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    VEGFB vascular endothelial growth factor B [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 7423, updated on 5-Nov-2017
    Official Symbol
    VEGFBprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    vascular endothelial growth factor Bprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:12681
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000173511 MIM:601398; Vega:OTTHUMG00000167813
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    VRF; VEGFL
    Summary
    This gene encodes a member of the PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor)/VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) family. The VEGF family members regulate the formation of blood vessels and are involved in endothelial cell physiology. This member is a ligand for VEGFR-1 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1) and NRP-1 (neuropilin-1). Studies in mice showed that this gene was co-expressed with nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes and the encoded protein specifically controlled endothelial uptake of fatty acids. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
    Orthologs
    Location:
    11q13.1
    Exon count:
    7
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 11 NC_000011.10 (64234584..64239264)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 11 NC_000011.9 (64002056..64006736)

    Chromosome 11 - NC_000011.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene nudix hydrolase 22 Neighboring gene DnaJ heat shock protein family (Hsp40) member C4 Neighboring gene FK506 binding protein 2 Neighboring gene protein phosphatase 1 regulatory inhibitor subunit 14B Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105369340

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Tat tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates members of the PDGF/VEGF growth factor family (PDGFA, VEGFA,VEGFB, VEGFC) in mammary epithelial cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat enhances vIL-6-induced angiogenesis and tumorigenesis of fibroblasts and human endothelial cells, which correlates with upregulation of CD31, CD34, SMA, VEGF, b-FGF, and cyclin D1 expression PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat enhances Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus vIL-6-induced cell proliferation, cellular transformation, vascular tube formation, and VEGF production in tumor cells PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    • AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, organism-specific biosystemAdvanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a complex group of compounds produced through the non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, primarily due to aging and un...
    • AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, conserved biosystemAdvanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a complex group of compounds produced through the non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, primarily due to aging and un...
    • Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystemCytokines are soluble extracellular proteins or glycoproteins that are crucial intercellular regulators and mobilizers of cells engaged in innate as well as adaptive inflammatory host defenses, cell ...
    • Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, conserved biosystemCytokines are soluble extracellular proteins or glycoproteins that are crucial intercellular regulators and mobilizers of cells engaged in innate as well as adaptive inflammatory host defenses, cell ...
    • Focal Adhesion, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Focal Adhesion, organism-specific biosystemCell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the...
    • Focal adhesion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Focal adhesion, organism-specific biosystemCell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the...
    • Focal adhesion, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Focal adhesion, conserved biosystemCell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the...
    • Heart Development, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Heart Development, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway has been largely adapted from an article by Deepak Srivastava, Cell. 2006 Sep 22;126(6):1037-48. In this pathway are known transcription factors, miRNAs and regulatory proteins that impa...
    • Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystemHemostasis is a physiological response that culminates in the arrest of bleeding from an injured vessel. Under normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhe...
    • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
    • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
    • Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
      Pathways in cancer
    • Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet activation begins with the initial binding of adhesive ligands and of the excitatory platelet agonists (released or generated at the sites of vascular trauma) to cognate receptors on the pla...
    • Platelet degranulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Platelet degranulation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelets function as exocytotic cells, secreting a plethora of effector molecules at sites of vascular injury. Platelets contain a number of distinguishable storage granules including alpha granules...
    • Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
    • Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
    • Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras prote...
    • Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+, organism-specific biosystemActivation of phospholipase C enzymes results in the generation of second messengers of the phosphatidylinositol pathway. The events resulting from this pathway are a rise in intracellular calcium an...
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystemIn normal development vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are crucial regulators of vascular development during embryogenesis (vasculogenesis) and blood-vessel formation in the adult (angioge...
    • Signaling events mediated by VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Signaling events mediated by VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, organism-specific biosystem
      Signaling events mediated by VEGFR1 and VEGFR2
    • VEGF binds to VEGFR leading to receptor dimerization, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      VEGF binds to VEGFR leading to receptor dimerization, organism-specific biosystemThe binding of VEGF ligands to VEGFR receptors in the cell membrane induces dimerization and activation of the latter, initiating intracellular signaling cascades that result in proliferation, surviv...
    • VEGF ligand-receptor interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      VEGF ligand-receptor interactions, organism-specific biosystemThe VEGF family is encoded by seven genes (VEGF-A, B, C, D, E: PLGF (Placenta Growth Factor)-1, 2). Six isoforms of VEGF-A protein, containing 121, 145, 165, 183, 189, and 206 amino acid residues, an...
    • VEGFR1 specific signals, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      VEGFR1 specific signals, organism-specific biosystem
      VEGFR1 specific signals
    • miR-148a/miR-31/FIH1/HIF1α-Notch signaling in glioblastoma, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      miR-148a/miR-31/FIH1/HIF1α-Notch signaling in glioblastoma, organism-specific biosystemmiR-148a and miR-31 target the factor inhibiting hypoxia (FIH1) to promote downstream HIF1? and Notch signaling
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    growth factor activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    heparin binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein heterodimerization activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein homodimerization activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    angiogenesis IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    cardiac muscle contraction IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    coronary vasculature development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    induction of positive chemotaxis IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    platelet degranulation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    positive regulation of angiogenesis IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    positive regulation of cell division IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    positive regulation of mast cell chemotaxis IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    protein O-linked glycosylation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    regulation of receptor activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to drug IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to hypoxia IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular space IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    membrane IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    platelet alpha granule lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    Preferred Names
    vascular endothelial growth factor B
    Names
    VEGF-related factor

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_029823.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5001..9681
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001243733.1NP_001230662.1  vascular endothelial growth factor B isoform VEGFB-167 precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001230662.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (VEGFB-167) lacks a segment in the 3' coding region, resulting in a downstream stop codon, compared to variant VEGFB-186. The resulting isoform (VEGFB-167, also known as VRF167) has a shorter and distinct C-terminus, compared to isoform VEGFB-186. This isoform contains the heparin binding domain and is mostly sequestered in the extracellular matrix.
      Source sequence(s)
      AP001453, BG031449, BM694361, BU730521, U48801
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS58144.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P49765
      Related
      ENSP00000401550.2, OTTHUMP00000236928, ENST00000426086.2, OTTHUMT00000396394
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      smart00141
      Location:45126
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    2. NM_003377.4NP_003368.1  vascular endothelial growth factor B isoform VEGFB-186 precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_003368.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (VEGFB-186) encodes the longer isoform (VEGFB-186, also known as VRF186). This isoform lacks the heparin binding domain and is secreted freely from cells.
      Source sequence(s)
      AP001453, BC008818, BM694361, BU730521
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS8062.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P49765
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      Q7LAP4
      Related
      ENSP00000311127.2, OTTHUMP00000236927, ENST00000309422.6, OTTHUMT00000396393
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:45126
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      cl28111
      Location:108188
      Marek_A; Marek's disease glycoprotein A

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...Open this link in a new tab

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000011.10 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

      Range
      64234584..64239264
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018922.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      63885273..63889739
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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