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    GRN granulin precursor [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 2896, updated on 23-Apr-2017
    Official Symbol
    GRNprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    granulin precursorprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:4601
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000030582 MIM:138945; Vega:OTTHUMG00000181816
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    GEP; GP88; PEPI; PGRN; CLN11; PCDGF
    Summary
    Granulins are a family of secreted, glycosylated peptides that are cleaved from a single precursor protein with 7.5 repeats of a highly conserved 12-cysteine granulin/epithelin motif. The 88 kDa precursor protein, progranulin, is also called proepithelin and PC cell-derived growth factor. Cleavage of the signal peptide produces mature granulin which can be further cleaved into a variety of active, 6 kDa peptides. These smaller cleavage products are named granulin A, granulin B, granulin C, etc. Epithelins 1 and 2 are synonymous with granulins A and B, respectively. Both the peptides and intact granulin protein regulate cell growth. However, different members of the granulin protein family may act as inhibitors, stimulators, or have dual actions on cell growth. Granulin family members are important in normal development, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
    Orthologs
    Location:
    17q21.31
    Exon count:
    13
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 17 NC_000017.11 (44345086..44353106)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 17 NC_000017.10 (42422491..42430474)

    Chromosome 17 - NC_000017.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene solute carrier family 25 member 39 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107985066 Neighboring gene family with sequence similarity 171 member A2 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L7 like 1 pseudogene 5

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Tat tat Granulin forms stable complexes with cyclin T1 and HIV-1 Tat and inhibits Tat transactivation of the viral LTR promoter PubMed
    tat The cysteine rich region of HIV-1 Tat (amino acids 21-37) mediates the binding of Tat to granulin amino acids 206-337 (granulin regions B+A) suggesting a role for granulin growth factors as biologically important extracellular Tat co-factors PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
    • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
    • Integrated Breast Cancer Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Integrated Breast Cancer Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway incorporates the most important proteins for Breast Cancer. The Rp score from the Connectivity-Maps (C-Maps) webserver was used to determine the rank of the most important proteins in Br...
    • Neutrophil degranulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Neutrophil degranulation, organism-specific biosystemNeutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes (white blood cells), indispensable in defending the body against invading microorganisms. In response to infection, neutrophils leave the circulation and ...
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    RNA binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytokine activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    growth factor activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    neutrophil degranulation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    signal transduction NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    azurophil granule lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    endoplasmic reticulum IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    endosome IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    extracellular exosome IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular space IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    lysosome IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    Preferred Names
    granulins
    Names
    PC cell-derived growth factor
    acrogranin
    granulin-epithelin
    proepithelin
    progranulin

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_007886.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      4964..12984
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics), LRG_661

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_002087.3NP_002078.1  granulins precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002078.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AY124489, BC010577, DC336362
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS11483.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P28799
      Related
      ENSP00000053867.2, OTTHUMP00000267554, ENST00000053867.7, OTTHUMT00000457766
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00277
      Location:285335
      GRAN; Granulin
      pfam00396
      Location:377414
      Granulin; Granulin

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...Open this link in a new tab

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000017.11 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

      Range
      44345086..44353106
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_005257253.1XP_005257310.1  granulins isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_005257310.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P28799
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00277
      Location:285335
      GRAN; Granulin
      pfam00396
      Location:377414
      Granulin; Granulin

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018928.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      42658129..42666150
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

    The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

    1. NM_001012479.1: Suppressed sequence

      Description
      NM_001012479.1: This RefSeq was permanently suppressed because there is insufficient support for the transcript and the protein.
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