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    ARRB2 arrestin beta 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 409, updated on 22-Apr-2017
    Official Symbol
    ARRB2provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    arrestin beta 2provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:712
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000141480 MIM:107941; Vega:OTTHUMG00000090759
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    ARB2; ARR2; BARR2
    Summary
    Members of arrestin/beta-arrestin protein family are thought to participate in agonist-mediated desensitization of G-protein-coupled receptors and cause specific dampening of cellular responses to stimuli such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or sensory signals. Arrestin beta 2, like arrestin beta 1, was shown to inhibit beta-adrenergic receptor function in vitro. It is expressed at high levels in the central nervous system and may play a role in the regulation of synaptic receptors. Besides the brain, a cDNA for arrestin beta 2 was isolated from thyroid gland, and thus it may also be involved in hormone-specific desensitization of TSH receptors. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
    Orthologs
    Location:
    17p13.2
    Exon count:
    17
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 17 NC_000017.11 (4710494..4721500)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 17 NC_000017.10 (4613789..4624795)

    Chromosome 17 - NC_000017.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene proline, glutamate and leucine rich protein 1 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101559451 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein S12 pseudogene 29 Neighboring gene mediator complex subunit 11 Neighboring gene C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 16 Neighboring gene zinc finger MYND-type containing 15

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Pol gag-pol HIV-1 Pol is identified to have a physical interaction with arrestin, beta 2 (ARRB2) in human HEK293 and/or Jurkat cell lines by using affinity tagging and purification mass spectrometry analyses PubMed
    Tat tat Overexpression of HIV-1 Tat results in a nonspecific activation of the expression of beta-arrestin PubMed
    retropepsin gag-pol HIV-1 PR is identified to have a physical interaction with arrestin, beta 2 (ARRB2) in human HEK293 and/or Jurkat cell lines by using affinity tagging and purification mass spectrometry analyses PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

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      Signalling to RAS, organism-specific biosystemSignalling through Shc adaptor proteins appears to be identical for both NGF and EGF. It leads to a fast, but transient, MAPK/ERK activation, which is insufficient to explain the prolonged activation...
    • Signalling to p38 via RIT and RIN, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling to p38 via RIT and RIN, organism-specific biosystemRIT and RIN are two small guanine nucleotide binding proteins that share more than 50% sequence identity with RAS, including highly conserved core effector domains. Unlike RAS, the C termini of RIT a...
    • TGF-beta receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      TGF-beta receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem
      TGF-beta receptor signaling
    • Thrombin signalling through proteinase activated receptors (PARs), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Thrombin signalling through proteinase activated receptors (PARs), organism-specific biosystemThrombin activates proteinase activated receptors (PARs) that signal through heterotrimeric G proteins of the G12/13 and Gq families, thereby connecting to a host of intracellular signaling pathways....
    • Thromboxane A2 receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Thromboxane A2 receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem
      Thromboxane A2 receptor signaling
    • Ub-specific processing proteases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Ub-specific processing proteases, organism-specific biosystemUb-specific processing proteases (USPs) are the largest of the DUB families with more than 50 members in humans. The USP catalytic domain varies considerably in size and consists of six conserved mo...
    • VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystemAngiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vasculature. One of the most important proangiogenic factors is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF exerts its biologic...
    • VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation, organism-specific biosystemVEGFR2 stimulates ERK not via GRB2-SOS-RAS, but via pY1175-dependent phosphorylation of PLC gamma and subsequent activation of PKCs. PKC plays an important mediatory role in the proliferative Ras/Raf...
    • Vesicle-mediated transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Vesicle-mediated transport, organism-specific biosystemThe transit of proteins and other cargo through the cell requires a cellular transport process in which transported substances are moved in membrane-bounded vesicles. Transported substances are enclo...
    • WNT5A-dependent internalization of FZD4, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      WNT5A-dependent internalization of FZD4, organism-specific biosystemWNT5A induces internalization of FZD4 in a manner that depends upon PKC-mediated phosphorylation of DVL2. Uptake of FZD4 appears to occur in a clathrin, AP-2 and ARBB2-dependent mannner (Chen et al,...
    • Wnt Signaling Pathway Netpath, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Wnt Signaling Pathway Netpath, organism-specific biosystemWNT signal, through the canonical pathway, controls cell fate determination and through the non-canonical pathway controls cell movement and tissue polarity. The name "wnt" is a fusion of two terms, ...
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Clone Names

    • DKFZp686L0365

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    14-3-3 protein binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    D1 dopamine receptor binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    G-protein coupled receptor binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    alpha-1A adrenergic receptor binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    alpha-1B adrenergic receptor binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    angiotensin receptor binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enzyme binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    follicle-stimulating hormone receptor binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    mitogen-activated protein kinase binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    platelet activating factor receptor binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein complex binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein complex scaffold IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein domain specific binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein kinase B binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    receptor binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    type 1 angiotensin receptor binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    type 2A serotonin receptor binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    ubiquitin protein ligase binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    G-protein coupled receptor internalization IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    G-protein coupled receptor internalization IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    G-protein coupled receptor internalization TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Wnt signaling pathway, planar cell polarity pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    adult walking behavior IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    brain development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cell chemotaxis IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    chemical synaptic transmission, postsynaptic NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    desensitization of G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway by arrestin IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    detection of temperature stimulus involved in sensory perception of pain IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    dopamine receptor signaling pathway NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    follicle-stimulating hormone signaling pathway IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    membrane organization TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    negative regulation of GTPase activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of interleukin-1 beta production IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of interleukin-12 production IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of interleukin-6 production IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of protein kinase B signaling NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of protein phosphorylation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of protein ubiquitination IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of release of cytochrome c from mitochondria IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of smooth muscle cell apoptotic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor production IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    platelet activation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    positive regulation of DNA biosynthetic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of calcium ion transport IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of cardiac muscle cell differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of gene expression IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of protein ubiquitination IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of receptor internalization IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of synaptic transmission, dopaminergic IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    proteasome-mediated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein deubiquitination TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    protein transport IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein ubiquitination IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    receptor internalization IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of androgen receptor signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    basolateral plasma membrane IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    clathrin-coated pit IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytoplasmic vesicle IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    dendritic spine IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    endocytic vesicle IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    intracellular membrane-bounded organelle IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    nucleus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    plasma membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    plasma membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    postsynaptic density IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    postsynaptic membrane IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Preferred Names
    beta-arrestin-2
    Names
    arrestin 3

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001257328.1NP_001244257.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform 3

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001244257.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (3) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longest isoform (3).
      Source sequence(s)
      AB209786, AK297181, BC007427, BG723452
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS58504.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P32121
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      Q59EM5
      Related
      ENSP00000403701.3, OTTHUMP00000257975, ENST00000412477.7, OTTHUMT00000439565
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart01017
      Location:215370
      Arrestin_C; Arrestin (or S-antigen), C-terminal domain
      pfam00339
      Location:19196
      Arrestin_N; Arrestin (or S-antigen), N-terminal domain
    2. NM_001257329.1NP_001244258.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform 4

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (4) uses an alternate in-frame splice junction at the 3' end of an exon and uses an alternate splice junction at the 3' end of another exon, that causes a frameshift. The resulting isoform (4) lacks an alternate internal segment and has a shorter and distinct C-terminus compared to isoform 3.
      Source sequence(s)
      BC007427, BC095450, BG723452
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS59276.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P32121
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      K7ENA6
      Related
      ENSP00000466857.1, OTTHUMP00000263587, ENST00000575877.5, OTTHUMT00000439567
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart01017
      Location:194264
      Arrestin_C; Arrestin (or S-antigen), C-terminal domain
      pfam00339
      Location:19175
      Arrestin_N; Arrestin (or S-antigen), N-terminal domain
    3. NM_001257330.1NP_001244259.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform 5

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001244259.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (5) uses an alternate in-frame splice junction at the 3' end of an exon and uses an alternate in-frame splice junction at the 5' end of another exon compared to variant 3. The resulting isoform (5) lacks an alternate internal segment and contains another alternate internal segment compared to isoform 3.
      Source sequence(s)
      BC007427, BG723452, DQ664180
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P32121
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart01017
      Location:194349
      Arrestin_C; Arrestin (or S-antigen), C-terminal domain
      pfam00339
      Location:19175
      Arrestin_N; Arrestin (or S-antigen), N-terminal domain
    4. NM_001257331.1NP_001244260.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform 6

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001244260.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (6) lacks an alternate in-frame exon, uses an alternate in-frame splice junction at the 3' end of an exon, and uses an alternate in-frame splice junction at the 5' end of another exon compared to variant 3. The resulting isoform (6) lacks two alternate internal segments and contains another alternate internal segment compared to isoform 3.
      Source sequence(s)
      AK097542, BC007427, BG723452, DQ664180
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS58505.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P32121
      Related
      ENSP00000341895.2, OTTHUMP00000115951, ENST00000346341.6, OTTHUMT00000207504
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart01017
      Location:179334
      Arrestin_C; Arrestin (or S-antigen), C-terminal domain
      cl22903
      Location:19160
      Arrestin_N; Arrestin (or S-antigen), N-terminal domain
    5. NM_001330064.1NP_001316993.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform 7

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (8) has multiple differences compared to variant 3. The encoded isoform (7) is shorter than isoform 3.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC091153, BC007427
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS82039.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P32121
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      Q68DZ5
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      smart01017
      Location:2157
      Arrestin_C; Arrestin (or S-antigen), C-terminal domain
    6. NM_004313.3NP_004304.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_004304.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) uses an alternate in-frame splice junction at the 3' end of an exon compared to variant 3. The resulting isoform (1) lacks an alternate internal segment compared to isoform 3.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF106941, BC007427, BG723452
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS11050.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P32121
      Related
      ENSP00000269260.2, OTTHUMP00000257971, ENST00000269260.6, OTTHUMT00000439552
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart01017
      Location:194349
      Arrestin_C; Arrestin (or S-antigen), C-terminal domain
      pfam00339
      Location:19175
      Arrestin_N; Arrestin (or S-antigen), N-terminal domain
    7. NM_199004.1NP_945355.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform 2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_945355.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks an alternate in-frame exon and uses an alternate in-frame splice junction at the 3' end of another exon compared to variant 3. The resulting isoform (2) lacks two alternate internal segments compared to isoform 3.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF106941, AK097542, BC007427, BG723452
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS11051.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P32121
      Related
      ENSP00000370898.6, OTTHUMP00000257974, ENST00000381488.10, OTTHUMT00000439564
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart01017
      Location:179334
      Arrestin_C; Arrestin (or S-antigen), C-terminal domain
      cl22903
      Location:19160
      Arrestin_N; Arrestin (or S-antigen), N-terminal domain

    RNA

    1. NR_047516.1 RNA Sequence

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (7) lacks an alternate coding exon compared to isoform 3, that causes a frameshift. The resulting transcript could encode a 217 aa isoform but instead is thought to be non-protein coding due to the presence of an upstream open reading frame with a strong Kozak signal. Translation beginning at that start site renders this transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
      Source sequence(s)
      AB209786, BC007427, BG723452

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...Open this link in a new tab

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000017.11 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

      Range
      4710494..4721500
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_006721520.1XP_006721583.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform X2

      Related
      ENSP00000465296.1, OTTHUMP00000263585, ENST00000572457.5, OTTHUMT00000439558
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      smart01017
      Location:2157
      Arrestin_C; Arrestin (or S-antigen), C-terminal domain
    2. XM_011523858.2XP_011522160.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform X1

      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart01017
      Location:225380
      Arrestin_C; Arrestin (or S-antigen), C-terminal domain
      pfam00339
      Location:50206
      Arrestin_N; Arrestin (or S-antigen), N-terminal domain
    3. XM_017024645.1XP_016880134.1  beta-arrestin-2 isoform X3

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018928.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      4622557..4633518
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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