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    GAPDH glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 2597, updated on 19-Mar-2017
    Official Symbol
    GAPDHprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenaseprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:4141
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000111640 MIM:138400; Vega:OTTHUMG00000137379
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    G3PD; GAPD; HEL-S-162eP
    Summary
    This gene encodes a member of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase protein family. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions. The product of this gene catalyzes an important energy-yielding step in carbohydrate metabolism, the reversible oxidative phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate in the presence of inorganic phosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). The encoded protein has additionally been identified to have uracil DNA glycosylase activity in the nucleus. Also, this protein contains a peptide that has antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans. Studies of a similar protein in mouse have assigned a variety of additional functions including nitrosylation of nuclear proteins, the regulation of mRNA stability, and acting as a transferrin receptor on the cell surface of macrophage. Many pseudogenes similar to this locus are present in the human genome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]
    Orthologs
    Location:
    12p13.31
    Exon count:
    10
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 12 NC_000012.12 (6534405..6538375)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 12 NC_000012.11 (6643585..6647537)

    Chromosome 12 - NC_000012.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene mitochondrial ribosomal protein L51 Neighboring gene non-SMC condensin I complex subunit D2 Neighboring gene small Cajal body-specific RNA 10 Neighboring gene intermediate filament family orphan 1 Neighboring gene NOP2 nucleolar protein

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Replication interactions

    Interaction Pubs
    Knockdown of GAPDH by siRNA enhances HIV-1 infectivity in TZM-bl cells PubMed

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
    Gag-Pol gag-pol Immunoprecipitation assay shows that GAPDH directly interacts with HIV-1 Gag and Gag-Pol. Packaging of LysRS and tRNA-Lys3 into virions is negatively regulated by GAPDH, leading to decreased viral infectivity PubMed
    gag-pol Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
    Nef nef Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
    Pr55(Gag) gag Immunoprecipitation assay shows that GAPDH directly interacts with HIV-1 Gag and Gag-Pol. Packaging of LysRS and tRNA-Lys3 into virions is negatively regulated by GAPDH, leading to decreased viral infectivity PubMed
    gag Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
    Rev rev HIV-1 Rev interacting protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), is identified by the in-vitro binding experiments involving cytosolic or nuclear extracts from HeLa cells. The interaction of Rev with GAPDH is increased by RRE PubMed
    Tat tat Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is identified to interact with HIV-1 Tat mutant Nullbasic in HeLa cells by LC MS/MS PubMed
    Vpr vpr A stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics identifies downregulation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) expression by HIV-1 Vpr in Vpr transduced macrophages PubMed
    vpr Treatment of human primary astrocytes with HIV-1 Vpr downregulates expression of mRNA GAPDH and GAPDH activity PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Clone Names

    • MGC88685

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    NAD binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    NADP binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    disordered domain specific binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+) (phosphorylating) activity EXP
    Inferred from Experiment
    more info
    PubMed 
    glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+) (phosphorylating) activity ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+) (phosphorylating) activity NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    identical protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    microtubule binding ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    peptidyl-cysteine S-nitrosylase activity ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    canonical glycolysis TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    cellular response to interferon-gamma IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    gluconeogenesis TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    microtubule cytoskeleton organization ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    negative regulation of translation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of translation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    neuron apoptotic process ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    peptidyl-cysteine S-trans-nitrosylation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    protein stabilization ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    regulation of macroautophagy TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    GAIT complex IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytoplasm ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    cytosol IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytosol ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular exosome IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular matrix IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    intracellular membrane-bounded organelle IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    intracellular ribonucleoprotein complex IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    lipid particle IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    microtubule cytoskeleton ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    nuclear membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    nucleus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    nucleus ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    perinuclear region of cytoplasm IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    plasma membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    vesicle IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Preferred Names
    glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
    Names
    aging-associated gene 9 protein
    epididymis secretory sperm binding protein Li 162eP
    peptidyl-cysteine S-nitrosylase GAPDH
    NP_001243728.1
    NP_001276674.1
    NP_001276675.1
    NP_002037.2

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_007073.2 RefSeqGene

      Range
      4915..8885
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001256799.2NP_001243728.1  glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoform 2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001243728.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR and coding region compared to variant 1. These differences cause translation initiation at a downstream AUG and result in an isoform (2) with a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF261085, BE893087, HY000136
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS58201.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P04406
      Related
      ENSP00000380067, OTTHUMP00000174434, ENST00000396858, OTTHUMT00000268066
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      pfam00044
      Location:1110
      Gp_dh_N; Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD binding domain
      pfam02800
      Location:115272
      Gp_dh_C; Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, C-terminal domain
    2. NM_001289745.1NP_001276674.1  glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001276674.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs in the 5' UTR, compared to variant 1. Variants 1, 3, and 4 encode the same isoform (1).
      Source sequence(s)
      BE893087, BM763361, HY046784, M33197
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS8549.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P04406
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      V9HVZ4
      Related
      ENSP00000380070, OTTHUMP00000174431, ENST00000396861, OTTHUMT00000268060
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      COG0057
      Location:3335
      GapA; Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase/erythrose-4-phosphate dehydrogenase [Carbohydrate transport and metabolism]
      pfam00044
      Location:4152
      Gp_dh_N; Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD binding domain
      pfam02800
      Location:157314
      Gp_dh_C; Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, C-terminal domain
    3. NM_001289746.1NP_001276675.1  glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001276675.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR, compared to variant 1. Variants 1, 3, and 4 encode the same isoform (1).
      Source sequence(s)
      BC023632, BE893087, HY004110, HY022295
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS8549.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P04406
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      V9HVZ4
      Related
      ENSP00000380068, OTTHUMP00000174432, ENST00000396859, OTTHUMT00000268061
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      COG0057
      Location:3335
      GapA; Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase/erythrose-4-phosphate dehydrogenase [Carbohydrate transport and metabolism]
      pfam00044
      Location:4152
      Gp_dh_N; Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD binding domain
      pfam02800
      Location:157314
      Gp_dh_C; Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, C-terminal domain
    4. NM_002046.5NP_002037.2  glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002037.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longer isoform (1).
      Source sequence(s)
      BC009081, BE893087, HY046784
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS8549.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P04406
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      V9HVZ4
      Related
      ENSP00000229239, OTTHUMP00000174430, ENST00000229239, OTTHUMT00000268059
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      COG0057
      Location:3335
      GapA; Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase/erythrose-4-phosphate dehydrogenase [Carbohydrate transport and metabolism]
      pfam00044
      Location:4152
      Gp_dh_N; Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD binding domain
      pfam02800
      Location:157314
      Gp_dh_C; Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, C-terminal domain

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...Open this link in a new tab

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000012.12 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

      Range
      6534405..6538375
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018923.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      6642578..6646548
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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