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    GCG glucagon [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 2641, updated on 5-Nov-2017
    Official Symbol
    GCGprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    glucagonprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:4191
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000115263 MIM:138030; Vega:OTTHUMG00000153892
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    GLP1; GLP2; GRPP; GLP-1
    Summary
    The protein encoded by this gene is actually a preproprotein that is cleaved into four distinct mature peptides. One of these, glucagon, is a pancreatic hormone that counteracts the glucose-lowering action of insulin by stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Glucagon is a ligand for a specific G-protein linked receptor whose signalling pathway controls cell proliferation. Two of the other peptides are secreted from gut endocrine cells and promote nutrient absorption through distinct mechanisms. Finally, the fourth peptide is similar to glicentin, an active enteroglucagon. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
    Orthologs
    Location:
    2q24.2
    Exon count:
    6
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 2 NC_000002.12 (162142869..162152404, complement)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 2 NC_000002.11 (162999379..163008914, complement)

    Chromosome 2 - NC_000002.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 8A pseudogene 1 Neighboring gene eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit E pseudogene 2 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101929532 Neighboring gene fibroblast activation protein alpha Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105373724

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    • Class B/2 (Secretin family receptors), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Class B/2 (Secretin family receptors), organism-specific biosystemThis family is known as Family B (secretin-receptor family, family 2) G-protein-coupled receptors. Family B GPCRs include secretin, calcitonin, parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide...
    • FOXA1 transcription factor network, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      FOXA1 transcription factor network, organism-specific biosystem
      FOXA1 transcription factor network
    • G alpha (q) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      G alpha (q) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe classic signalling route for G alpha (q) is activation of phospholipase C beta thereby triggering phosphoinositide hydrolysis, calcium mobilization and protein kinase C activation. This provides ...
    • G alpha (s) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      G alpha (s) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe general function of the G alpha (s) subunit (Gs) is to activate adenylate cyclase, which in turn produces cAMP, leading to the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinases (often referred to col...
    • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
    • GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystemThere are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all...
    • Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystemGastrin is a hormone whose main function is to stimulate secretion of hydrochloric acid by the gastric mucosa, which results in gastrin formation inhibition. This hormone also acts as a mitogenic fac...
    • Glucagon signaling in metabolic regulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Glucagon signaling in metabolic regulation, organism-specific biosystemGlucagon and insulin are peptide hormones released from the pancreas into the blood, that normally act in complementary fashion to stabilize blood glucose concentration. When blood glucose levels ris...
    • Glucagon signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Glucagon signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemGlucagon is conventionally regarded as a counterregulatory hormone for insulin and plays a critical anti-hypoglycemic role by maintaining glucose homeostasis in both animals and humans. To increase ...
    • Glucagon signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Glucagon signaling pathway, conserved biosystemGlucagon is conventionally regarded as a counterregulatory hormone for insulin and plays a critical anti-hypoglycemic role by maintaining glucose homeostasis in both animals and humans. To increase ...
    • Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP1) regulates insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP1) regulates insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystemGlucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted by L-cells in the intestine in response to glucose and fatty acids. GLP-1 circulates to the beta cells of the pancreas where it binds a G-protein coupled r...
    • Glucagon-type ligand receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Glucagon-type ligand receptors, organism-specific biosystemThe glucagon hormone family regulates the activity of GPCRs from the secretin receptor subfamily in Class II/B (Mayo KE et al, 2003).
    • Incretin synthesis, secretion, and inactivation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Incretin synthesis, secretion, and inactivation, organism-specific biosystemIncretins are peptide hormones produced by the gut that enhance the ability of glucose to stimulate insulin secretion from beta cells in the pancreas. Two incretins have been identified: Glucagon-lik...
    • Insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystemPancreatic beta cells are specialised endocrine cells that continuously sense the levels of blood sugar and other fuels and, in response, secrete insulin to maintain normal fuel homeostasis. Glucose-...
    • Integration of energy metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Integration of energy metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMany hormones that affect individual physiological processes including the regulation of appetite, absorption, transport, and oxidation of foodstuffs influence energy metabolism pathways. While insul...
    • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
    • Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystemProtein metabolism comprises the pathways of translation, post-translational modification and protein folding.
    • Peptide hormone metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Peptide hormone metabolism, organism-specific biosystemPeptide hormones are cleaved from larger precursors in the secretory system (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, secretory granules) of the cell. After secretion peptide hormones are modified and...
    • Regulation of insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Regulation of insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystemPancreatic beta cells integrate signals from several metabolites and hormones to control the secretion of insulin. In general, glucose triggers insulin secretion while other factors can amplify or in...
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
    • Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin, organism-specific biosystemGhrelin is a peptide hormone of 28 amino acid residues which is acylated at the serine-3 of the mature peptide. Ghrelin is synthesized in several tissues: X/A-like cells of the gastric mucosa (the ma...
    • Synthesis, secretion, and inactivation of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Synthesis, secretion, and inactivation of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1), organism-specific biosystemIn L cells of the intestine the transcription factors TCF-4 (TCF7L2) and Beta-catenin form a heterodimer and bind the G2 enhancer of the Proglucagon gene GCG,activating its transcription to yield Pro...
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    glucagon receptor binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    hormone activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    identical protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    receptor binding TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    adenylate cyclase-modulating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    cell proliferation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to glucagon stimulus TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    feeding behavior TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of apoptotic process IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    negative regulation of execution phase of apoptosis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of cAMP biosynthetic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of calcium ion import IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of gluconeogenesis by positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of histone H3-K4 methylation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of insulin secretion involved in cellular response to glucose stimulus IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of protein binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of protein kinase activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein kinase A signaling IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    regulation of insulin secretion TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    regulation of receptor activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to starvation IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    signal transduction TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular space IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    plasma membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    secretory granule lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    Preferred Names
    glucagon
    Names
    glicentin-related polypeptide
    glucagon-like peptide 1
    glucagon-like peptide 2
    preproglucagon

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_002054.4NP_002045.1  glucagon preproprotein

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002045.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      BC005278, BM272442, CB069629
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS46439.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P01275
      Related
      ENSP00000387662.2, OTTHUMP00000204570, ENST00000418842.6, OTTHUMT00000332860
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      pfam00123
      Location:5379
      Hormone_2; Peptide hormone

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...Open this link in a new tab

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000002.12 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

      Range
      162142869..162152404 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018913.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      163005267..163014802 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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