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    PF4 platelet factor 4 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 5196, updated on 5-Nov-2017
    Official Symbol
    PF4provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    platelet factor 4provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:8861
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000163737 MIM:173460; Vega:OTTHUMG00000130009
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    PF-4; CXCL4; SCYB4
    Summary
    This gene encodes a member of the CXC chemokine family. This chemokine is released from the alpha granules of activated platelets in the form of a homotetramer which has high affinity for heparin and is involved in platelet aggregation. This protein is chemotactic for numerous other cell type and also functions as an inhibitor of hematopoiesis, angiogenesis and T-cell function. The protein also exhibits antimicrobial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]
    Orthologs
    Location:
    4q13.3
    Exon count:
    4
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 4 NC_000004.12 (73980825..73982124, complement)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 4 NC_000004.11 (74846542..74847841, complement)

    Chromosome 4 - NC_000004.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 pseudogene 55 Neighboring gene C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 pseudogene 1 Neighboring gene pro-platelet basic protein Neighboring gene C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 5

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    NHGRI GWAS Catalog

    Description
    Host-microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Novel Loci for metabolic networks and multi-tissue expression studies reveal genes for atherosclerosis.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog

    Replication interactions

    Interaction Pubs
    In single-round infection assays, HIV-1 NL4-3 psuedotyped with Env proteins from subtypes B and C entry is enhanced by high concentrations of tetrameric PF4 (CXCR4) in MAGI-R5 cells PubMed
    HIV-1 CH077 virus entry is enhanced by high concentrations of PF4 (CXCR4) in MAGI-R5, SupT1-R5, Jurkat-R5, and primary CD4+ T cells PubMed
    In single-round infection assays, HIV-1 NL4-3 pseudotyped with Env proteins from subtypes B and C entry is enhanced by high concentrations of tetrameric PF4 (CXCR4) in MAGI-R5 cells PubMed
    HIV-1 CH077 virus entry is inhibited by low concentrations of PF4 (CXCR4) in MAGI-R5, SupT1-R5, Jurkat-R5, and primary CD4+ T cells PubMed

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 JRFL Env (gp120) binds specifically to polystyrene-immobilized PF4 (CXCL4) and CCL5 (RANTES) as measured through ELISA PubMed
    env CXCL4 directly interacts with HIV-1 gp120 and the CXCL4-binding site is located within the gp120 outer domain (residues 350-455) proximal to the CD4-binding site PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    • CXCR3-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      CXCR3-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
      CXCR3-mediated signaling events
    • Cell surface interactions at the vascular wall, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Cell surface interactions at the vascular wall, organism-specific biosystemLeukocyte extravasation is a rigorously controlled process that guides white cell movement from the vascular lumen to sites of tissue inflammation. The powerful adhesive interactions that are require...
    • Chemokine receptors bind chemokines, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Chemokine receptors bind chemokines, organism-specific biosystemChemokine receptors are cytokine receptors found on the surface of certain cells, which interact with a type of cytokine called a chemokine. Following interaction, these receptors trigger a flux of i...
    • Chemokine signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Chemokine signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation upon foreign insult. Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for th...
    • Chemokine signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Chemokine signaling pathway, conserved biosystemInflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation upon foreign insult. Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for th...
    • Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystemRhodopsin-like receptors (class A/1) are the largest group of GPCRs and are the best studied group from a functional and structural point of view. They show great diversity at the sequence level and ...
    • Common Pathway of Fibrin Clot Formation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Common Pathway of Fibrin Clot Formation, organism-specific biosystemThe common pathway consists of the cascade of activation events leading from the formation of activated factor X to the formation of active thrombin, the cleavage of fibrinogen by thrombin, and the f...
    • Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystemCytokines are soluble extracellular proteins or glycoproteins that are crucial intercellular regulators and mobilizers of cells engaged in innate as well as adaptive inflammatory host defenses, cell ...
    • Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, conserved biosystemCytokines are soluble extracellular proteins or glycoproteins that are crucial intercellular regulators and mobilizers of cells engaged in innate as well as adaptive inflammatory host defenses, cell ...
    • Formation of Fibrin Clot (Clotting Cascade), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Formation of Fibrin Clot (Clotting Cascade), organism-specific biosystemThe formation of a fibrin clot at the site of an injury to the wall of a normal blood vessel is an essential part of the process to stop blood loss after vascular injury. The reactions that lead to ...
    • G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe classical signalling mechanism for G alpha (i) is inhibition of the cAMP dependent pathway through inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Decreased production of cAMP from ATP results in decreased act...
    • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
    • GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystemThere are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all...
    • Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystemHemostasis is a physiological response that culminates in the arrest of bleeding from an injured vessel. Under normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhe...
    • Peptide ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Peptide ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystemThese receptors, a subset of the Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like) family, all bind peptide ligands which include the chemokines, opioids and somatostatins.
    • Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet activation begins with the initial binding of adhesive ligands and of the excitatory platelet agonists (released or generated at the sites of vascular trauma) to cognate receptors on the pla...
    • Platelet degranulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Platelet degranulation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelets function as exocytotic cells, secreting a plethora of effector molecules at sites of vascular injury. Platelets contain a number of distinguishable storage granules including alpha granules...
    • Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+, organism-specific biosystemActivation of phospholipase C enzymes results in the generation of second messengers of the phosphatidylinositol pathway. The events resulting from this pathway are a rise in intracellular calcium an...
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Clone Names

    • MGC138298

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    chemokine activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    heparin binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    antimicrobial humoral immune response mediated by antimicrobial peptide IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    chemokine-mediated signaling pathway IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    cytokine-mediated signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    defense response to protozoan IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    immune response IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    inflammatory response IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    killing by host of symbiont cells IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    leukocyte chemotaxis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of angiogenesis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of cytolysis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of megakaryocyte differentiation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    platelet activation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    platelet degranulation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    positive regulation of cAMP metabolic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cAMP-mediated signaling IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of gene expression IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of macrophage derived foam cell differentiation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of macrophage differentiation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of neutrophil chemotaxis IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of cell proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of megakaryocyte differentiation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    regulation of receptor activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to lipopolysaccharide IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular region IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular region NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular space IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    other organism cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    platelet alpha granule lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    symbiont-containing vacuole membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Preferred Names
    platelet factor 4
    Names
    C-X-C motif chemokine 4
    chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4
    iroplact
    oncostatin-A

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_032897.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5001..6300
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_002619.3NP_002610.1  platelet factor 4 precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002610.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AC097709, GD143506, M25897
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS3562.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P02776
      Related
      ENSP00000296029.3, OTTHUMP00000160478, ENST00000296029.3, OTTHUMT00000252282
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd00273
      Location:38100
      Chemokine_CXC; Chemokine_CXC: 1 of 4 subgroup designations based on the arrangement of the two N-terminal cysteine residues; includes a number of secreted growth factors and interferons involved in mitogenic, chemotactic, and inflammatory activity; many members ...

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000004.12 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

      Range
      73980825..73982124 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_005265696.3XP_005265753.1  platelet factor 4 isoform X1

      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd00273
      Location:47109
      Chemokine_CXC; Chemokine_CXC: 1 of 4 subgroup designations based on the arrangement of the two N-terminal cysteine residues; includes a number of secreted growth factors and interferons involved in mitogenic, chemotactic, and inflammatory activity; many members ...

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018915.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      74882437..74883736 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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