT signaling in lymphocytes
    • SHC1 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      SHC1 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystemGRB2 can bind EGFR directly or through another SH2-containing protein, SHC1. This association leads to RAS activation.
    • SOS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      SOS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemSOS is recruited to the plasma membrane and mediates activation of Ras.
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signaling by BRAF and RAF fusions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by BRAF and RAF fusions, organism-specific biosystemIn addition to the more prevalent point mutations, BRAF and RAF1 are also subject to activation as a result of translocation events that yield truncated or fusion products (Jones et al, 2008; Cin et ...
    • Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystemThe epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one member of the ERBB family of transmembrane glycoprotein tyrosine receptor kinases (RTK). Binding of EGFR to its ligands induces conformational chang...
    • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
    • Signaling by Hippo, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Hippo, organism-specific biosystemHuman Hippo signaling is a network of reactions that regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis, centered on a three-step kinase cascade. The cascade was discovered by analysis of Drosophila mutation...
    • Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in receptor autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues and the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (e.g. IRS and Shc) by the insulin receptor...
    • Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystemInterleukins are low molecular weight proteins that bind to cell surface receptors and act in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion. They were first identified as factors produced by leukocytes but a...
    • Signaling by Leptin, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Leptin, organism-specific biosystemLeptin (LEP, OB, OBS), a circulating adipokine, and its receptor LEPR (DB, OBR) control food intake and energy balance and are implicated in obesity-related diseases (recently reviewed in Amitani et ...
    • Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet-derived Growth Factor (PDGF) is a potent stimulator of growth and motility of connective tissue cells such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells as well as other cells such as capillary end...
    • Signaling by RAS mutants, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by RAS mutants, organism-specific biosystemMembers of the RAS gene family were the first oncogenes to be identified, and mutations in RAS are present in ~20-30% of human cancers (reviewed in Prior et al, 2012). Mutations in the KRAS gene are ...
    • Signaling by Rho GTPases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Rho GTPases, organism-specific biosystemThe Rho family of small guanine nucleotide binding proteins is one of five generally recognized branches of the Ras superfamily. Like most Ras superfamily members, typical Rho proteins function as bi...
    • Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystemStem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor with membrane bound and soluble forms. It is expressed by fibroblasts and endothelial cells throughout the body, promoting proliferation, migration, survival...
    • Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystemBinding of IGF1 (IGF-I) or IGF2 (IGF-II) to the extracellular alpha peptides of the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) triggers the activation of two major signaling pathways: the SOS...
    • Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystemIn normal development vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are crucial regulators of vascular development during embryogenesis (vasculogenesis) and blood-vessel formation in the adult (angioge...
    • Signaling by high-kinase activity BRAF mutants, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by high-kinase activity BRAF mutants, organism-specific biosystemBRAF is mutated in about 8% of human cancers, with high prevalence in hairy cell leukemia, melanoma, papillary thyroid and ovarian carcinomas, colorectal cancer and a variety of other tumors (Davies ...
    • Signaling by moderate kinase activity BRAF mutants, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by moderate kinase activity BRAF mutants, organism-specific biosystemIn addition to the highly prevalent and activating V600E BRAF mutations, numerous moderately activating and less common mutations have also been identified in human cancers (Forbes et al, 2015). Unl...
    • Signaling events mediated by HDAC Class II, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Signaling events mediated by HDAC Class II, organism-specific biosystem
      Signaling events mediated by HDAC Class II
    • Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4/5) play pivotal roles in survival, differentiation, and plasticity of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. They are produced, and secreted in mi...
    • Signalling to ERKs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling to ERKs, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins utilize multiple pathways to activate ERKs (ERK1 and ERK2), a subgroup of the large MAP kinase (MAPK) family, from the plasma membrane. The major signalling pathways to ERKs are via RAS...
    • Signalling to RAS, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling to RAS, organism-specific biosystemSignalling through Shc adaptor proteins appears to be identical for both NGF and EGF. It leads to a fast, but transient, MAPK/ERK activation, which is insufficient to explain the prolonged activation...
    • Signalling to p38 via RIT and RIN, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling to p38 via RIT and RIN, organism-specific biosystemRIT and RIN are two small guanine nucleotide binding proteins that share more than 50% sequence identity with RAS, including highly conserved core effector domains. Unlike RAS, the C termini of RIT a...
    • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Susceptibility Pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Susceptibility Pathways, organism-specific biosystemIn this model, we provide an integrated view of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) at the level of implicated tissues, signaling networks and genetics. The purpose of this model is to serve as an ov...
    • TP53 Regulates Metabolic Genes, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      TP53 Regulates Metabolic Genes, organism-specific biosystemWhile the p53 tumor suppressor protein (TP53) is known to inhibit cell growth by inducing apoptosis, senescence and cell cycle arrest, recent studies have found that p53 is also able to influence cel...
    • Transcriptional Regulation by TP53, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Transcriptional Regulation by TP53, organism-specific biosystemThe tumor suppressor TP53 (encoded by the gene p53) is a transcription factor. Under stress conditions, it recognizes specific responsive DNA elements and thus regulates the transcription of many gen...
    • Translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemIn adipocytes and myocytes insulin signaling causes intracellular vesicles carrying the GLUT4 (SLC2A4) glucose transporter to translocate to the plasma membrane, allowing the cells to take up glucose...
    • Tristetraprolin (TTP, ZFP36) binds and destabilizes mRNA, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Tristetraprolin (TTP, ZFP36) binds and destabilizes mRNA, organism-specific biosystemTristetraproline (TTP) binds RNAs that contain AU-rich elements and recruits enzymes that degrade RNA. TTP interacts with the exosome (3' to 5' exonuclease), XRN1 (5' to 3' exonuclease), and the deca...
    • Trk receptor signaling mediated by PI3K and PLC-gamma, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Trk receptor signaling mediated by PI3K and PLC-gamma, organism-specific biosystem
      Trk receptor signaling mediated by PI3K and PLC-gamma
    • VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystemAngiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vasculature. One of the most important proangiogenic factors is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF exerts its biologic...
    • VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation, organism-specific biosystemVEGFR2 stimulates ERK not via GRB2-SOS-RAS, but via pY1175-dependent phosphorylation of PLC gamma and subsequent activation of PKCs. PKC plays an important mediatory role in the proliferative Ras/Raf...
    • Vesicle-mediated transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Vesicle-mediated transport, organism-specific biosystemThe transit of proteins and other cargo through the cell requires a cellular transport process in which transported substances are moved in membrane-bounded vesicles. Transported substances are enclo...
    • Viral carcinogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Viral carcinogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThere is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C vi...
    • Viral carcinogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Viral carcinogenesis, conserved biosystemThere is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C vi...
    • a6b1 and a6b4 Integrin signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      a6b1 and a6b4 Integrin signaling, organism-specific biosystem
      a6b1 and a6b4 Integrin signaling
    • mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      mTOR signaling pathway
    • mTOR signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      mTOR signalling, organism-specific biosystemTarget of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly-conserved serine/threonine kinase that regulates cell growth and division in response to energy levels, growth signals, and nutrients (Zoncu et al. 2011). Contr...
    • mTORC1-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      mTORC1-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemmTORC1 integrates four major signals ? growth factors, energy status, oxygen and amino acids ? to regulate many processes that are involved in the promotion of cell growth. Growth factors stimulate m...
    • p38 signaling mediated by MAPKAP kinases, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      p38 signaling mediated by MAPKAP kinases, organism-specific biosystem
      p38 signaling mediated by MAPKAP kinases
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    cadherin binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enzyme binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    histone deacetylase binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    phosphoprotein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    phosphoserine binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein C-terminus binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein complex binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein domain specific binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    transcription corepressor activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    MAPK cascade TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    cytoplasmic sequestering of protein IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    hippo signaling TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    membrane organization TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    negative regulation of G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of protein dephosphorylation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of catalytic activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of protein insertion into mitochondrial membrane involved in apoptotic signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    protein heterooligomerization IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein targeting IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    regulation of mRNA stability TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    viral process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytoplasmic vesicle membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    cytosol IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular exosome IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    focal adhesion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    melanosome IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    mitochondrion IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    nucleus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    perinuclear region of cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein complex IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    transcriptional repressor complex IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Preferred Names
    14-3-3 protein beta/alpha
    Names
    14-3-3 alpha
    brain protein 14-3-3, beta isoform
    epididymis secretory protein Li 1
    protein 1054
    protein kinase C inhibitor protein-1
    tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, alpha polypeptide
    tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, beta polypeptide

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_003404.4NP_003395.1  14-3-3 protein beta/alpha

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_003395.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longer transcript. Variants 1 and 2 both encode the same protein.
      Source sequence(s)
      AA845374, AK292717, AL008725, DB443535
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS13339.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P31946
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      V9HWD6
      Related
      ENSP00000361930, OTTHUMP00000031075, ENST00000372839, OTTHUMT00000079386
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd10022
      Location:4232
      14-3-3_beta_zeta; 14-3-3 beta and zeta isoforms of 14-3-3 protein
    2. NM_139323.3NP_647539.1  14-3-3 protein beta/alpha

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_647539.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks an exon in the 5' UTR compared to variant 1. Variants 1 and 2 both encode the same protein.
      Source sequence(s)
      AA845374, AL008725, BC001359, DB443535
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS13339.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P31946
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      V9HWD6
      Related
      ENSP00000300161, OTTHUMP00000031076, ENST00000353703, OTTHUMT00000079387
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd10022
      Location:4232
      14-3-3_beta_zeta; 14-3-3 beta and zeta isoforms of 14-3-3 protein

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...Open this link in a new tab

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000020.11 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

      Range
      44885599..44908532
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_017028040.1XP_016883529.1  14-3-3 protein beta/alpha isoform X2

      Related
      ENSP00000394729, OTTHUMP00000043877, ENST00000428262, OTTHUMT00000107255
    2. XM_017028039.1XP_016883528.1  14-3-3 protein beta/alpha isoform X1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P31946
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      V9HWD6
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd10022
      Location:4232
      14-3-3_beta_zeta; 14-3-3 beta and zeta isoforms of 14-3-3 protein

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018931.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      43417179..43440099
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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