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    MIR21 microRNA 21 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 406991, updated on 17-Jun-2018
    Official Symbol
    MIR21provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    microRNA 21provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:31586
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000284190 MIM:611020; miRBase:MI0000077
    Gene type
    ncRNA
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    MIRN21; miR-21; miRNA21; hsa-mir-21
    Summary
    microRNAs (miRNAs) are short (20-24 nt) non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in multicellular organisms by affecting both the stability and translation of mRNAs. miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II as part of capped and polyadenylated primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) that can be either protein-coding or non-coding. The primary transcript is cleaved by the Drosha ribonuclease III enzyme to produce an approximately 70-nt stem-loop precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA), which is further cleaved by the cytoplasmic Dicer ribonuclease to generate the mature miRNA and antisense miRNA star (miRNA*) products. The mature miRNA is incorporated into a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which recognizes target mRNAs through imperfect base pairing with the miRNA and most commonly results in translational inhibition or destabilization of the target mRNA. The RefSeq represents the predicted microRNA stem-loop. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
    See MIR21 in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    17q23.1
    Exon count:
    1
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 17 NC_000017.11 (59841266..59841337)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 17 NC_000017.10 (57918627..57918698)

    Chromosome 17 - NC_000017.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase 2 Neighboring gene vacuole membrane protein 1 Neighboring gene VMP1 intron CAGE-defined low expression enhancer Neighboring gene RNA, U6 small nuclear 450, pseudogene Neighboring gene tubulin delta 1 Neighboring gene NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit B8 pseudogene 2

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

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    • MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or...
    • MicroRNAs in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      MicroRNAs in cancer, conserved biosystemMicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or...
    • Nanoparticle triggered autophagic cell death, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Nanoparticle triggered autophagic cell death, organism-specific biosystemProgrammed cell death: autophagic cell death. Autophagy (self-eating) is a survival mechanism deployed by cells to cope with conditions of nutrient deprivation. However, unrestrained autophagy can re...
    • Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
    • Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    BMP signaling pathway IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    activation of protein kinase B activity IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to lipopolysaccharide IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to resveratrol ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    collagen metabolic process ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    embryo implantation NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    endothelial tube morphogenesis IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    epithelial to mesenchymal transition involved in cardiac fibroblast development IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    gene silencing by miRNA IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    gene silencing by miRNA IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    gene silencing by miRNA IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    miRNA mediated inhibition of translation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    miRNA mediated inhibition of translation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of GTPase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    negative regulation of angiogenesis IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of angiogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    negative regulation of aortic smooth muscle cell differentiation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of apoptotic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of arginine catabolic process ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    negative regulation of cardiac muscle cell apoptotic process ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    negative regulation of cardiac muscle hypertrophy ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    negative regulation of cartilage development IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of cell migration IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of cell proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of cell proliferation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of chondrocyte proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of endothelial cell migration IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of endothelial tube morphogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    negative regulation of gene expression IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of gene expression IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of hydrogen peroxide-mediated programmed cell death ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    negative regulation of hydrogen sulfide biosynthetic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of innate immune response IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway by p53 class mediator IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of reactive oxygen species biosynthetic process ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    negative regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of smooth muscle cell apoptotic process ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    negative regulation of stress fiber assembly IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of superoxide dismutase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of type I interferon production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of type I interferon-mediated signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell apoptotic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell migration IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    phenotypic switching IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of T-helper 17 cell differentiation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of T-helper 17 type immune response ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of angiogenesis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of apoptotic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cardiac muscle hypertrophy ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of cell migration IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cell migration IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cell projection organization ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of cell proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cell proliferation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cellular response to hypoxia ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of endothelial cell differentiation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of endothelial cell migration IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of fat cell differentiation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of gene expression IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of inflammatory response IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of inflammatory response to wounding ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of keratinocyte proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelial cell IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of metalloendopeptidase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of myofibroblast differentiation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of osteoblast differentiation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of potassium ion export IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of protein phosphorylation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of replicative senescence IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell migration IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell migration ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of vascular endothelial cell proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle contraction IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of calcium ion transmembrane transport via high voltage-gated calcium channel IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of cell migration IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of cell shape IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of protein kinase B signaling ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    regulation of signal transduction involved in mitotic G2 DNA damage checkpoint IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular exosome IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular space HDA PubMed 
    extracellular space IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    micro-ribonucleoprotein complex IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    RNA

    1. NR_029493.1 RNA Sequence

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AC004686
      Related
      ENST00000362134.1

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000017.11 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

      Range
      59841266..59841337
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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