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    RAF1 Raf-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 5894, updated on 19-Aug-2017
    Official Symbol
    RAF1provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    Raf-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinaseprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:9829
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000132155 MIM:164760; Vega:OTTHUMG00000129789
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    NS5; CRAF; Raf-1; c-Raf; CMD1NN
    Summary
    This gene is the cellular homolog of viral raf gene (v-raf). The encoded protein is a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K), which functions downstream of the Ras family of membrane associated GTPases to which it binds directly. Once activated, the cellular RAF1 protein can phosphorylate to activate the dual specificity protein kinases MEK1 and MEK2, which in turn phosphorylate to activate the serine/threonine specific protein kinases, ERK1 and ERK2. Activated ERKs are pleiotropic effectors of cell physiology and play an important role in the control of gene expression involved in the cell division cycle, apoptosis, cell differentiation and cell migration. Mutations in this gene are associated with Noonan syndrome 5 and LEOPARD syndrome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
    Orthologs
    Location:
    3p25.2
    Exon count:
    20
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 3 NC_000003.12 (12583601..12664201, complement)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 3 NC_000003.11 (12625100..12705700, complement)

    Chromosome 3 - NC_000003.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene tRNA splicing endonuclease subunit 2 Neighboring gene RNA, U6 small nuclear 377, pseudogene Neighboring gene MKRN2 opposite strand Neighboring gene makorin ring finger protein 2 Neighboring gene cysteine rich protein 1 pseudogene 1 Neighboring gene transmembrane protein 40

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Associated conditions

    Description Tests
    Cardiomyopathy, dilated, 1NN
    MedGen: C4014656 OMIM: 615916 GeneReviews: Not available
    Compare labs
    LEOPARD syndrome 2 Compare labs
    Noonan syndrome 5
    MedGen: C1969057 OMIM: 611553 GeneReviews: Noonan Syndrome
    Compare labs

    Copy number response

    Description
    Copy number response
    Haploinsufficency

    No evidence available (Last evaluated (2011-12-21)

    ClinGen Genome Curation Page
    Triplosensitivity

    Dosage sensitivity unlikely (Last evaluated (2011-12-21)

    ClinGen Genome Curation PagePubMed

    NHGRI GWAS Catalog

    Description
    Biological, clinical and population relevance of 95 loci for blood lipids.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Hypertrophy-associated polymorphisms ascertained in a founder cohort applied to heart failure risk and mortality.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 gp120-induced release of IL-10 depends on the activation of Raf-1 along with NF-kappaB p65 in immature dentritic cells PubMed
    env DC-SIGN-induced signaling by HIV-1 is essential for Raf-1-mediated phosphorylation of p65 NFkappaB at Ser276, which recruits pTEF-b to HIV-1 LTR to phosphorylate RNAPII at Ser2 PubMed
    env Interaction of gp120 with DC-SIGN activates Raf-1 and phosphorylates Raf-1 at positions Ser338, Tyr340, and Tyr341 PubMed
    env Binding of HIV-1 gp120 to CD4 molecules results in the association of Lck and Raf-1, which is abolished by preincubation of the virus with soluble CD4 PubMed
    Nef nef A conserved acidic sequence motif in HIV-1 Nef at positions 174-179 binds to c-Raf1; the interaction of Nef with c-Raf1 leads to a downstream transduction of cell signaling through the c-Raf1-MAP kinase pathway in vivo PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

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      GnRH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnR...
    • GnRH signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      GnRH signaling pathway, conserved biosystemGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnR...
    • Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystemHemostasis is a physiological response that culminates in the arrest of bleeding from an injured vessel. Under normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhe...
    • Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped virus and contains a partially double-stranded relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) genome. After entry into hepatocytes, HBV RC-DNA is transported to the nucleus and...
    • Hepatitis C, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Hepatitis C, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The HCV employ several strategies to perturb host cell immunity. After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the...
    • Hepatitis C, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Hepatitis C, conserved biosystemHepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The HCV employ several strategies to perturb host cell immunity. After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the...
    • Human Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Human Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemHuman thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted from the anterior pituitary lobe, which plays an important physiological role in regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-th...
    • IGF1 pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      IGF1 pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      IGF1 pathway
    • IGF1R signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      IGF1R signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystemAfter autophosphorylation the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) binds and phosphorylates scaffold proteins, IRS1/2/4 and SHC1, which in turn bind effectors possessing enzymatic activ...
    • IL-2 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      IL-2 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemIL-2 is a multifunctional cytokine with pleiotropic effects on several cells of the immune system. IL-2 was originally discovered as a T cell growth factor, but it was also found to have actions rela...
    • IL-3 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      IL-3 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin 3 (IL-3) is a potent growth factor belonging to the super family of cytokines. IL-3 is a 20- 32kDa glycoprotein involved in the process of hematopoiesis. It is involved in the proliferati...
    • IL-5 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      IL-5 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin 5 (IL-5) ligand belongs to the cytokine superfamily. IL-5 is a glycoprotein which belongs to the cytokine superfamily. It possesses the four helical bundle motifs that is conserved among ...
    • IL2-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      IL2-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
      IL2-mediated signaling events
    • IRS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      IRS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemRelease of phospho-IRS from the insulin receptor triggers a cascade of signalling events via PI3K, SOS, RAF and the MAP kinases.
    • IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphorylated type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor phosphorylates IR1, IRS2, IRS4 and possibly other IRS/DOK family members (reviewed in Pavelic et al. 2007, Chitnis et al. 2008, Maki et a...
    • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
    • Influenza A, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Influenza A, organism-specific biosystemInfluenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. Novel strains ...
    • Influenza A, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Influenza A, conserved biosystemInfluenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. Novel strains ...
    • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
    • Insulin Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Insulin Signaling, organism-specific biosystemInsulin signaling influences energy metabolism as well as growth. The presence of insulin signals the fed state, and this signal is passed via the AKT branch, which leads to the uptake of glucose fro...
    • Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystemAutophosphorylation of the insulin receptor triggers a series of signalling events, mediated by SHC or IRS, and resulting in activation of the Ras/RAF and MAP kinase cascades. A second effect of the ...
    • Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
    • Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
    • Integrated Pancreatic Cancer Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Integrated Pancreatic Cancer Pathway, organism-specific biosystemAn integrated pathway model which displays the protein-protein interactions (PPIs) among the relevant proteins for pancreatic cancer. This pathway is a collection of different mechanistic protein pat...
    • Integrin-mediated Cell Adhesion, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Integrin-mediated Cell Adhesion, organism-specific biosystemIntegrins are receptors that mediate attachment between a cell and the tissues surrounding it, which may be other cells or the extracellular matrix (ECM). They also play a role in cell signaling and ...
    • Interleukin receptor SHC signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Interleukin receptor SHC signaling, organism-specific biosystemPhosphorylation of Shc at three tyrosine residues, 239, 240 (Gotoh et al. 1996) and 317 (Salcini et al. 1994) involves unidentified tyrosine kinases presumed to be part of the activated receptor comp...
    • Interleukin-11 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Interleukin-11 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemIL-11 is a multifunctional cytokine that belongs to the gp130 family. It was first isolated from a primate bone marrow derived cell line, PU-34 for its ability to stimulate the proliferation of a pla...
    • Interleukin-2 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Interleukin-2 signaling, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin-2 (IL-2) is a cytokine that is produced by T cells in response to antigen stimulation. Originally, IL-2 was discovered because of its potent growth factor activity on activated T cells in...
    • Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe Interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-5 and Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptors form a family of heterodimeric receptors that have specific alpha chains but share a common beta...
    • Internalization of ErbB1, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Internalization of ErbB1, organism-specific biosystem
      Internalization of ErbB1
    • Ion channel transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Ion channel transport, organism-specific biosystemIon channels mediate the flow of ions across the plasma membrane of cells. They are integral membrane proteins, typically a multimer of proteins, which, when arranged in the membrane, create a pore f...
    • Jak-STAT signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Jak-STAT signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway is one of a handful of pleiotropic cascades used to transduce a multitude of signals for development and homeost...
    • Jak-STAT signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Jak-STAT signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway is one of a handful of pleiotropic cascades used to transduce a multitude of signals for development and homeost...
    • Kit receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Kit receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemKit is a cytokine receptor that belongs to the type III receptor tyrosine kinase family. It is structurally similar to platelet-derived growth factor recpetors (PDGFRs), colony stimulating factor-1 r...
    • Leptin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Leptin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemLeptin is a peptide hormone mainly synthesised and secreted from adipocytes. It is also expressed in other tissues including placenta, stomach and skeletal muscle. Leptin mediates its effects by bind...
    • Long-term depression, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Long-term depression, organism-specific biosystemCerebellar long-term depression (LTD), thought to be a molecular and cellular basis for cerebellar learning, is a process involving a decrease in the synaptic strength between parallel fiber (PF) and...
    • Long-term depression, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Long-term depression, conserved biosystemCerebellar long-term depression (LTD), thought to be a molecular and cellular basis for cerebellar learning, is a process involving a decrease in the synaptic strength between parallel fiber (PF) and...
    • Long-term potentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Long-term potentiation, organism-specific biosystemHippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy, is the molecular basis for learning and memory. Tetanic stimulation of afferents in the CA1 region of the hippo...
    • Long-term potentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Long-term potentiation, conserved biosystemHippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy, is the molecular basis for learning and memory. Tetanic stimulation of afferents in the CA1 region of the hippo...
    • MAP2K and MAPK activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MAP2K and MAPK activation, organism-specific biosystemActivated RAF proteins are restricted substrate kinases whose primary downstream targets are the two MAP2K proteins, MAPK2K1 and MAP2K2 (also known as MEK1 and MEK2) (reviewed in Roskoski, 2010, Rosk...
    • MAPK and NFkB Signalling Pathways Inhibited by Yersinia YopJ, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      MAPK and NFkB Signalling Pathways Inhibited by Yersinia YopJ, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is based on the figure 24.1 of "In Vitro Signaling by MAPK and NF?B Pathways Inhibited by Yersinia YopJ" (see bibliography). In the MAPK and NFkB pathways, YopJ is the main inhibitor of ...
    • MAPK (ERK1/2) signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      MAPK (ERK1/2) signaling, organism-specific biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
    • MAPK (ERK1/2) signaling, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      MAPK (ERK1/2) signaling, conserved biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
    • MAPK Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      MAPK Cascade, organism-specific biosystem
      MAPK Cascade
    • MAPK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      MAPK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
    • MAPK family signaling cascades, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MAPK family signaling cascades, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of conserved protein serine threonine kinases that respond to varied extracellular stimuli to activate intracellular processes including gen...
    • MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
    • MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
    • MAPK1/MAPK3 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MAPK1/MAPK3 signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2, also known as MAPK3 and MAPK1, are phosphorylated by the MAP2Ks 1 and 2 in response to a wide range of extracellular stimuli to promote diff...
    • Melanogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Melanogenesis, organism-specific biosystemCutaneous melanin pigment plays a critical role in camouflage, mimicry, social communication, and protection against harmful effects of solar radiation. Melanogenesis is under complex regulatory cont...
    • Melanogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Melanogenesis, conserved biosystemCutaneous melanin pigment plays a critical role in camouflage, mimicry, social communication, and protection against harmful effects of solar radiation. Melanogenesis is under complex regulatory cont...
    • Melanoma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Melanoma, organism-specific biosystemMelanoma is a form of skin cancer that has a poor prognosis and which is on the rise in Western populations. Melanoma arises from the malignant transformation of pigment-producing cells, melanocytes...
    • Melanoma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Melanoma, conserved biosystemMelanoma is a form of skin cancer that has a poor prognosis and which is on the rise in Western populations. Melanoma arises from the malignant transformation of pigment-producing cells, melanocytes...
    • MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or...
    • MicroRNAs in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      MicroRNAs in cancer, conserved biosystemMicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or...
    • MicroRNAs in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      MicroRNAs in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway shows the role of microRNAs in the process of cardiac hypertrophy. MicroRNA targets were predicted by the TargetScan algorithm, and the predicted interactions are shown in red dashed lin...
    • NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth, organism-specific biosystemThe neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and is involved in a variety of cellular processes of importance for the formation and maintenance of the n...
    • NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemTrk receptors signal from the plasma membrane and from intracellular membranes, particularly from early endosomes. Signalling from the plasma membrane is fast but transient; signalling from endosomes...
    • Nanoparticle-mediated activation of receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Nanoparticle-mediated activation of receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystemNanoparticle-mediated activation of receptor signaling. Several NP formulations were shown to interact with cellular receptors such as the EGFR and integrins, inducing cellular phenotypes such as pro...
    • Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, organism-specific biosystemNatural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that are involved in early defenses against both allogeneic (nonself) cells and autologous cells undergoing various forms of stre...
    • Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, conserved biosystemNatural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that are involved in early defenses against both allogeneic (nonself) cells and autologous cells undergoing various forms of stre...
    • Negative feedback regulation of MAPK pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Negative feedback regulation of MAPK pathway, organism-specific biosystemMAPK pathway activation is limited by a number of negative feedback loops established by MAPK-dependent phosphorylations. Known substrates of activated MAPK proteins that lie upstream in the RAF/MAP...
    • Negative regulation of MAPK pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Negative regulation of MAPK pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe duration and extent of activated MAPK signaling is regulated at many levels through mechanisms that include phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, changes to protein interacting partners and subc...
    • Neuronal System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Neuronal System, organism-specific biosystemThe human brain contains at least 100 billion neurons, each with the ability to influence many other cells. Clearly, highly sophisticated and efficient mechanisms are needed to enable communication a...
    • Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding And Downstream Transmission In The Postsynaptic Cell, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding And Downstream Transmission In The Postsynaptic Cell, organism-specific biosystemThe neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft released by the pre-synaptic neuron binds specific receptors located on the post-synaptic terminal. These receptors are either ion channels or G protein cou...
    • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
    • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
    • Non-small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Non-small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystemLung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of lung cancer and represents a heter...
    • Non-small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Non-small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystemLung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of lung cancer and represents a heter...
    • Nongenotropic Androgen signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Nongenotropic Androgen signaling, organism-specific biosystem
      Nongenotropic Androgen signaling
    • Oncogenic MAPK signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Oncogenic MAPK signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe importance of the RAS/RAF/MAPK cascade in regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival is highlighted by the fact that components of the pathway are mutated with high frequency...
    • Oncostatin M Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Oncostatin M Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemOncostatin M (OSM) is a member of the multifunctional cytokine interleukin 6 (IL6) - type cytokine family. It is mainly produced in cell types such as activated T lymphocytes, macrophages, monocytes,...
    • Oxytocin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Oxytocin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemOxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide synthesized by the magno-cellular neurons located in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the hypothalamus. It exerts a wide variety of central and ...
    • Oxytocin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Oxytocin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemOxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide synthesized by the magno-cellular neurons located in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the hypothalamus. It exerts a wide variety of central and ...
    • PDGF Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      PDGF Pathway, organism-specific biosystemPDGF belongs to the PDGF/VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) family, which is characterized by eight strictly conserved cysteine residues with similar spacing in between (Joukov et al., 1997; H...
    • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
    • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
    • Pancreatic cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pancreatic cancer, organism-specific biosystemInfiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy of the pancreas. When most investigators use the term 'pancreatic cancer' they are referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)...
    • Pancreatic cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pancreatic cancer, conserved biosystemInfiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy of the pancreas. When most investigators use the term 'pancreatic cancer' they are referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)...
    • Paradoxical activation of RAF signaling by kinase inactive BRAF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Paradoxical activation of RAF signaling by kinase inactive BRAF, organism-specific biosystemWhile BRAF-specific inhibitors inhibit MAPK/ERK activation in the presence of the BRAF V600E mutant, paradoxical activation of ERK signaling has been observed after treatment of cells with inhibitor ...
    • Pathways Affected in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Pathways Affected in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma, organism-specific biosystemProtein pathways altered by mutations in adenoid cystic carcinoma. Pathways include epigentic modification, DNA damage checkpoint signals, MYB/MYC signalling pathway, FGF/IGF/PI3K signalling, and not...
    • Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
      Pathways in cancer
    • Phospholipase D signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Phospholipase D signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemPhospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membra...
    • Phospholipase D signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Phospholipase D signaling pathway, conserved biosystemPhospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membra...
    • Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet activation begins with the initial binding of adhesive ligands and of the excitatory platelet agonists (released or generated at the sites of vascular trauma) to cognate receptors on the pla...
    • Post NMDA receptor activation events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Post NMDA receptor activation events, organism-specific biosystemCa2+ influx through the NMDA receptor initiates subsequent molecular pathways that have a defined role in establishing long-lasting synaptic changes. The molecular signaling initiated by a rise in Ca...
    • Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, organism-specific biosystemXenopus oocytes are naturally arrested at G2 of meiosis I. Exposure to either insulin/IGF-1 or the steroid hormone progesterone breaks this arrest and induces resumption of the two meiotic division c...
    • Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, conserved biosystemXenopus oocytes are naturally arrested at G2 of meiosis I. Exposure to either insulin/IGF-1 or the steroid hormone progesterone breaks this arrest and induces resumption of the two meiotic division c...
    • Prolactin Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Prolactin Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemProlactin (PRL), a pleiotropic polypeptide hormone, mostly secreted by the lactotrophic cells of anterior pituitary gland and to a lesser extent expressed in numerous extra pituitary tissues such as ...
    • Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
    • Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
    • Prolonged ERK activation events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Prolonged ERK activation events, organism-specific biosystemAfter NGF binding, activated Trk receptors provide multiple docking sites for adaptor proteins and enzymes. Two docking proteins, the Ankyrin-Rich Membrane Spanning protein (ARMS/Kidins220) and Fibro...
    • Prostate cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prostate cancer, organism-specific biosystemProstate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of...
    • Prostate cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prostate cancer, conserved biosystemProstate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of...
    • Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
    • Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
    • RAF activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RAF activation, organism-specific biosystemMammals have three RAF isoforms, A, B and C, that are activated downstream of RAS and stimulate the MAPK pathway. Although CRAF (also known as RAF-1) was the first identified and remains perhaps the ...
    • RAF/MAP kinase cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RAF/MAP kinase cascade, organism-specific biosystemThe RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway regulates processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, senescence and cell motility in response to growth factors, hormones and cytokines, among others. Bin...
    • RET signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RET signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe RET proto-oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed primarily in urogenital precursor cells, spermatogonocytes, dopaminergic neurons, motor neurons and neural crest progenitors and de...
    • Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
    • Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
    • Rap1 signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Rap1 signalling, organism-specific biosystemRap1 (Ras-proximate-1) is a small G protein in the Ras superfamily. Like all G proteins, Rap1 is activated when bound GDP is exchanged for GTP. Rap1 is targeted to lipid membranes by the covalent att...
    • Ras signaling in the CD4+ TCR pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Ras signaling in the CD4+ TCR pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      Ras signaling in the CD4+ TCR pathway
    • Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras prote...
    • Regulation of Actin Cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Regulation of Actin Cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystemhttp://www.genome.jp/kegg/pathway/hsa/hsa04810.html
    • Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystem
      Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
    • Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, conserved biosystem
      Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
    • Regulation of retinoblastoma protein, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Regulation of retinoblastoma protein, organism-specific biosystem
      Regulation of retinoblastoma protein
    • Renal cell carcinoma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Renal cell carcinoma, organism-specific biosystemRenal cell cancer (RCC) accounts for ~3% of human malignancies and its incidence appears to be rising. Although most cases of RCC seem to occur sporadically, an inherited predisposition to renal canc...
    • Renal cell carcinoma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Renal cell carcinoma, conserved biosystemRenal cell cancer (RCC) accounts for ~3% of human malignancies and its incidence appears to be rising. Although most cases of RCC seem to occur sporadically, an inherited predisposition to renal canc...
    • Retinoblastoma (RB) in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Retinoblastoma (RB) in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemDescribes the role of retinoblastoma (RB) gene in cancer.
    • SHC1 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      SHC1 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystemGRB2 can bind EGFR directly or through another SH2-containing protein, SHC1. This association leads to RAS activation.
    • SOS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      SOS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemSOS is recruited to the plasma membrane and mediates activation of Ras.
    • Senescence and Autophagy in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Senescence and Autophagy in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemSenescense and Autophagy Pathways in Cancer
    • Serotonergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Serotonergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemSerotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter that plays important roles in physiological functions such as learning and memory, emotion, sleep, pain, motor function and endoc...
    • Serotonin Receptor 2 and ELK-SRF/GATA4 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Serotonin Receptor 2 and ELK-SRF/GATA4 signaling, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is courtesy of Ariadne Genomics Pathway Studio.
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signaling Pathways in Glioblastoma, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Signaling Pathways in Glioblastoma, organism-specific biosystemThe most frequently altered genes in glioblastoma. This pathway originally accompanied the 2008 Nature publication on the comprehensive genomic characterization of human glioblastoma genes and core p...
    • Signaling by BRAF and RAF fusions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by BRAF and RAF fusions, organism-specific biosystemIn addition to the more prevalent point mutations, BRAF and RAF1 are also subject to activation as a result of translocation events that yield truncated or fusion products (Jones et al, 2008; Cin et ...
    • Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystemThe epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one member of the ERBB family of transmembrane glycoprotein tyrosine receptor kinases (RTK). Binding of EGFR to its ligands induces conformational chang...
    • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
    • Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in receptor autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues and the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (e.g. IRS and Shc) by the insulin receptor...
    • Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystemInterleukins are low molecular weight proteins that bind to cell surface receptors and act in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion. They were first identified as factors produced by leukocytes but a...
    • Signaling by Leptin, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Leptin, organism-specific biosystemLeptin (LEP, OB, OBS), a circulating adipokine, and its receptor LEPR (DB, OBR) control food intake and energy balance and are implicated in obesity-related diseases (recently reviewed in Amitani et ...
    • Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet-derived Growth Factor (PDGF) is a potent stimulator of growth and motility of connective tissue cells such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells as well as other cells such as capillary end...
    • Signaling by RAS mutants, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by RAS mutants, organism-specific biosystemMembers of the RAS gene family were the first oncogenes to be identified, and mutations in RAS are present in ~20-30% of human cancers (reviewed in Prior et al, 2012). Mutations in the KRAS gene are ...
    • Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystemStem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor with membrane bound and soluble forms. It is expressed by fibroblasts and endothelial cells throughout the body, promoting proliferation, migration, survival...
    • Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystemBinding of IGF1 (IGF-I) or IGF2 (IGF-II) to the extracellular alpha peptides of the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) triggers the activation of two major signaling pathways: the SOS...
    • Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystemIn normal development vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are crucial regulators of vascular development during embryogenesis (vasculogenesis) and blood-vessel formation in the adult (angioge...
    • Signaling by high-kinase activity BRAF mutants, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by high-kinase activity BRAF mutants, organism-specific biosystemBRAF is mutated in about 8% of human cancers, with high prevalence in hairy cell leukemia, melanoma, papillary thyroid and ovarian carcinomas, colorectal cancer and a variety of other tumors (Davies ...
    • Signaling by moderate kinase activity BRAF mutants, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by moderate kinase activity BRAF mutants, organism-specific biosystemIn addition to the highly prevalent and activating V600E BRAF mutations, numerous moderately activating and less common mutations have also been identified in human cancers (Forbes et al, 2015). Unl...
    • Signaling events mediated by Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor (c-Met), organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Signaling events mediated by Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor (c-Met), organism-specific biosystem
      Signaling events mediated by Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor (c-Met)
    • Signaling events mediated by Stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit), organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Signaling events mediated by Stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit), organism-specific biosystem
      Signaling events mediated by Stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit)
    • Signaling events mediated by focal adhesion kinase, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Signaling events mediated by focal adhesion kinase, organism-specific biosystem
      Signaling events mediated by focal adhesion kinase
    • Signaling of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Signaling of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor, organism-specific biosystem
      Signaling of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor
    • Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, organism-specific biosystemPluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are basic cells with an indefinite self-renewal capacity and the potential to generate all the cell types of the three germinal layers. The types of PSCs known to date i...
    • Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, conserved biosystemPluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are basic cells with an indefinite self-renewal capacity and the potential to generate all the cell types of the three germinal layers. The types of PSCs known to date i...
    • Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4/5) play pivotal roles in survival, differentiation, and plasticity of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. They are produced, and secreted in mi...
    • Signalling to ERKs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling to ERKs, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins utilize multiple pathways to activate ERKs (ERK1 and ERK2), a subgroup of the large MAP kinase (MAPK) family, from the plasma membrane. The major signalling pathways to ERKs are via RAS...
    • Signalling to RAS, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling to RAS, organism-specific biosystemSignalling through Shc adaptor proteins appears to be identical for both NGF and EGF. It leads to a fast, but transient, MAPK/ERK activation, which is insufficient to explain the prolonged activation...
    • Signalling to p38 via RIT and RIN, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling to p38 via RIT and RIN, organism-specific biosystemRIT and RIN are two small guanine nucleotide binding proteins that share more than 50% sequence identity with RAS, including highly conserved core effector domains. Unlike RAS, the C termini of RIT a...
    • Sphingolipid signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Sphingolipid signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) ...
    • Sphingolipid signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Sphingolipid signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) ...
    • Stimuli-sensing channels, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Stimuli-sensing channels, organism-specific biosystemIon channels that mediate sensations such as pain, warmth, cold, taste pressure and vision. Channels that mediate these sensations include acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) (Wang & Xu 2011, Qadri et ...
    • T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
    • T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
    • T-Cell antigen Receptor (TCR) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      T-Cell antigen Receptor (TCR) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) complex is composed of a ligand-binding subunit, the ? and ? chains, and a signaling subunit, namely the CD3?, ? and ? chains and the TCR? chain. This complex partic...
    • T-Cell antigen Receptor (TCR) pathway during Staphylococcus aureus infection, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      T-Cell antigen Receptor (TCR) pathway during Staphylococcus aureus infection, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is based on Figure 4 of "A Model of an Integrated Immune System Pathway in Homo sapiens and Its Interaction with Superantigen Producing Expression Regulatory Pathway in Staphylococcus au...
    • TGF-beta Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      TGF-beta Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe signal transduction mechanisms underlying the pathophysiological activities of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) have been extensively studied since its discovery nearly 30 years ago. TGF-? li...
    • TNF alpha Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      TNF alpha Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemTumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in various biological processes including regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and immune response. T...
    • TNF related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      TNF related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemTNF related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a small pleiotropic cytokine of the TNF super family and its gene is located at chromosome 17p13.1. TWEAK has been reported to be expressed in tissues...
    • Thyroid hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Thyroid hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe thyroid hormones (THs) are important regulators of growth, development and metabolism. The action of TH is mainly mediated by T3 (3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine). Thyroid hormones, L-thyroxine (T4) a...
    • Transmembrane transport of small molecules, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Transmembrane transport of small molecules, organism-specific biosystem
      Transmembrane transport of small molecules
    • Transmission across Chemical Synapses, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Transmission across Chemical Synapses, organism-specific biosystemChemical synapses are specialized junctions that are used for communication between neurons, neurons and muscle or gland cells. The synapse involves a pre-synaptic neuron and a post-synaptic neuron,...
    • Trk receptor signaling mediated by the MAPK pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Trk receptor signaling mediated by the MAPK pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      Trk receptor signaling mediated by the MAPK pathway
    • Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
    • Tuberculosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Tuberculosis, conserved biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
    • VEGF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      VEGF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThere is now much evidence that VEGFR-2 is the major mediator of VEGF-driven responses in endothelial cells and it is considered to be a crucial signal transducer in both physiologic and pathologic a...
    • VEGF signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      VEGF signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThere is now much evidence that VEGFR-2 is the major mediator of VEGF-driven responses in endothelial cells and it is considered to be a crucial signal transducer in both physiologic and pathologic a...
    • VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystemAngiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vasculature. One of the most important proangiogenic factors is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF exerts its biologic...
    • VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation, organism-specific biosystemVEGFR2 stimulates ERK not via GRB2-SOS-RAS, but via pY1175-dependent phosphorylation of PLC gamma and subsequent activation of PKCs. PKC plays an important mediatory role in the proliferative Ras/Raf...
    • Vascular smooth muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Vascular smooth muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystemThe vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is a highly specialized cell whose principal function is contraction. On contraction, VSMCs shorten, thereby decreasing the diameter of a blood vessel to regula...
    • Vascular smooth muscle contraction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Vascular smooth muscle contraction, conserved biosystemThe vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is a highly specialized cell whose principal function is contraction. On contraction, VSMCs shorten, thereby decreasing the diameter of a blood vessel to regula...
    • cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...
    • cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...
    • cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemCyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated i...
    • cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, conserved biosystemCyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated i...
    • mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, which exists in two complexes termed mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 conta...
    • mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      mTOR signaling pathway
    • mTOR signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      mTOR signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, which exists in two complexes termed mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 conta...
    • p38 signaling mediated by MAPKAP kinases, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      p38 signaling mediated by MAPKAP kinases, organism-specific biosystem
      p38 signaling mediated by MAPKAP kinases
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    ATP binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    MAP kinase kinase kinase activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    enzyme binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    identical protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    kinase activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    metal ion binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein heterodimerization activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein kinase activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein serine/threonine kinase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    NOT small GTPase binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    MAPK cascade TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    activation of MAPKK activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    activation of adenylate cyclase activity NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    apoptotic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    cell differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cell proliferation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    death-inducing signaling complex assembly IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    face development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    heart development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    insulin secretion involved in cellular response to glucose stimulus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    intermediate filament cytoskeleton organization IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    ion transmembrane transport TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    multicellular organism development IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    negative regulation of apoptotic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of cell proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of protein complex assembly IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of signal transduction IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    platelet activation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein phosphorylation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of Rho protein signal transduction TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of apoptotic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of cell differentiation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of cell motility TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    response to hypoxia IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to muscle stretch IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    signal transduction TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    somatic stem cell population maintenance IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    thymus development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    thyroid gland development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    wound healing TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    Golgi apparatus IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytoplasm ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    cytosol IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    mitochondrial outer membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    nuclear speck IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    plasma membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    colocalizes_with plasma membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    plasma membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    pseudopodium IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Preferred Names
    RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase
    Names
    C-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase
    Oncogene RAF1
    proto-oncogene c-RAF
    raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine protein kinase
    v-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1
    v-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene-like protein 1
    NP_002871.1
    XP_005265412.1
    XP_005265414.1
    XP_005265415.1
    XP_005265416.1
    XP_011532276.1
    XP_011532277.1
    XP_016862455.1

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_007467.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      4979..85579
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics), LRG_413

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001354690.1NP_001341619.1  RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform b

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (3), as well as variant 2, encodes isoform b.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC018500, AC026170
    2. NM_001354691.1NP_001341620.1  RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform c

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (4), as well as variant 5, encodes isoform c.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC018500, AC026170
    3. NM_002880.3NP_002871.1  RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform b

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002871.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2), as well as variant 3, encodes isoform b.
      Source sequence(s)
      BC018119, BU683389, DC342671
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS2612.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P04049
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      L7RRS6
      Related
      ENSP00000251849.4, OTTHUMP00000160218, ENST00000251849.8, OTTHUMT00000252015
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      cd01816
      Location:57131
      Raf_RBD; Ubiquitin domain of Raf serine/threonine kinases
      cd14149
      Location:336618
      STKc_C-Raf; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, C-Raf (Rapidly Accelerated Fibrosarcoma) kinase
      pfam00069
      Location:350605
      Pkinase; Protein kinase domain
      pfam00130
      Location:139187
      C1_1; Phorbol esters/diacylglycerol binding domain (C1 domain)

    RNA

    1. NR_148940.1 RNA Sequence

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AC018500, AC026170
    2. NR_148942.1 RNA Sequence

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AC018500, AC026170

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...Open this link in a new tab

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000003.12 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

      Range
      12583601..12664201 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_005265359.4XP_005265416.1  RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X4

      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      cd14149
      Location:222504
      STKc_C-Raf; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, C-Raf (Rapidly Accelerated Fibrosarcoma) kinase
      pfam00069
      Location:236491
      Pkinase; Protein kinase domain
      pfam00130
      Location:58106
      C1_1; Phorbol esters/diacylglycerol binding domain (C1 domain)
    2. XM_005265358.4XP_005265415.1  RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X3

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_005265415.1

      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      B4E0X2
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      cd14149
      Location:255537
      STKc_C-Raf; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, C-Raf (Rapidly Accelerated Fibrosarcoma) kinase
      pfam00069
      Location:269524
      Pkinase; Protein kinase domain
      pfam00130
      Location:58106
      C1_1; Phorbol esters/diacylglycerol binding domain (C1 domain)
    3. XM_011533975.2XP_011532277.1  RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X3

      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      B4E0X2
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      cd14149
      Location:255537
      STKc_C-Raf; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, C-Raf (Rapidly Accelerated Fibrosarcoma) kinase
      pfam00069
      Location:269524
      Pkinase; Protein kinase domain
      pfam00130
      Location:58106
      C1_1; Phorbol esters/diacylglycerol binding domain (C1 domain)
    4. XM_011533974.2XP_011532276.1  RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011532276.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P04049
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      L7RRS6
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      cd01816
      Location:57131
      Raf_RBD; Ubiquitin domain of Raf serine/threonine kinases
      cd14149
      Location:336618
      STKc_C-Raf; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, C-Raf (Rapidly Accelerated Fibrosarcoma) kinase
      pfam00069
      Location:350605
      Pkinase; Protein kinase domain
      pfam00130
      Location:139187
      C1_1; Phorbol esters/diacylglycerol binding domain (C1 domain)
    5. XM_005265357.2XP_005265414.1  RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_005265414.1

      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A0S2Z4L5
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      cd01816
      Location:57131
      Raf_RBD; Ubiquitin domain of Raf serine/threonine kinases
      cd14149
      Location:303585
      STKc_C-Raf; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, C-Raf (Rapidly Accelerated Fibrosarcoma) kinase
      pfam00069
      Location:317572
      Pkinase; Protein kinase domain
      pfam00130
      Location:139187
      C1_1; Phorbol esters/diacylglycerol binding domain (C1 domain)
    6. XM_005265355.2XP_005265412.1  RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P04049
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      L7RRS6
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      cd01816
      Location:57131
      Raf_RBD; Ubiquitin domain of Raf serine/threonine kinases
      cd14149
      Location:336618
      STKc_C-Raf; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, C-Raf (Rapidly Accelerated Fibrosarcoma) kinase
      pfam00069
      Location:350605
      Pkinase; Protein kinase domain
      pfam00130
      Location:139187
      C1_1; Phorbol esters/diacylglycerol binding domain (C1 domain)
    7. XM_017006966.1XP_016862455.1  RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X2

      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A0S2Z4L5
      Related
      ENSP00000398591.2, OTTHUMP00000209389, ENST00000432427.2, OTTHUMT00000339672
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      cd01816
      Location:57131
      Raf_RBD; Ubiquitin domain of Raf serine/threonine kinases
      cd14149
      Location:303585
      STKc_C-Raf; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, C-Raf (Rapidly Accelerated Fibrosarcoma) kinase
      pfam00069
      Location:317572
      Pkinase; Protein kinase domain
      pfam00130
      Location:139187
      C1_1; Phorbol esters/diacylglycerol binding domain (C1 domain)

    RNA

    1. XR_001740226.1 RNA Sequence

    2. XR_001740227.1 RNA Sequence

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018914.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      12575179..12655743 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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