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    PER2 period circadian regulator 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 8864, updated on 23-May-2018
    Official Symbol
    PER2provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    period circadian regulator 2provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:8846
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000132326 MIM:603426; Vega:OTTHUMG00000152884
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    FASPS; FASPS1
    Summary
    This gene is a member of the Period family of genes and is expressed in a circadian pattern in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the primary circadian pacemaker in the mammalian brain. Genes in this family encode components of the circadian rhythms of locomotor activity, metabolism, and behavior. This gene is upregulated by CLOCK/ARNTL heterodimers but then represses this upregulation in a feedback loop using PER/CRY heterodimers to interact with CLOCK/ARNTL. Polymorphisms in this gene may increase the risk of getting certain cancers and have been linked to sleep disorders. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
    Expression
    Ubiquitous expression in testis (RPKM 8.7), gall bladder (RPKM 7.6) and 25 other tissues See more
    Orthologs
    See PER2 in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    2q37.3
    Exon count:
    25
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 2 NC_000002.12 (238244038..238290102, complement)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 2 NC_000002.11 (239152679..239198678, complement)

    Chromosome 2 - NC_000002.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene TAR DNA binding protein pseudogene Neighboring gene hes family bHLH transcription factor 6 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC112268433 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105373961 Neighboring gene TRAF3 interacting protein 1

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    • BMAL1:CLOCK,NPAS2 activates circadian gene expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      BMAL1:CLOCK,NPAS2 activates circadian gene expression, organism-specific biosystemAs inferred from mouse, BMAL1:CLOCK (ARNTL:CLOCK) and BMAL1:NPAS2 (ARNTL:NPAS2) heterodimers bind to sequence elements (E boxes) in the promoters of target genes and enhance transcription (Gekakis et...
    • Circadian Clock, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Circadian Clock, organism-specific biosystemAt the center of the mammalian circadian clock is a negative transcription/translation-based feedback loop: The BMAL1:CLOCK/NPAS2 (ARNTL:CLOCK/NPAS2) heterodimer transactivates CRY and PER genes by b...
    • Circadian entrainment, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Circadian entrainment, organism-specific biosystemCircadian entrainment is a fundamental property by which the period of the internal biological clock is entrained by recurring exogenous signals, such that the organism's endocrine and behavioral rhy...
    • Circadian entrainment, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Circadian entrainment, conserved biosystemCircadian entrainment is a fundamental property by which the period of the internal biological clock is entrained by recurring exogenous signals, such that the organism's endocrine and behavioral rhy...
    • Circadian rhythm, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Circadian rhythm, organism-specific biosystemCircadian rhythm is an internal biological clock, which enables to sustain an approximately 24-hour rhythm in the absence of environmental cues. In mammals, the circadian clock mechanism consists of ...
    • Circadian rhythm, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Circadian rhythm, conserved biosystemCircadian rhythm is an internal biological clock, which enables to sustain an approximately 24-hour rhythm in the absence of environmental cues. In mammals, the circadian clock mechanism consists of ...
    • Circadian rythm related genes, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Circadian rythm related genes, organism-specific biosystemThis is currently not a pathway but a list of circadian rhythm related genes and proteins. The source for this information is the gene ontology. The genes and proteins were filtered for "circadian rh...
    • Diurnally Regulated Genes with Circadian Orthologs, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Diurnally Regulated Genes with Circadian Orthologs, organism-specific biosystemHuman genes regulated in the diurnal comparison with orthologues that display circadian regulation in mouse heart and liver (Panda 2002, Storch 2002), and SCN (Panda 2002). The 608 significantly regu...
    • Herpes simplex infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Herpes simplex infection, organism-specific biosystemHerpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide, with the prevalence of HSV-1 reaching up to 80%-90%. Primary infection with HSV takes place in the mucosa, followed by the establishme...
    • Herpes simplex infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Herpes simplex infection, conserved biosystemHerpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide, with the prevalence of HSV-1 reaching up to 80%-90%. Primary infection with HSV takes place in the mucosa, followed by the establishme...
    • Melatonin metabolism and effects, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Melatonin metabolism and effects, organism-specific biosystemMelatonin is an important regulator of circadian rythmus and influences also insulin secretion, immune function, retinal function and neuroprotection. The synthesis starts with the amino acid tryptop...
    • Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
      Transcriptional misregulation in cancer
    • Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, conserved biosystem
      Transcriptional misregulation in cancer
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Clone Names

    • KIAA0347

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    transcription coactivator activity ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    transcription corepressor binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    transcription factor activity, transcription factor binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    transcription factor activity, transcription factor binding ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    transcription factor binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    circadian regulation of gene expression IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    circadian regulation of gene expression ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    circadian regulation of translation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    circadian rhythm TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    entrainment of circadian clock by photoperiod IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    fatty acid metabolic process ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    gluconeogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    glycogen biosynthetic process ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    histone H3 deacetylation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    lactate biosynthetic process ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    negative regulation of circadian rhythm ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    negative regulation of fat cell proliferation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    negative regulation of protein ubiquitination ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    negative regulation of transcription regulatory region DNA binding ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    regulation of cell cycle ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    regulation of circadian rhythm ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    regulation of glutamate uptake involved in transmission of nerve impulse ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    regulation of insulin secretion ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    regulation of neurogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    regulation of vasoconstriction ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    response to ischemia ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    response to light stimulus IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    transcription, DNA-templated IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    white fat cell differentiation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    cytoplasm IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    nucleolus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    nucleus IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    nucleus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    nucleus ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    perinuclear region of cytoplasm IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Preferred Names
    period circadian protein homolog 2
    Names
    circadian clock protein PERIOD 2
    hPER2
    period 2
    period circadian clock 2
    period circadian protein 2
    period homolog 2

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_012146.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5001..49529
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_022817.2NP_073728.1  period circadian protein homolog 2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_073728.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AB002345, AC012485, DA226434
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS2528.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      O15055
      Related
      ENSP00000254657.3, OTTHUMP00000164476, ENST00000254657.7, OTTHUMT00000257167
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      cd00130
      Location:333434
      PAS; PAS domain; PAS motifs appear in archaea, eubacteria and eukarya. Probably the most surprising identification of a PAS domain was that in EAG-like K+-channels. PAS domains have been found to bind ligands, and to act as sensors for light and oxygen in ...
      pfam08447
      Location:346430
      PAS_3; PAS fold
      pfam12114
      Location:10461232
      Period_C; Period protein 2/3C-terminal region

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000002.12 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

      Range
      238244038..238290102 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_005246111.4XP_005246168.1  period circadian protein homolog 2 isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_005246168.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      O15055
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      cd00130
      Location:333434
      PAS; PAS domain; PAS motifs appear in archaea, eubacteria and eukarya. Probably the most surprising identification of a PAS domain was that in EAG-like K+-channels. PAS domains have been found to bind ligands, and to act as sensors for light and oxygen in ...
      pfam08447
      Location:346430
      PAS_3; PAS fold
      pfam12114
      Location:10461232
      Period_C; Period protein 2/3C-terminal region
    2. XM_006712824.4XP_006712887.1  period circadian protein homolog 2 isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006712887.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      O15055
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      cd00130
      Location:333434
      PAS; PAS domain; PAS motifs appear in archaea, eubacteria and eukarya. Probably the most surprising identification of a PAS domain was that in EAG-like K+-channels. PAS domains have been found to bind ligands, and to act as sensors for light and oxygen in ...
      pfam08447
      Location:346430
      PAS_3; PAS fold
      pfam12114
      Location:10461232
      Period_C; Period protein 2/3C-terminal region

    Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

    The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

    1. NM_003894.3: Suppressed sequence

      Description
      NM_003894.3: This RefSeq was permanently suppressed because currently there is insufficient support for the transcript and the protein.
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