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    CALM1 calmodulin 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 801, updated on 13-Apr-2017
    Official Symbol
    CALM1provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    calmodulin 1provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:1442
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000198668 MIM:114180; Vega:OTTHUMG00000171044
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    caM; CAMI; PHKD; CPVT4; DD132; LQT14; CALML2
    Summary
    This gene encodes a member of the EF-hand calcium-binding protein family. It is one of three genes which encode an identical calcium binding protein which is one of the four subunits of phosphorylase kinase. Two pseudogenes have been identified on chromosome 7 and X. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
    Orthologs
    Location:
    14q32.11
    Exon count:
    7
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 14 NC_000014.9 (90396983..90408275)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 14 NC_000014.8 (90863327..90874619)

    Chromosome 14 - NC_000014.9Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene NRDE-2, necessary for RNA interference, domain containing Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105370618 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L21 pseudogene 11 Neighboring gene long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 2317 Neighboring gene long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 642

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env The calmodulin-binding domains in HIV-1 gp160 are involved in Fas-mediated apoptosis PubMed
    env The carboxyl-terminal domains (residues 768-788 and 826-854) of HIV-1 gp160 bind to calmodulin (CaM) PubMed
    Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env The carboxyl terminus (amino acid residues 768-788 and 828-855) of HIV-1 gp41 binds efficiently to purified calmodulin (CaM) and inhibits in vitro CaM-mediated stimulation of phosphodiesterase activity PubMed
    env The fusion between CD4+ human cells and cells stably expressing HIV-1 gp41 and gp120 is inhibited by calmodulin PubMed
    Nef nef HIV-1 Nef induces interleukin 10 expression through an interaction with the calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase signal transduction pathway PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef-induced CCL-2/MCP-1 upregulation in astrocytes depends on the myristoylation moiety (residues 2-3) of Nef and requires functional calmodulin PubMed
    nef Interaction of HIV-1 Nef with calmodulin has been shown by coimmunoprecipitation analyses with lysates from NIH3T3 cells expressing Nef; a myristoylated 20 amino-acid peptide of Nef binds to calmodulin with higher affinity than the nonmyristoylated form PubMed
    nef Fluorescence spectroscopy analyses indicate the myristoylated N-terminal eight amino acids of HIV-1 Nef directly interact with calcium bound calmodulin PubMed
    Tat tat Calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II (CaMK-II)-activated p38 MAPK play a role in extracellular Tat-induced IL-10 expression in primary human monocytes PubMed
    matrix gag HIV-1 MA-(8-43) binds to CaM in a manner similar to that observed for the full-length MA protein, and that the CaM protein is in an anti-parallel mode PubMed
    gag An HIV-1 MA peptide (residues 8-43) binds to CaM with a very high affinity with dissociation constant 25 nm PubMed
    gag The two buried tryptophan's (W16 and W36), which located in the first two alpha-helices of MA, mediate the calmodulin interaction PubMed
    gag Calmodulin (CaM) binding to HIV-1 MA induces the extrusion of the myristate group, suggesting that hydrophobic contacts between CaM and MA are critical for binding PubMed
    gag Calmodulin binds to both HIV-1 Gag and Matrix proteins through an extended calmodulin-binding domain in Matrix (amino acids 11-46) PubMed
    retropepsin gag-pol Calcium-depleted calmodulin can be cleaved at phe65-pro66 and met71-met72 by HIV-1 protease PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

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    • Activation of CaMK IV, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Alcoholism, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Aldosterone synthesis and secretion, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Alzheimer's disease, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Alzheimer's disease, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Alzheimers Disease, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
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    • Amphetamine addiction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Amphetamine addiction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Antigen activates B Cell Receptor (BCR) leading to generation of second messengers, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Apelin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • BCR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      BCR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      BCR signaling pathway
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      Beta-catenin independent WNT signaling, organism-specific biosystemHumans and mice have 19 identified WNT proteins that were originally classified as either 'canonical' or 'non-canonical' depending upon whether they were able to transform the mouse mammary epithelia...
    • C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), organism-specific biosystemPathogen recognition is central to the induction of T cell differentiation. Groups of pathogens share similar structures known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are recognised ...
    • CLEC7A (Dectin-1) induces NFAT activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      CLEC7A (Dectin-1) induces NFAT activation, organism-specific biosystemCLEC7A (Dectin-1) signals through the classic calcineurin/NFAT pathway through Syk activation phospholipase C-gamma 2 (PLCG2) leading to increased soluble IP3 (inositol trisphosphate). IP3 is able to...
    • CLEC7A (Dectin-1) signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      CLEC7A (Dectin-1) signaling, organism-specific biosystemCLEC7A (also known as Dectin-1) is a pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) expressed by myeloid cells (macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils) that detects pathogens by binding to beta-1,3-glucans...
    • CREB phosphorylation through the activation of CaMKII, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      CREB phosphorylation through the activation of CaMKII, organism-specific biosystemCa2+ signal generated through NMDA receptor in the post-synaptic neuron activates adenylate cyclase signal transduction, leading to the activation of PKA and phosphorylation and activation of CREB-in...
    • CREB phosphorylation through the activation of CaMKK, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      CREB phosphorylation through the activation of CaMKK, organism-specific biosystemTransient increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration after NMDA receptor activation leads to the activation of the CaMKIV via the activation of CaM-kinase kinase. CaM-kinase kinase and CaMKIV are b...
    • CREB phosphorylation through the activation of Ras, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      CREB phosphorylation through the activation of Ras, organism-specific biosystemCa2+ influx through the NMDA receptor initiates subsequent molecular pathways that have a defined role in establishing long-lasting synaptic changes. The molecular signaling initiated by a rise in Ca...
    • Ca-dependent events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Ca-dependent events, organism-specific biosystemCalcium, as the ion Ca2+, is essential in many biological processes. The majority of Ca2+ in many organisms is bound to phosphates which form skeletal structures and also buffer Ca2+ levels in extrac...
    • Ca2+ pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Ca2+ pathway, organism-specific biosystemA number of so called non-canonical WNT ligands have been shown to promote intracellular calcium release upon FZD binding. This beta-catenin-independent WNT pathway acts through heterotrimeric G pro...
    • CaM pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      CaM pathway, organism-specific biosystemCalmodulin (CaM) is a small acidic protein that contains four EF-hand motifs, each of which can bind a calcium ion, therefore it can bind up to four calcium ions. The protein has two approximately sy...
    • CaMK IV-mediated phosphorylation of CREB, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      CaMK IV-mediated phosphorylation of CREB, organism-specific biosystemThe Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) cascade includes three kinases: CaM-kinase kinase (CaMKK); and the CaM kinases CaMKI and CaMKIV, which are phosphorylated and activated by Ca...
    • Calcineurin-regulated NFAT-dependent transcription in lymphocytes, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Calcineurin-regulated NFAT-dependent transcription in lymphocytes, organism-specific biosystem
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    • Calcium Regulation in the Cardiac Cell, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Calcium Regulation in the Cardiac Cell, organism-specific biosystemCalcium is a common signaling mechanism, as once it enters the cytoplasm it exerts allosteric regulatory affects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction after influx resu...
    • Calcium signaling in the CD4+ TCR pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Calcium signaling in the CD4+ TCR pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      Calcium signaling in the CD4+ TCR pathway
    • Calcium signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Calcium signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemCa2+ that enters the cell from the outside is a principal source of signal Ca2+. Entry of Ca2+ is driven by the presence of a large electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane. Cells use this...
    • Calcium signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Calcium signaling pathway, conserved biosystemCa2+ that enters the cell from the outside is a principal source of signal Ca2+. Entry of Ca2+ is driven by the presence of a large electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane. Cells use this...
    • Calmodulin induced events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Calmodulin induced events, organism-specific biosystemOne important physiological role for Calmodulin is the regulation of adenylylcyclases. Four of the nine known adenylylcyclases are calcium sensitive, in particular type 8 (AC8).
    • Cam-PDE 1 activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Cam-PDE 1 activation, organism-specific biosystemHuman Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase PDE1 is activated by the binding of calmodulin in the presence of Ca(2+). PDE1 has three subtypes PDE1A, PDE1B and PDE1C and their role is to hydro...
    • Cardiac Hypertrophic Response, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Cardiac Hypertrophic Response, organism-specific biosystemIntegrated schematic of the more extensively characterized intracellular signal-transduction pathways that coordinate the cardiac hypertrophic response. During development and in response to physiolo...
    • Cardiac conduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Cardiac conduction, organism-specific biosystemThe normal sequence of contraction of atria and ventricles of the heart require activation of groups of cardiac cells. The mechanism must elicit rapid changes in heart rate and respond to changes in ...
    • Cellular roles of Anthrax toxin, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Cellular roles of Anthrax toxin, organism-specific biosystem
      Cellular roles of Anthrax toxin
    • Circadian entrainment, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Circadian entrainment, organism-specific biosystemCircadian entrainment is a fundamental property by which the period of the internal biological clock is entrained by recurring exogenous signals, such that the organism's endocrine and behavioral rhy...
    • Circadian entrainment, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Circadian entrainment, conserved biosystemCircadian entrainment is a fundamental property by which the period of the internal biological clock is entrained by recurring exogenous signals, such that the organism's endocrine and behavioral rhy...
    • Common Pathways Underlying Drug Addiction, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Common Pathways Underlying Drug Addiction, organism-specific biosystemThe pathway was modeled after Figure 2 in Li, et al. 2008 and is based on the common pathways identified in their study as well as protein interaction data. Specifically, glutamate and dopamine neuro...
    • Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • DAG and IP3 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      DAG and IP3 signaling, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway describes the generation of DAG and IP3 by the PLCgamma-mediated hydrolysis of PIP2 and the subsequent downstream signaling events.
    • DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • DARPP-32 events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystemAs a first step towards capturing the array of processes by which a fertilized egg gives rise to the diverse tissues of the body, examples of three kinds of processes have been annotated. These are a...
    • Disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Dopaminergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Dopaminergic synapse, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Downstream signaling in naive CD8+ T cells, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Downstream signaling in naive CD8+ T cells, organism-specific biosystem
      Downstream signaling in naive CD8+ T cells
    • EGFR interacts with phospholipase C-gamma, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Endochondral Ossification, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
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    • Endothelin Pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
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    • ErbB1 downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      ErbB1 downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem
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    • Estrogen signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • FCERI mediated MAPK activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Frs2-mediated activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • G Protein Signaling Pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
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    • G-protein mediated events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • G13 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
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    • GRB2 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Gastric acid secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Gastric acid secretion, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Glioma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Glucagon signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Glucagon signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Glucose metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Glucose metabolism, organism-specific biosystemGlucose is the major form in which dietary sugars are made available to cells of the human body. Its breakdown is a major source of energy for all cells, and is essential for the brain and red blood ...
    • Glycogen Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
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    • Glycogen breakdown (glycogenolysis), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • GnRH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • GnRH signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • IFN-gamma pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      IFN-gamma pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      IFN-gamma pathway
    • IGF1R signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      IGF1R signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystemAfter autophosphorylation the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) binds and phosphorylates scaffold proteins, IRS1/2/4 and SHC1, which in turn bind effectors possessing enzymatic activ...
    • IL2 signaling events mediated by PI3K, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      IL2 signaling events mediated by PI3K, organism-specific biosystem
      IL2 signaling events mediated by PI3K
    • IRS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      IRS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemRelease of phospho-IRS from the insulin receptor triggers a cascade of signalling events via PI3K, SOS, RAF and the MAP kinases.
    • IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphorylated type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor phosphorylates IR1, IRS2, IRS4 and possibly other IRS/DOK family members (reviewed in Pavelic et al. 2007, Chitnis et al. 2008, Maki et a...
    • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
    • Inactivation, recovery and regulation of the phototransduction cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Inactivation, recovery and regulation of the phototransduction cascade, organism-specific biosystemTo terminate the single photon response and restore the system to its basal state, the three activated intermediates in phototransduction, rhodopsin (MII), transducin alpha subunit with GTP bound (GN...
    • Infectious disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Infectious disease, organism-specific biosystem
      Infectious disease
    • Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, organism-specific biosystemThe TRP channels that exhibit a unique response to temperature have been given the name thermo-TRPs. Among all thermo- TRP channels, TRPV1-4, TRPM8, and TRPA1 are expressed in subsets of nociceptive...
    • Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, conserved biosystemThe TRP channels that exhibit a unique response to temperature have been given the name thermo-TRPs. Among all thermo- TRP channels, TRPV1-4, TRPM8, and TRPA1 are expressed in subsets of nociceptive...
    • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
    • Inositol phosphate metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Inositol phosphate metabolism, organism-specific biosystemInositol phosphates (IPs) are molecules involves in signalling processes in eukaryotes. myo-Inositol consists of a six-carbon cyclic alcohol with an axial 2-hydroxy and five equatorial hydroxyls. M...
    • Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystemAutophosphorylation of the insulin receptor triggers a series of signalling events, mediated by SHC or IRS, and resulting in activation of the Ras/RAF and MAP kinase cascades. A second effect of the ...
    • Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
    • Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
    • Insulin-mediated glucose transport, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Insulin-mediated glucose transport, organism-specific biosystem
      Insulin-mediated glucose transport
    • Interleukin receptor SHC signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Interleukin receptor SHC signaling, organism-specific biosystemPhosphorylation of Shc at three tyrosine residues, 239, 240 (Gotoh et al. 1996) and 317 (Salcini et al. 1994) involves unidentified tyrosine kinases presumed to be part of the activated receptor comp...
    • Interleukin-2 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Interleukin-2 signaling, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin-2 (IL-2) is a cytokine that is produced by T cells in response to antigen stimulation. Originally, IL-2 was discovered because of its potent growth factor activity on activated T cells in...
    • Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe Interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-5 and Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptors form a family of heterodimeric receptors that have specific alpha chains but share a common beta...
    • Ion channel transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Ion channel transport, organism-specific biosystemIon channels mediate the flow of ions across the plasma membrane of cells. They are integral membrane proteins, typically a multimer of proteins, which, when arranged in the membrane, create a pore f...
    • Ion homeostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Ion homeostasis, organism-specific biosystemIon channel homeostasis in relation to cardiac conduction is described in this section (Couette et al. 2006, Bartos et al. 2015).
    • Ion transport by P-type ATPases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Ion transport by P-type ATPases, organism-specific biosystemThe P-type ATPases (E1-E2 ATPases) are a large group of evolutionarily related ion pumps that are found in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. They are referred to as P-type ATPases because they catal...
    • Ionotropic activity of Kainate Receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Ionotropic activity of Kainate Receptors, organism-specific biosystemKainate receptors are either Ca2+ permeable or impermeable depending on the composition of the receptor and the editing status of subunits GluR5 and GluR6 (GRIK1 and 2).
    • Lissencephaly gene (LIS1) in neuronal migration and development, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Lissencephaly gene (LIS1) in neuronal migration and development, organism-specific biosystem
      Lissencephaly gene (LIS1) in neuronal migration and development
    • Long-term potentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Long-term potentiation, organism-specific biosystemHippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy, is the molecular basis for learning and memory. Tetanic stimulation of afferents in the CA1 region of the hippo...
    • Long-term potentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Long-term potentiation, conserved biosystemHippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy, is the molecular basis for learning and memory. Tetanic stimulation of afferents in the CA1 region of the hippo...
    • MAPK family signaling cascades, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MAPK family signaling cascades, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of conserved protein serine threonine kinases that respond to varied extracellular stimuli to activate intracellular processes including gen...
    • MAPK1/MAPK3 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MAPK1/MAPK3 signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2, also known as MAPK3 and MAPK1, are phosphorylated by the MAP2Ks 1 and 2 in response to a wide range of extracellular stimuli to promote diff...
    • Melanogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Melanogenesis, organism-specific biosystemCutaneous melanin pigment plays a critical role in camouflage, mimicry, social communication, and protection against harmful effects of solar radiation. Melanogenesis is under complex regulatory cont...
    • Melanogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Melanogenesis, conserved biosystemCutaneous melanin pigment plays a critical role in camouflage, mimicry, social communication, and protection against harmful effects of solar radiation. Melanogenesis is under complex regulatory cont...
    • Melatonin metabolism and effects, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Melatonin metabolism and effects, organism-specific biosystemMelatonin is an important regulator of circadian rythmus and influences also insulin secretion, immune function, retinal function and neuroprotection. The synthesis starts with the amino acid tryptop...
    • Membrane Trafficking, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Membrane Trafficking, organism-specific biosystemThe secretory membrane system allows a cell to regulate delivery of newly synthesized proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids to the cell surface, a necessity for growth and homeostasis. The system is ma...
    • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
    • Metabolism of carbohydrates, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism of carbohydrates, organism-specific biosystemThese pathways together are responsible for: 1) the extraction of energy and carbon skeletons for biosyntheses from dietary sugars and related molecules; 2) the short-term storage of glucose in the b...
    • Metabolism of nitric oxide, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism of nitric oxide, organism-specific biosystemNitric oxide (NO), a multifunctional second messenger, is implicated in physiological functions in mammals that range from immune response and potentiation of synaptic transmission to dilation of blo...
    • Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystemProtein metabolism comprises the pathways of translation, post-translational modification and protein folding.
    • MicroRNAs in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      MicroRNAs in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway shows the role of microRNAs in the process of cardiac hypertrophy. MicroRNA targets were predicted by the TargetScan algorithm, and the predicted interactions are shown in red dashed lin...
    • Muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystemIn this module, the processes by which calcium binding triggers actin - myosin interactions and force generation in smooth and striated muscle tissues are annotated.
    • Myometrial Relaxation and Contraction Pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Myometrial Relaxation and Contraction Pathways, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway illustrates signaling networks implicated in uterine muscle contraction at labor and quiescence throughout gestation (pregnancy). The muscle of the uterus, responsible for contractile ac...
    • N-cadherin signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      N-cadherin signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
      N-cadherin signaling events
    • NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth, organism-specific biosystemThe neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and is involved in a variety of cellular processes of importance for the formation and maintenance of the n...
    • NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemTrk receptors signal from the plasma membrane and from intracellular membranes, particularly from early endosomes. Signalling from the plasma membrane is fast but transient; signalling from endosomes...
    • Neuronal System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Neuronal System, organism-specific biosystemThe human brain contains at least 100 billion neurons, each with the ability to influence many other cells. Clearly, highly sophisticated and efficient mechanisms are needed to enable communication a...
    • Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding And Downstream Transmission In The Postsynaptic Cell, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding And Downstream Transmission In The Postsynaptic Cell, organism-specific biosystemThe neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft released by the pre-synaptic neuron binds specific receptors located on the post-synaptic terminal. These receptors are either ion channels or G protein cou...
    • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
    • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
    • Olfactory transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Olfactory transduction, organism-specific biosystemWithin the compact cilia of the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) a cascade of enzymatic activity transduces the binding of an odorant molecule to a receptor into an electrical signal that can be tra...
    • Olfactory transduction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Olfactory transduction, conserved biosystemWithin the compact cilia of the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) a cascade of enzymatic activity transduces the binding of an odorant molecule to a receptor into an electrical signal that can be tra...
    • Oocyte meiosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Oocyte meiosis, organism-specific biosystemDuring meiosis, a single round of DNA replication is followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation, called meiosis I and meiosis II. At meiosis I, homologous chromosomes recombine and then segrega...
    • Oocyte meiosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Oocyte meiosis, conserved biosystemDuring meiosis, a single round of DNA replication is followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation, called meiosis I and meiosis II. At meiosis I, homologous chromosomes recombine and then segrega...
    • Opioid Signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Opioid Signalling, organism-specific biosystemOpioids are chemical substances similar to opiates, the active substances found in opium (morphine, codeine etc.). Opioid action is mediated by the receptors for endogenous opioids; peptides such as...
    • Oxytocin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Oxytocin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemOxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide synthesized by the magno-cellular neurons located in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the hypothalamus. It exerts a wide variety of central and ...
    • Oxytocin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Oxytocin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemOxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide synthesized by the magno-cellular neurons located in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the hypothalamus. It exerts a wide variety of central and ...
    • PLC beta mediated events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      PLC beta mediated events, organism-specific biosystemThe phospholipase C (PLC) family of enzymes is both diverse and complex. The isoforms beta, gamma and delta (each have subtypes) make up the members of this family. PLC hydrolyzes phosphatidylinosito...
    • PLC-gamma1 signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      PLC-gamma1 signalling, organism-specific biosystemThe activation of phosphlipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma) and subsequent mobilization of calcium from intracellular stores are essential for neurotrophin secretion. PLC-gamma is activated through the phosph...
    • Pertussis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pertussis, organism-specific biosystemPertussis, also known as whooping cough, is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by a bacteria called Bordetella Pertussis. The characteristic symptoms are paroxysmal cough, inspiratory whe...
    • Pertussis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pertussis, conserved biosystemPertussis, also known as whooping cough, is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by a bacteria called Bordetella Pertussis. The characteristic symptoms are paroxysmal cough, inspiratory whe...
    • Phase 0 - rapid depolarisation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Phase 0 - rapid depolarisation, organism-specific biosystemPhase 0 is the rapid depolarisation phase in which electrical stimulation of a cell initiates events involving the influx and efflux of ions resulting in the production of a cell's action potential. ...
    • Phosphatidylinositol signaling system, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Phosphatidylinositol signaling system, organism-specific biosystem
      Phosphatidylinositol signaling system
    • Phosphatidylinositol signaling system, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Phosphatidylinositol signaling system, conserved biosystem
      Phosphatidylinositol signaling system
    • Phototransduction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Phototransduction, organism-specific biosystemPhototransduction is a biochemical process by which the photoreceptor cells generate electrical signals in response to captured photons. The vertebrate cascade starts with the absorption of photons b...
    • Phototransduction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Phototransduction, conserved biosystemPhototransduction is a biochemical process by which the photoreceptor cells generate electrical signals in response to captured photons. The vertebrate cascade starts with the absorption of photons b...
    • Physiological and Pathological Hypertrophy of the Heart, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Physiological and Pathological Hypertrophy of the Heart, organism-specific biosystemPathways in physiological and pathological hypertrophy of the heart. Largely based on the article from Wang Y; ''Signal transduction in cardiac hypertrophy--dissecting compensatory versus pathologica...
    • Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet activation begins with the initial binding of adhesive ligands and of the excitatory platelet agonists (released or generated at the sites of vascular trauma) to cognate receptors on the pla...
    • Platelet calcium homeostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Platelet calcium homeostasis, organism-specific biosystemCa2+ homeostasis is controlled by processes that elevate or counter the elevation of cytosolic Ca2+. During steady state conditions, cytoplasmic Ca2+ is reduced by the accumulation of Ca2+ in intrac...
    • Platelet degranulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Platelet degranulation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelets function as exocytotic cells, secreting a plethora of effector molecules at sites of vascular injury. Platelets contain a number of distinguishable storage granules including alpha granules...
    • Platelet homeostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Platelet homeostasis, organism-specific biosystemUnder normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhesion and activation, suppresses coagulation, enhances fibrin cleavage and is anti-inflammatory in charact...
    • Post NMDA receptor activation events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Post NMDA receptor activation events, organism-specific biosystemCa2+ influx through the NMDA receptor initiates subsequent molecular pathways that have a defined role in establishing long-lasting synaptic changes. The molecular signaling initiated by a rise in Ca...
    • Post-translational protein modification, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Post-translational protein modification, organism-specific biosystemAfter translation, many newly formed proteins undergo further covalent modifications that alter their functional properties and that are essentially irreversible under physiological conditions in the...
    • Prolonged ERK activation events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Prolonged ERK activation events, organism-specific biosystemAfter NGF binding, activated Trk receptors provide multiple docking sites for adaptor proteins and enzymes. Two docking proteins, the Ankyrin-Rich Membrane Spanning protein (ARMS/Kidins220) and Fibro...
    • Protein methylation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Protein methylation, organism-specific biosystemMethylation of lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg) residues on non-histone proteins is a prevalent post-translational modification and important regulator of cellular signal transduction pathways includi...
    • RAF/MAP kinase cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RAF/MAP kinase cascade, organism-specific biosystemThe RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway regulates processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, senescence and cell motility in response to growth factors, hormones and cytokines, among others. Bin...
    • RET signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RET signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe RET proto-oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed primarily in urogenital precursor cells, spermatogonocytes, dopaminergic neurons, motor neurons and neural crest progenitors and de...
    • RHO GTPase Effectors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RHO GTPase Effectors, organism-specific biosystemRHO GTPases regulate cell behaviour by activating a number of downstream effectors that regulate cytoskeletal organization, intracellular trafficking and transcription (reviewed by Sahai and Marshall...
    • RHO GTPases activate IQGAPs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RHO GTPases activate IQGAPs, organism-specific biosystemIQGAPs constitute a family of scaffolding proteins characterized by a calponin homology (CH) domain, a polyproline binding region (WW domain), a tandem of four IQ (isoleucine and glutamine-rich) repe...
    • RHO GTPases activate PAKs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RHO GTPases activate PAKs, organism-specific biosystemThe PAKs (p21-activated kinases) are a family of serine/threonine kinases mainly implicated in cytoskeletal rearrangements. All PAKs share a conserved catalytic domain located at the carboxyl terminu...
    • Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
    • Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
    • Ras activation uopn Ca2+ infux through NMDA receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Ras activation uopn Ca2+ infux through NMDA receptor, organism-specific biosystemCa2+ influx through the NMDA receptor leads to the activation of Ras kinase via the activation of RasGRF.
    • Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras prote...
    • Reduction of cytosolic Ca++ levels, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Reduction of cytosolic Ca++ levels, organism-specific biosystemDuring steady state conditions, cytoplasmic [Ca2+] is reduced by the accumulation of Ca2+ in intracellular stores and Ca2+ extrusion.
    • Regulation of cytoplasmic and nuclear SMAD2/3 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Regulation of cytoplasmic and nuclear SMAD2/3 signaling, organism-specific biosystem
      Regulation of cytoplasmic and nuclear SMAD2/3 signaling
    • Renin secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Renin secretion, organism-specific biosystemThe aspartyl-protease renin is the key regulator of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is critically involved in extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure homeostasis of the body. R...
    • Renin secretion, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Renin secretion, conserved biosystemThe aspartyl-protease renin is the key regulator of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is critically involved in extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure homeostasis of the body. R...
    • Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+, organism-specific biosystemActivation of phospholipase C enzymes results in the generation of second messengers of the phosphatidylinositol pathway. The events resulting from this pathway are a rise in intracellular calcium an...
    • Role of Calcineurin-dependent NFAT signaling in lymphocytes, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Role of Calcineurin-dependent NFAT signaling in lymphocytes, organism-specific biosystem
      Role of Calcineurin-dependent NFAT signaling in lymphocytes
    • SHC1 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      SHC1 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystemGRB2 can bind EGFR directly or through another SH2-containing protein, SHC1. This association leads to RAS activation.
    • SLC-mediated transmembrane transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      SLC-mediated transmembrane transport, organism-specific biosystemProteins with transporting functions can be roughly classified into 3 categories: ATP-powered pumps, ion channels, and transporters. Pumps utilize the energy released by ATP hydrolysis to power the m...
    • SOS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      SOS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemSOS is recruited to the plasma membrane and mediates activation of Ras.
    • Salivary secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Salivary secretion, organism-specific biosystemSaliva has manifold functions in maintaining the integrity of the oral tissues, in protecting teeth from caries, in the tasting and ingestion of food, in speech and in the tolerance of tenures, for e...
    • Salivary secretion, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Salivary secretion, conserved biosystemSaliva has manifold functions in maintaining the integrity of the oral tissues, in protecting teeth from caries, in the tasting and ingestion of food, in speech and in the tolerance of tenures, for e...
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystemThe epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one member of the ERBB family of transmembrane glycoprotein tyrosine receptor kinases (RTK). Binding of EGFR to its ligands induces conformational chang...
    • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
    • Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in receptor autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues and the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (e.g. IRS and Shc) by the insulin receptor...
    • Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystemInterleukins are low molecular weight proteins that bind to cell surface receptors and act in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion. They were first identified as factors produced by leukocytes but a...
    • Signaling by Leptin, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Leptin, organism-specific biosystemLeptin (LEP, OB, OBS), a circulating adipokine, and its receptor LEPR (DB, OBR) control food intake and energy balance and are implicated in obesity-related diseases (recently reviewed in Amitani et ...
    • Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet-derived Growth Factor (PDGF) is a potent stimulator of growth and motility of connective tissue cells such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells as well as other cells such as capillary end...
    • Signaling by Rho GTPases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Rho GTPases, organism-specific biosystemThe Rho family of small guanine nucleotide binding proteins is one of five generally recognized branches of the Ras superfamily. Like most Ras superfamily members, typical Rho proteins function as bi...
    • Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystemStem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor with membrane bound and soluble forms. It is expressed by fibroblasts and endothelial cells throughout the body, promoting proliferation, migration, survival...
    • Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystemBinding of IGF1 (IGF-I) or IGF2 (IGF-II) to the extracellular alpha peptides of the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) triggers the activation of two major signaling pathways: the SOS...
    • Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystemIn normal development vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are crucial regulators of vascular development during embryogenesis (vasculogenesis) and blood-vessel formation in the adult (angioge...
    • Signaling by Wnt, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Wnt, organism-specific biosystemWNT signaling pathways control a wide range of developmental and adult process in metozoans including cell proliferation, cell fate decisions, cell polarity and stem cell maintenance (reviewed in Sai...
    • Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystemMature B cells express IgM and IgD immunoglobulins which are complexed at the plasma membrane with Ig-alpha (CD79A, MB-1) and Ig-beta (CD79B, B29) to form the B cell receptor (BCR) (Fu et al. 1974, F...
    • Signaling events mediated by VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Signaling events mediated by VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, organism-specific biosystem
      Signaling events mediated by VEGFR1 and VEGFR2
    • Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4/5) play pivotal roles in survival, differentiation, and plasticity of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. They are produced, and secreted in mi...
    • Signalling to ERKs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling to ERKs, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins utilize multiple pathways to activate ERKs (ERK1 and ERK2), a subgroup of the large MAP kinase (MAPK) family, from the plasma membrane. The major signalling pathways to ERKs are via RAS...
    • Signalling to RAS, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling to RAS, organism-specific biosystemSignalling through Shc adaptor proteins appears to be identical for both NGF and EGF. It leads to a fast, but transient, MAPK/ERK activation, which is insufficient to explain the prolonged activation...
    • Signalling to p38 via RIT and RIN, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling to p38 via RIT and RIN, organism-specific biosystemRIT and RIN are two small guanine nucleotide binding proteins that share more than 50% sequence identity with RAS, including highly conserved core effector domains. Unlike RAS, the C termini of RIT a...
    • Smooth Muscle Contraction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Smooth Muscle Contraction, organism-specific biosystemLayers of smooth muscle cells can be found in the walls of numerous organs and tissues within the body. Smooth muscle tissue lacks the striated banding pattern characteristic of skeletal and cardiac ...
    • Sodium/Calcium exchangers, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Sodium/Calcium exchangers, organism-specific biosystemCalcium ions are used by cells as ubiquitous signalling molecules that control diverse physiological events. Three mammalian gene families control Ca2+ transport across plasma membranes and intracell...
    • Stimuli-sensing channels, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Stimuli-sensing channels, organism-specific biosystemIon channels that mediate sensations such as pain, warmth, cold, taste pressure and vision. Channels that mediate these sensations include acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) (Wang & Xu 2011, Qadri et ...
    • Synthesis of IP3 and IP4 in the cytosol, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Synthesis of IP3 and IP4 in the cytosol, organism-specific biosystemAn array of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and tetrakisphosphate (IP4) molecules are synthesised by the action of various kinases and phosphatases in the cytosol (Irvine & Schell 2001, Bunney & Katan 2...
    • T-Cell Receptor and Co-stimulatory Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      T-Cell Receptor and Co-stimulatory Signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe activation and translocation of transcription factors NFAT, AP-1 and NF-kappa-B via the co-stimulatory signaling cascade triggered by MHC peptide, B7 proteins and PD-L1. The activation of NFAT in...
    • T-Cell antigen Receptor (TCR) pathway during Staphylococcus aureus infection, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      T-Cell antigen Receptor (TCR) pathway during Staphylococcus aureus infection, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is based on Figure 4 of "A Model of an Integrated Immune System Pathway in Homo sapiens and Its Interaction with Superantigen Producing Expression Regulatory Pathway in Staphylococcus au...
    • Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) synthesis, recycling, salvage and regulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) synthesis, recycling, salvage and regulation, organism-specific biosystemTetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential co-factor for the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases and glycerol ether monooxygenase and it regulates nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. Inherited BH4 defi...
    • The phototransduction cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      The phototransduction cascade, organism-specific biosystemThe visual pigment (rhodopsin in rods) consists of an 11-cis-retinal (11cRAL) chromophore covalently attached to a GPCR opsin family member via a Schiff base linkage. Upon photon absorption, 11cRAL i...
    • Translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemIn adipocytes and myocytes insulin signaling causes intracellular vesicles carrying the GLUT4 (SLC2A4) glucose transporter to translocate to the plasma membrane, allowing the cells to take up glucose...
    • Transmembrane transport of small molecules, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Transmembrane transport of small molecules, organism-specific biosystem
      Transmembrane transport of small molecules
    • Transmission across Chemical Synapses, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Transmission across Chemical Synapses, organism-specific biosystemChemical synapses are specialized junctions that are used for communication between neurons, neurons and muscle or gland cells. The synapse involves a pre-synaptic neuron and a post-synaptic neuron,...
    • Transport of inorganic cations/anions and amino acids/oligopeptides, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Transport of inorganic cations/anions and amino acids/oligopeptides, organism-specific biosystemTeleologically, one might argue that inorganic cation and anion transport would be evolutionarily among the oldest transport functions. Eight families comprise the group that transports exclusively i...
    • Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
    • Tuberculosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Tuberculosis, conserved biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
    • Uptake and actions of bacterial toxins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Uptake and actions of bacterial toxins, organism-specific biosystemThe toxic effects of many bacteria on their human hosts are mediated by proteins released from the bacteria that enter human cells and disrupt critical cellular functions (Henkel et al. 2010). All of...
    • Uptake and function of anthrax toxins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Uptake and function of anthrax toxins, organism-specific biosystemBacillus anthracis bacteria target cells in an infected human through the action of three secreted bacterial proteins, LF, EF, and PA (reviews: Turk 2007; Young and Collier 2007). LF (lethal factor) ...
    • VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystemAngiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vasculature. One of the most important proangiogenic factors is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF exerts its biologic...
    • VEGFR1 specific signals, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      VEGFR1 specific signals, organism-specific biosystem
      VEGFR1 specific signals
    • VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation, organism-specific biosystemVEGFR2 stimulates ERK not via GRB2-SOS-RAS, but via pY1175-dependent phosphorylation of PLC gamma and subsequent activation of PKCs. PKC plays an important mediatory role in the proliferative Ras/Raf...
    • VEGFR2 mediated vascular permeability, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      VEGFR2 mediated vascular permeability, organism-specific biosystemThe free radical nitric oxide (NO), produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), is an important vasoactive substance in normal vascular biology and pathophysiology. It plays an important role in vasc...
    • Vascular smooth muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Vascular smooth muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystemThe vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is a highly specialized cell whose principal function is contraction. On contraction, VSMCs shorten, thereby decreasing the diameter of a blood vessel to regula...
    • Vascular smooth muscle contraction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Vascular smooth muscle contraction, conserved biosystemThe vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is a highly specialized cell whose principal function is contraction. On contraction, VSMCs shorten, thereby decreasing the diameter of a blood vessel to regula...
    • Vesicle-mediated transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Vesicle-mediated transport, organism-specific biosystemThe transit of proteins and other cargo through the cell requires a cellular transport process in which transported substances are moved in membrane-bounded vesicles. Transported substances are enclo...
    • Visual phototransduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Visual phototransduction, organism-specific biosystemVisual phototransduction is the process by which photon absorption by visual pigment molecules in photoreceptor cells is converted to an electrical cellular response. The events in this process are p...
    • cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...
    • cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...
    • cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemCyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated i...
    • cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, conserved biosystemCyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated i...
    • eNOS activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      eNOS activation, organism-specific biosystemeNOS activity is regulated by numerous post-translational modifications including phosphorylation and acylation, which also modulate its interactions with other proteins and its subcellular localizat...
    • eNOS activation and regulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      eNOS activation and regulation, organism-specific biosystemOriginally identified as endothelium-derived relaxing factor, eNOS derived NO is a critical signaling molecule in vascular homeostasis. It regulates blood pressure and vascular tone, and is involved...
    • p38 MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      p38 MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      p38 MAPK signaling pathway
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    N-terminal myristoylation domain binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Ras guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    adenylate cyclase binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    calcium channel inhibitor activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    calcium ion binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    calcium ion binding ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    calcium-dependent protein binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    disordered domain specific binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    ion channel binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    ligand-gated ion channel activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    nitric-oxide synthase binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    nitric-oxide synthase regulator activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    phospholipase binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein domain specific binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein kinase binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein phosphatase activator activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein serine/threonine kinase activator activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    thioesterase binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    titin binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    type 3 metabotropic glutamate receptor binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    Fc-epsilon receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    MAPK cascade TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    activation of adenylate cyclase activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    detection of calcium ion IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    establishment of protein localization to mitochondrial membrane IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    glycogen catabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    inositol phosphate metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    ion transmembrane transport IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    muscle contraction TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    negative regulation of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel activity ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    platelet degranulation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    positive regulation of GTPase activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of cAMP biosynthetic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cyclic nucleotide metabolic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of phosphoprotein phosphatase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of protein autophosphorylation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of protein dephosphorylation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of protein serine/threonine kinase activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein methylation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    regulation of cardiac muscle contraction IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of cardiac muscle contraction by regulation of the release of sequestered calcium ion IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
     
    regulation of cell communication by electrical coupling involved in cardiac conduction IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
     
    regulation of cytokinesis IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of heart rate IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of high voltage-gated calcium channel activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol by sarcoplasmic reticulum IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of rhodopsin mediated signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    regulation of ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of synaptic vesicle endocytosis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to amphetamine IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to calcium ion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    response to corticosterone IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    substantia nigra development IEP
    Inferred from Expression Pattern
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    colocalizes_with calcium channel complex IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    catalytic complex IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    centrosome IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytoplasm TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular exosome IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    growth cone IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    mitochondrial membrane IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    myelin sheath IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    nucleoplasm TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    nucleus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    plasma membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    postsynaptic density IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein complex IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    sarcomere IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    spindle microtubule IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    spindle pole IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    synaptic vesicle membrane IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    vesicle IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Preferred Names
    calmodulin
    Names
    calmodulin 1 (phosphorylase kinase, delta)
    phosphorylase kinase subunit delta
    phosphorylase kinase, delta subunit
    prepro-calmodulin 1
    NP_008819.1

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_013338.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5001..16293
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_006888.4NP_008819.1  calmodulin

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_008819.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AI651063, AL512791, AU122722, BC011834
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS9892.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P62158
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      B4DJ51
      Related
      ENSP00000349467.4, OTTHUMP00000244938, ENST00000356978.8, OTTHUMT00000411346
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      PTZ00184
      Location:1149
      PTZ00184; calmodulin; Provisional
      cd00051
      Location:85147
      EFh; EF-hand, calcium binding motif; A diverse superfamily of calcium sensors and calcium signal modulators; most examples in this alignment model have 2 active canonical EF hands. Ca2+ binding induces a conformational change in the EF-hand motif, leading to ...

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...Open this link in a new tab

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000014.9 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

      Range
      90396983..90408275
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_006720258.3XP_006720321.1  calmodulin isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006720321.1

      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      E7ETZ0
      Related
      ENSP00000403491.3, OTTHUMP00000244939, ENST00000447653.7, OTTHUMT00000411347
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      PTZ00184
      Location:3150
      PTZ00184; calmodulin; Provisional
      cd00051
      Location:86148
      EFh; EF-hand, calcium binding motif; A diverse superfamily of calcium sensors and calcium signal modulators; most examples in this alignment model have 2 active canonical EF hands. Ca2+ binding induces a conformational change in the EF-hand motif, leading to ...

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018925.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      90801276..90812578
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

    The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

    1. NM_001166106.1: Suppressed sequence

      Description
      NM_001166106.1: This RefSeq was permanently suppressed because currently there is support for the transcript but not for the protein.
    Support Center