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    MAPK8 mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 5599, updated on 19-Nov-2017
    Official Symbol
    MAPK8provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    mitogen-activated protein kinase 8provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:6881
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000107643 MIM:601158; Vega:OTTHUMG00000018172
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    JNK; JNK1; PRKM8; SAPK1; JNK-46; JNK1A2; SAPK1c; JNK21B1/2
    Summary
    The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This kinase is activated by various cell stimuli, and targets specific transcription factors, and thus mediates immediate-early gene expression in response to cell stimuli. The activation of this kinase by tumor-necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is found to be required for TNF-alpha induced apoptosis. This kinase is also involved in UV radiation induced apoptosis, which is thought to be related to cytochrom c-mediated cell death pathway. Studies of the mouse counterpart of this gene suggested that this kinase play a key role in T cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2016]
    Orthologs
    Location:
    10q11.22
    Exon count:
    15
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 10 NC_000010.11 (48306639..48439360)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 10 NC_000010.10 (49514682..49647403)

    Chromosome 10 - NC_000010.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene FERM and PDZ domain containing 2 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein S6 pseudogene 14 Neighboring gene Rho GTPase activating protein 22 Neighboring gene WDFY family member 4 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L13a pseudogene 19 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105378299

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 Env gp120 upregulates MAPK8 (JNK) in SVGA cells, human fetal astrocytes, and the prefrontal cortex of gp120 transgenic mice PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120-induced upregulation of APP protein production involves JNK MAPK signaling pathway in human cells PubMed
    env Pretreatment of CD4+ T cells with HIV-1 gp120 followed by stimulation with jacalin results in marked inhibition of phosphorylation of ERK2 as well as JNK PubMed
    env NF-kappaB and JNK signaling are involved in gp120-induced multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp1) regulation during an HIV-1 associated inflammatory response PubMed
    env HIV-1 Env-pseudotyped virus-infected MDM cells induce cellular apoptosis through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and JNK phosphorylation PubMed
    env CCR5 and CXCR4 coreceptor engagement by HIV-1 gp120 in primary macrophages activates 2 members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) superfamily, c-Jun amino-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK PubMed
    env The transcription factors and kinases c-Jun, JNK, MEK, p38 MAPK, STAT-3, JAK-1, TFII D, TFII F, eIF-4E, and RNA polymerase II are induced by HIV-1 gp120 PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 activates NMDA receptor directly and phosphorylates JNK through a gp120-mediated apoptotic pathway in human neuroblastoma cells PubMed
    env Increased neurotoxicity mediated by cocaine and gp120 involves signaling pathways including c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p42 extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) in primary human central nervous system (CNS) cells with an early peak of activation at 2 to 5 minutes PubMed
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env The activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, including ERK, JNK, and p38MAPK) is induced by incubation of HIV-1 gp160 with CD4+complement receptor type 2 (CR2)+ cells PubMed
    env Pre-incubation of CD4+ T lymphocytes with anti-CD4 mAb or HIV-1 gp160 inhibits the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 2 (ERK2) in response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin PubMed
    Nef nef HIV-1 Nef-induced strong activation of MAP kinases (p38/MAPK14, JNK/MAPK8, and ERK1/2) and NF-kappaB pathway (IKK alpha/beta) in M2-macrophages is mediated by TAK1 PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef inhibits ASK1-induced phosphorylation of p54/p46 JNK in cells. Nef mutant (152DEVGEANN/AAAAAAAA159) abolishes its inhibitory activity PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef activates c-jun nuclear kinase (JNK) in human glial cells and the resulting activation promotes cell proliferation PubMed
    nef The interaction between HIV-1 Nef and Vav leads to the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) PubMed
    nef Using genetic and immunohistochemical studies in Drosophila transgenic lines, wild-type HIV-1 Nef demonstrates induction of JNK activation and apoptotic activities PubMed
    Tat tat HIV-1 Tat induces phosphorylation of MAPK8 (JNK) in CRT-MG human astroglioma cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat increases phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, p38, AKT1, MEK-1, and STAT-1alpha in Muller glia and brain microvascular pericytes PubMed
    tat Pretreatment of microglia with HIV-1 Tat followed by treatment with CX3CL1 results in inhibition of CX3CL1-mediated activation of ERK1/2 and JNK MAPKs compared to cells not treated with Tat PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat-induced MAPK (ERK, JNK, and p38) activation is required for MMP-9 expression in human astrocytes PubMed
    tat Treatment with HIV-1 Tat induces phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK in brain micro vascular endothelial cells (BMEC) and astrocytes, which mediates Tat-induced multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) expression PubMed
    tat Exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells to HIV-1 Tat causes broad activation of the unfolded-protein response in ER with phosphorylation of PERK, eIF2alpha, and JNK and induction of Grp78/BiP PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat activates c-jun (Activator Protein-1; AP-1) through the activation of JNK, an effect mediated through the activation of p56lck PubMed
    tat Extracellular HIV-1 Tat upregulates the expression of human beta-defensin 2 (hBD-2) via JNK/NF-KappaB/AP-1-dependent pathways in human B cells PubMed
    tat Knocking down Nox2 by siRNA decreases HIV-1 Tat-induced NF-KappaB activation as well as activation of MAP kinases including ERK, JNK, and p38 PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat and morphine-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells involves ERK1/2 and JNK activation PubMed
    tat Cell-permeable SOD inhibits the activation of MAP kinases including ERK, JNK and p38 and the upregulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 by HIV-1 Tat PubMed
    tat HIV-1-Tat-mediated upregulation of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) B chain in astrocytes is regulated by activation of ERK1/2 and JNK MAPK signaling pathways and the downstream transcription factor early growth response 1 (Egr1) PubMed
    tat Sulfated polymannuroguluronate (SPMG) blocks the Tat-induced extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2- and c-jun amino-terminal kinase-mediated signalling pathways PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat in combination with IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha increases CXCL10 mRNA and protein in human astrocytes through the activation of the p38, Jnk, and Akt signaling pathways and their downstream transcription factors, NF-kappaB and STAT-1alpha PubMed
    tat Phospholipase C/protein kinase C signaling pathway-dependent phosphorylation of p44/42 and JNK MAP kinases participates partially in IL-1beta induction by TAT PubMed
    tat Activation of JNK by HIV-1 Tat is mediated by TRAF4 PubMed
    Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr-mediated regulation of IL6 involves MAPK8 (JnK-MAPK8) in astrocytes PubMed
    vpr Vpr-mediated CXCL8 (IL8) secretion from astrocytes involves MAPK8 (Jnk-MAPK) PubMed
    vpr Vpr-mediated CXCL8 (IL8) mRNA expression involves MAPK8 (Jnk-MAPK) in astrocytes PubMed
    vpr Synthetic HIV-1 Vpr protein activates AP-1 (Jun/Fos), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), NF-kappaB, and MKK7 in both U937 cells and primary macrophages. PubMed
    integrase gag-pol Cellular JNK1 phosphorylates HIV-1 IN on Ser57, leading to efficient HIV-1 infection and integration in primary human T lymphocytes PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

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    • FoxO signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      FoxO signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe forkhead box O (FOXO) family of transcription factors regulates the expression of genes in cellular physiological events including apoptosis, cell-cycle control, glucose metabolism, oxidative str...
    • Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network, organism-specific biosystem
      Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network
    • Glypican 3 network, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Glypican 3 network, organism-specific biosystem
      Glypican 3 network
    • GnRH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      GnRH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnR...
    • GnRH signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      GnRH signaling pathway, conserved biosystemGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnR...
    • HIV-1 Nef: Negative effector of Fas and TNF-alpha, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      HIV-1 Nef: Negative effector of Fas and TNF-alpha, organism-specific biosystem
      HIV-1 Nef: Negative effector of Fas and TNF-alpha
    • HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
    • HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
    • Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped virus and contains a partially double-stranded relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) genome. After entry into hepatocytes, HBV RC-DNA is transported to the nucleus and...
    • Hepatitis C, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Hepatitis C, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The HCV employ several strategies to perturb host cell immunity. After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the...
    • Hepatitis C, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Hepatitis C, conserved biosystemHepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The HCV employ several strategies to perturb host cell immunity. After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the...
    • Hepatitis C and Hepatocellular Carcinoma, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Hepatitis C and Hepatocellular Carcinoma, organism-specific biosystemPathway model based on hub miRNAs and their putative targets from network analysis. - From a set of differentially expressed genes in both chronic HCV (hepatitis C virus) and HCC (hepatocellular carc...
    • Herpes simplex infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Herpes simplex infection, organism-specific biosystemHerpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide, with the prevalence of HSV-1 reaching up to 80%-90%. Primary infection with HSV takes place in the mucosa, followed by the establishme...
    • Herpes simplex infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Herpes simplex infection, conserved biosystemHerpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide, with the prevalence of HSV-1 reaching up to 80%-90%. Primary infection with HSV takes place in the mucosa, followed by the establishme...
    • Hypothesized Pathways in Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Disease, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Hypothesized Pathways in Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Disease, organism-specific biosystemThe pathways hypothesized to be involved in cardiovascular diseases begin with LTBPs and Fibrillins activating a TGFBR complex. The complex can begin the canonical TGFB pathway involving SMAD protei...
    • IL-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      IL-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe IL-1 family of cytokines currently consists of 11 members which are encoded by distinct genes and includes IL-1?, IL-1?, and the IL-1 Receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). The major role of IL-1 type cyt...
    • IL-17 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      IL-17 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe interleukin 17 (IL-17) family, a subset of cytokines consisting of IL-17A-F, plays crucial roles in both acute and chronic inflammatory responses. IL-17A, the hallmark cytokine of the newly defi...
    • IL-17 signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      IL-17 signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe interleukin 17 (IL-17) family, a subset of cytokines consisting of IL-17A-F, plays crucial roles in both acute and chronic inflammatory responses. IL-17A, the hallmark cytokine of the newly defi...
    • IL-3 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      IL-3 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin 3 (IL-3) is a potent growth factor belonging to the super family of cytokines. IL-3 is a 20- 32kDa glycoprotein involved in the process of hematopoiesis. It is involved in the proliferati...
    • IL1-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      IL1-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
      IL1-mediated signaling events
    • IL12 signaling mediated by STAT4, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      IL12 signaling mediated by STAT4, organism-specific biosystem
      IL12 signaling mediated by STAT4
    • IL2-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      IL2-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
      IL2-mediated signaling events
    • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
    • Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, organism-specific biosystemThe TRP channels that exhibit a unique response to temperature have been given the name thermo-TRPs. Among all thermo- TRP channels, TRPV1-4, TRPM8, and TRPA1 are expressed in subsets of nociceptive...
    • Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, conserved biosystemThe TRP channels that exhibit a unique response to temperature have been given the name thermo-TRPs. Among all thermo- TRP channels, TRPV1-4, TRPM8, and TRPA1 are expressed in subsets of nociceptive...
    • Influenza A, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Influenza A, organism-specific biosystemInfluenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. Novel strains ...
    • Influenza A, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Influenza A, conserved biosystemInfluenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. Novel strains ...
    • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
    • Insulin Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Insulin Signaling, organism-specific biosystemInsulin signaling influences energy metabolism as well as growth. The presence of insulin signals the fed state, and this signal is passed via the AKT branch, which leads to the uptake of glucose fro...
    • Insulin resistance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Insulin resistance, organism-specific biosystemInsulin resistance is a condition where cells become resistant to the effects of insulin. It is often found in people with health disorders, including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic...
    • Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
    • Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
    • Integrated Pancreatic Cancer Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Integrated Pancreatic Cancer Pathway, organism-specific biosystemAn integrated pathway model which displays the protein-protein interactions (PPIs) among the relevant proteins for pancreatic cancer. This pathway is a collection of different mechanistic protein pat...
    • Intrinsic Pathway for Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Intrinsic Pathway for Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystemThe intrinsic (Bcl-2 inhibitable or mitochondrial) pathway of apoptosis functions in response to various types of intracellular stress including growth factor withdrawal, DNA damage, unfolding stress...
    • JNK (c-Jun kinases) phosphorylation and activation mediated by activated human TAK1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      JNK (c-Jun kinases) phosphorylation and activation mediated by activated human TAK1, organism-specific biosystemC-Jun NH2 terminal kinases (JNKs) are an evolutionarily conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases, that belong to mitogen activated protein kinase family (MAPKs - also known as stress-acti...
    • JNK signaling in the CD4+ TCR pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      JNK signaling in the CD4+ TCR pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      JNK signaling in the CD4+ TCR pathway
    • Kit receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Kit receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemKit is a cytokine receptor that belongs to the type III receptor tyrosine kinase family. It is structurally similar to platelet-derived growth factor recpetors (PDGFRs), colony stimulating factor-1 r...
    • Leptin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Leptin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemLeptin is a peptide hormone mainly synthesised and secreted from adipocytes. It is also expressed in other tissues including placenta, stomach and skeletal muscle. Leptin mediates its effects by bind...
    • MAP kinase activation in TLR cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MAP kinase activation in TLR cascade, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, one of the most ancient and evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways, is involved in many processes of immune responses. The MAP kinases cascad...
    • MAPK (JNK) signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      MAPK (JNK) signaling, organism-specific biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
    • MAPK (JNK) signaling, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      MAPK (JNK) signaling, conserved biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
    • MAPK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      MAPK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
    • MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
    • MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
    • MAPK targets/ Nuclear events mediated by MAP kinases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MAPK targets/ Nuclear events mediated by MAP kinases, organism-specific biosystemMAPKs are protein kinases that, once activated, phosphorylate their specific cytosolic or nuclear substrates at serine and/or threonine residues. Such phosphorylation events can either positively or ...
    • MicroRNAs in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      MicroRNAs in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway shows the role of microRNAs in the process of cardiac hypertrophy. MicroRNA targets were predicted by the TargetScan algorithm, and the predicted interactions are shown in red dashed lin...
    • Mitophagy - animal, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Mitophagy - animal, organism-specific biosystemMitochondria act as the energy powerhouse of the cell, and are essential for eukaryotic cells to grow and function normally. However, deleterious byproducts of oxidative phosphorylation process calle...
    • Mitophagy - animal, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Mitophagy - animal, conserved biosystemMitochondria act as the energy powerhouse of the cell, and are essential for eukaryotic cells to grow and function normally. However, deleterious byproducts of oxidative phosphorylation process calle...
    • MyD88 cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MyD88 cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemMammalian myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is Toll/interleukin (IL)-1 (TIR)-domain containing adapter protein which plays crucial role in TLR signaling. All TLRs, with only one exception of...
    • MyD88 dependent cascade initiated on endosome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MyD88 dependent cascade initiated on endosome, organism-specific biosystemUpon binding of their ligands, TLR7/8 and TLR9 recruit a cytoplasmic adaptor MyD88 and IRAKs, downstream of which the signaling pathways are divided to induce either inflammatory cytokines or type I ...
    • MyD88-independent TLR3/TLR4 cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MyD88-independent TLR3/TLR4 cascade, organism-specific biosystemMyD88-independent signaling pathway is shared by TLR3 and TLR4 cascades. TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-beta (TRIF or TICAM1) is a key adapter molecule in transducing signals from ...
    • MyD88:Mal cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MyD88:Mal cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemThe first known downstream component of TLR4 and TLR2 signaling is the adaptor MyD88. Another adapter MyD88-adaptor-like (Mal; also known as TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein or TIRAP) has also b...
    • N-cadherin signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      N-cadherin signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
      N-cadherin signaling events
    • NLR Proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      NLR Proteins, organism-specific biosystemMammalian cells have evolved a set of specialized pattern recognition-molecules (PRMs) to detect conserved molecular motifs present on pathogens known as pathogen associated-molecular-patterns (PAMPs...
    • NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting various pathogens and generating innate immune responses. The intracellular NOD-like receptor (NLR) family contains mo...
    • NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting various pathogens and generating innate immune responses. The intracellular NOD-like receptor (NLR) family contains mo...
    • NRAGE signals death through JNK, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      NRAGE signals death through JNK, organism-specific biosystemOnce bound by either NGF or proNGF, p75NTR interacts with NRAGE, thus leading to phosphorylation and activation of JUN Kinase (JNK). JNK controls apoptosis in two ways: it induces transcription of pr...
    • NRIF signals cell death from the nucleus, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      NRIF signals cell death from the nucleus, organism-specific biosystemNRIF (nuclear receptor-interacting factor) is a DNA binding protein that is essential for p75-mediated apoptosis in retina and sympathetic neurons. Neurotrophin or proneurotrophin binding to p75TR in...
    • Nanoparticle triggered regulated necrosis, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Nanoparticle triggered regulated necrosis, organism-specific biosystemProgrammed cell death: regulated necrosis. During regulated necrosis, different stimuli are recognized or sensed by specific receptors on the cell surface or inside cells. The activation of the necro...
    • Nanoparticle-mediated activation of receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Nanoparticle-mediated activation of receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystemNanoparticle-mediated activation of receptor signaling. Several NP formulations were shown to interact with cellular receptors such as the EGFR and integrins, inducing cellular phenotypes such as pro...
    • Nephrin/Neph1 signaling in the kidney podocyte, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Nephrin/Neph1 signaling in the kidney podocyte, organism-specific biosystem
      Nephrin/Neph1 signaling in the kidney podocyte
    • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
    • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
    • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), organism-specific biosystemNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to more severe steatohepatitis with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, known as nonalcoholic steatohepati...
    • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), conserved biosystemNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to more severe steatohepatitis with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, known as nonalcoholic steatohepati...
    • Noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      Noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway
    • Oncostatin M Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Oncostatin M Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemOncostatin M (OSM) is a member of the multifunctional cytokine interleukin 6 (IL6) - type cytokine family. It is mainly produced in cell types such as activated T lymphocytes, macrophages, monocytes,...
    • Osteoclast Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Osteoclast Signaling, organism-specific biosystem
      Osteoclast Signaling
    • Osteoclast differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Osteoclast differentiation, organism-specific biosystemThe osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways...
    • Osteoclast differentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Osteoclast differentiation, conserved biosystemThe osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways...
    • Osteopontin-mediated events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Osteopontin-mediated events, organism-specific biosystem
      Osteopontin-mediated events
    • Oxidative Stress Induced Senescence, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Oxidative Stress Induced Senescence, organism-specific biosystemOxidative stress, caused by increased concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell, can happen as a consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction induced by the oncogenic RAS (Moiseeva et al...
    • PDGF Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      PDGF Pathway, organism-specific biosystemPDGF belongs to the PDGF/VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) family, which is characterized by eight strictly conserved cysteine residues with similar spacing in between (Joukov et al., 1997; H...
    • Pancreatic cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pancreatic cancer, organism-specific biosystemInfiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy of the pancreas. When most investigators use the term 'pancreatic cancer' they are referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)...
    • Pancreatic cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pancreatic cancer, conserved biosystemInfiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy of the pancreas. When most investigators use the term 'pancreatic cancer' they are referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)...
    • Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
      Pathways in cancer
    • Pertussis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pertussis, organism-specific biosystemPertussis, also known as whooping cough, is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by a bacteria called Bordetella Pertussis. The characteristic symptoms are paroxysmal cough, inspiratory whe...
    • Pertussis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pertussis, conserved biosystemPertussis, also known as whooping cough, is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by a bacteria called Bordetella Pertussis. The characteristic symptoms are paroxysmal cough, inspiratory whe...
    • Photodynamic therapy-induced AP-1 survival signaling., organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Photodynamic therapy-induced AP-1 survival signaling., organism-specific biosystemPhotodynamic therapy may induce an acute stress response mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (MAP3K5), its downstream MAPKs that target c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, MAPK8) a...
    • Photodynamic therapy-induced NFE2L2 (NRF2) survival signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Photodynamic therapy-induced NFE2L2 (NRF2) survival signaling, organism-specific biosystemPhotodynamic therapy may induce an antioxidant response mediated by NFE2L2.
    • Physiological and Pathological Hypertrophy of the Heart, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Physiological and Pathological Hypertrophy of the Heart, organism-specific biosystemPathways in physiological and pathological hypertrophy of the heart. Largely based on the article from Wang Y; ''Signal transduction in cardiac hypertrophy--dissecting compensatory versus pathologica...
    • Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, organism-specific biosystemXenopus oocytes are naturally arrested at G2 of meiosis I. Exposure to either insulin/IGF-1 or the steroid hormone progesterone breaks this arrest and induces resumption of the two meiotic division c...
    • Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, conserved biosystemXenopus oocytes are naturally arrested at G2 of meiosis I. Exposure to either insulin/IGF-1 or the steroid hormone progesterone breaks this arrest and induces resumption of the two meiotic division c...
    • Programmed Cell Death, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Programmed Cell Death, organism-specific biosystemCell death is a fundamental cellular response that has a crucial role in shaping our bodies during development and in regulating tissue homeostasis by eliminating unwanted cells. There are a number o...
    • Prolactin Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Prolactin Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemProlactin (PRL), a pleiotropic polypeptide hormone, mostly secreted by the lactotrophic cells of anterior pituitary gland and to a lesser extent expressed in numerous extra pituitary tissues such as ...
    • Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
    • Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
    • Protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, organism-specific biosystemThe endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a subcellular organelle where proteins are folded with the help of lumenal chaperones. Newly synthesized peptides enter the ER via the sec61 pore and are glycosylate...
    • Protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, conserved biosystemThe endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a subcellular organelle where proteins are folded with the help of lumenal chaperones. Newly synthesized peptides enter the ER via the sec61 pore and are glycosylate...
    • RAC1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      RAC1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      RAC1 signaling pathway
    • RANKL/RANK (Receptor activator of NFKB (ligand)) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      RANKL/RANK (Receptor activator of NFKB (ligand)) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemRANKL (Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand), RANK (Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B) and the natural decoy receptor of RANKL, OPG (Osteoprotegerin) are three important mol...
    • RIG-I-like Receptor Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      RIG-I-like Receptor Signaling, organism-specific biosystemViral pathogen RNA are recognized by host helicases called RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) that include DDX58 (RIG-I), DHX58 (LGP2), IFIH1 (MDA5), SNW1, and DDX17. These RLR proteins then go on to initia...
    • RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting viral pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Non-self RNA appearing in a cell as a result of intracellular ...
    • RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting viral pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Non-self RNA appearing in a cell as a result of intracellular ...
    • Rac1/Pak1/p38/MMP-2 pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Rac1/Pak1/p38/MMP-2 pathway, organism-specific biosystemRac1/p38 pathway from Ingenuity Pathway Analysis.
    • Rapid glucocorticoid signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Rapid glucocorticoid signaling, organism-specific biosystem
      Rapid glucocorticoid signaling
    • Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras prote...
    • Recruitment and ATM-mediated phosphorylation of repair and signaling proteins at DNA double strand breaks, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Recruitment and ATM-mediated phosphorylation of repair and signaling proteins at DNA double strand breaks, organism-specific biosystemActivated ATM phosphorylates a number of proteins involved in the DNA damage checkpoint and DNA repair (Thompson and Schild 2002, Ciccia and Elledge 2010), thereby triggering and coordinating accumul...
    • Reelin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Reelin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      Reelin signaling pathway
    • Regulation of Androgen receptor activity, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Regulation of Androgen receptor activity, organism-specific biosystem
      Regulation of Androgen receptor activity
    • Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway
    • Retinoic acid receptors-mediated signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Retinoic acid receptors-mediated signaling, organism-specific biosystem
      Retinoic acid receptors-mediated signaling
    • Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, organism-specific biosystemEndogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) serve as retrograde messengers at synapses in various regions of the brain. The family of endocannabinoids includes at least five derivatives of arachidonic...
    • Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, conserved biosystemEndogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) serve as retrograde messengers at synapses in various regions of the brain. The family of endocannabinoids includes at least five derivatives of arachidonic...
    • RhoA signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      RhoA signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      RhoA signaling pathway
    • Role of Calcineurin-dependent NFAT signaling in lymphocytes, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Role of Calcineurin-dependent NFAT signaling in lymphocytes, organism-specific biosystem
      Role of Calcineurin-dependent NFAT signaling in lymphocytes
    • S1P2 pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      S1P2 pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      S1P2 pathway
    • Salmonella infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Salmonella infection, organism-specific biosystemSalmonella infection usually presents as a self-limiting gastroenteritis or the more severe typhoid fever and bacteremia. The common disease-causing Salmonella species in human is a single species, S...
    • Salmonella infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Salmonella infection, conserved biosystemSalmonella infection usually presents as a self-limiting gastroenteritis or the more severe typhoid fever and bacteremia. The common disease-causing Salmonella species in human is a single species, S...
    • Shigellosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Shigellosis, organism-specific biosystemShigellosis, or bacillary dysentery, is an intestinal infection caused by Shigella, a genus of enterobacteria. Shigella are potential food-borne pathogens that are capable of colonizing the intestina...
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signaling events mediated by Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor (c-Met), organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Signaling events mediated by Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor (c-Met), organism-specific biosystem
      Signaling events mediated by Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor (c-Met)
    • Signaling events mediated by Stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit), organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Signaling events mediated by Stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit), organism-specific biosystem
      Signaling events mediated by Stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit)
    • Signaling events mediated by focal adhesion kinase, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Signaling events mediated by focal adhesion kinase, organism-specific biosystem
      Signaling events mediated by focal adhesion kinase
    • Signaling events regulated by Ret tyrosine kinase, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Signaling events regulated by Ret tyrosine kinase, organism-specific biosystem
      Signaling events regulated by Ret tyrosine kinase
    • Signaling of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Signaling of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor, organism-specific biosystem
      Signaling of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor
    • Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4/5) play pivotal roles in survival, differentiation, and plasticity of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. They are produced, and secreted in mi...
    • Sphingolipid signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Sphingolipid signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) ...
    • Sphingolipid signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Sphingolipid signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) ...
    • Structural Pathway of Interleukin 1 (IL-1), organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Structural Pathway of Interleukin 1 (IL-1), organism-specific biosystemPathway published in http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pcbi.1003470 IL-1 signaling pathway reconstructed by combining related pathways and information from the litera...
    • Syndecan-2-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Syndecan-2-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
      Syndecan-2-mediated signaling events
    • T-Cell antigen Receptor (TCR) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      T-Cell antigen Receptor (TCR) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) complex is composed of a ligand-binding subunit, the ? and ? chains, and a signaling subunit, namely the CD3?, ? and ? chains and the TCR? chain. This complex partic...
    • TGF-beta Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      TGF-beta Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe signal transduction mechanisms underlying the pathophysiological activities of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) have been extensively studied since its discovery nearly 30 years ago. TGF-? li...
    • TNF alpha Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      TNF alpha Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemTumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in various biological processes including regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and immune response. T...
    • TNF related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      TNF related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemTNF related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a small pleiotropic cytokine of the TNF super family and its gene is located at chromosome 17p13.1. TWEAK has been reported to be expressed in tissues...
    • TNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      TNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemTumor necrosis factor (TNF), as a critical cytokine, can induce a wide range of intracellular signal pathways including apoptosis and cell survival as well as inflammation and immunity. Activated TNF...
    • TNF signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      TNF signaling pathway, conserved biosystemTumor necrosis factor (TNF), as a critical cytokine, can induce a wide range of intracellular signal pathways including apoptosis and cell survival as well as inflammation and immunity. Activated TNF...
    • TRAF6 mediated induction of NFkB and MAP kinases upon TLR7/8 or 9 activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      TRAF6 mediated induction of NFkB and MAP kinases upon TLR7/8 or 9 activation, organism-specific biosystemTRAF6 mediates NFkB activation via canonical phosphorylation of IKK complex by TAK1. TRAF6 and TAK1 also regulate MAPK cascades leading to the activation of AP-1.
    • TRAIL signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      TRAIL signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      TRAIL signaling pathway
    • TRIF-mediated TLR3/TLR4 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      TRIF-mediated TLR3/TLR4 signaling, organism-specific biosystemTRIF(TICAM1) was shown to induce IRF3/7 and NF-?B activation and apoptosis through distinct intracellular signaling pathways [Han KJ et al 2004; Kaiser WJ and Offermann MK et al 2005]. TRIF consists...
    • Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation, organism-specific biosystemImmunity to different classes of microorganisms is orchestrated by separate lineages of effector T helper (TH)-cells, which differentiate from naive CD4+ precursor cells in response to cues provided ...
    • Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation, conserved biosystemImmunity to different classes of microorganisms is orchestrated by separate lineages of effector T helper (TH)-cells, which differentiate from naive CD4+ precursor cells in response to cues provided ...
    • Th17 cell differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Th17 cell differentiation, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin (IL)-17-producing helper T (Th17) cells serve as a subset of CD4+ T cells involved in epithelial cell- and neutrophil mediated immune responses against extracellular microbes and in the p...
    • Th17 cell differentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Th17 cell differentiation, conserved biosystemInterleukin (IL)-17-producing helper T (Th17) cells serve as a subset of CD4+ T cells involved in epithelial cell- and neutrophil mediated immune responses against extracellular microbes and in the p...
    • Thymic Stromal LymphoPoietin (TSLP) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Thymic Stromal LymphoPoietin (TSLP) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      Thymic Stromal LymphoPoietin (TSLP) Signaling Pathway
    • Tight junction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Tight junction, organism-specific biosystemTight junctions (TJs) are essential for establishing a selectively permeable barrier to diffusion through the paracellular space between neighboring cells. TJs are composed of at least three types of...
    • Tight junction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Tight junction, conserved biosystemTight junctions (TJs) are essential for establishing a selectively permeable barrier to diffusion through the paracellular space between neighboring cells. TJs are composed of at least three types of...
    • Toll Like Receptor 10 (TLR10) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 10 (TLR10) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemLittle is known about TLR10 ligands. It has been established that the receptor homodimerizes upon binding and signals in an MyD88-dependent manner (Hasan U et al 2005; Nyman T et al 2008). It may als...
    • Toll Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR2 is involved in recognition of peptidoglycan from gram-positive bacteria, bacterial lipoproteins, mycoplasma lipoprotein and mycobacterial products. It is quite possible that recognition of at le...
    • Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemToll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) as was shown for mammals is expressed on myeloid dendritic cells, respiratory epithelium, macrophages, and appears to play a central role in mediating the antiviral and in...
    • Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemToll-like Receptor 4 is a Microbe Associated Molecular Pattern receptor well known for it's sensitivity to Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS is assembled within diverse Gram-negative bacteria,...
    • Toll Like Receptor 5 (TLR5) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 5 (TLR5) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR5 is the receptor for flagellin, the protein that forms bacterial flagella. Unlike most other Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs), flagellin does not undergo any posttranslational modif...
    • Toll Like Receptor 7/8 (TLR7/8) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 7/8 (TLR7/8) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemRNA can serve as a danger signal, both in its double-stranded form (that is associated with viral infection), as well as single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). Specifically, guanosine (G)- and uridine (U)-rich...
    • Toll Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemCpG DNA is an unusual Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP). Cytosine methylation exists in mammalian but not bacterial cells, and most (but not all) CpG in the mammalian genome is methylated....
    • Toll Like Receptor TLR1:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor TLR1:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR1 is expressed by monocytes. TLR1 and TLR2 cotranslationally form heterodimeric complexes on the cell surface and in the cytosol. The TLR2:TLR1 complex recognizes Neisserial PorB and Mycobacterial...
    • Toll Like Receptor TLR6:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor TLR6:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR2 and TLR4 recognize different bacterial cell wall components. While TLR4 is trained onto Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide components, TLR2 - in combination with TLR6 - plays a major role in recog...
    • Toll-Like Receptors Cascades, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll-Like Receptors Cascades, organism-specific biosystemIn human, ten members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family (TLR1-TLR10) have been identified (TLR11 has been found in mouse, but not in human). All TLRs have a similar Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) doma...
    • Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
    • Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
    • Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
    • Toxoplasmosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toxoplasmosis, organism-specific biosystemToxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is prevalent worldwide. The tachyzoite form acquired by oral ingestion downmodulates proinflammatory signaling pathways via various mechan...
    • Toxoplasmosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toxoplasmosis, conserved biosystemToxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is prevalent worldwide. The tachyzoite form acquired by oral ingestion downmodulates proinflammatory signaling pathways via various mechan...
    • Transcription factor regulation in adipogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Transcription factor regulation in adipogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThe transcription factors involved in adipogenesis are shown in the current pathway. Adipogensis is the biological proces of cell differentation in which preadipocytes are converted into adipocytes.
    • Transcriptional activation by NRF2, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Transcriptional activation by NRF2, organism-specific biosystemBased on [http://www.nature.com/nrc/journal/v3/n10/fig_tab/nrc1189_F4.html Surh, 2003, figure 4]. Nrf2 induces the expression of many antioxidant enzymes. It is therefore thought to be involved in ox...
    • Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
    • Tuberculosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Tuberculosis, conserved biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
    • Type II diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Type II diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystemInsulin resistance is strongly associated with type II diabetes. "Diabetogenic" factors including FFA, TNFalpha and cellular stress induce insulin resistance through inhibition of IRS1 functions. Ser...
    • Type II diabetes mellitus, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Type II diabetes mellitus, conserved biosystemInsulin resistance is strongly associated with type II diabetes. "Diabetogenic" factors including FFA, TNFalpha and cellular stress induce insulin resistance through inhibition of IRS1 functions. Ser...
    • Type II diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Type II diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystemInsulin resistance is strongly associated with type II diabetes. "Diabetogenic" factors including FFA, TNFalpha and cellular stress induce insulin resistance through inhibition of IRS1 functions. Ser...
    • Wnt Signaling Pathway Netpath, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Wnt Signaling Pathway Netpath, organism-specific biosystemWNT signal, through the canonical pathway, controls cell fate determination and through the non-canonical pathway controls cell movement and tissue polarity. The name "wnt" is a fusion of two terms, ...
    • Wnt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Wnt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemWnt proteins are secreted morphogens that are required for basic developmental processes, such as cell-fate specification, progenitor-cell proliferation and the control of asymmetric cell division, i...
    • Wnt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Wnt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemWnt proteins are secreted morphogens that are required for basic developmental processes, such as cell-fate specification, progenitor-cell proliferation and the control of asymmetric cell division, i...
    • cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...
    • cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...
    • p53 pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      p53 pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      p53 pathway
    • p75 NTR receptor-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      p75 NTR receptor-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemBesides signalling through the tyrosine kinase receptors TRK A, B, and C, the mature neurotrophins NGF, BDNF, and NT3/4 signal through their common receptor p75NTR. NGF binding to p75NTR activates a ...
    • p75(NTR)-mediated signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      p75(NTR)-mediated signaling, organism-specific biosystem
      p75(NTR)-mediated signaling
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    ATP binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    JUN kinase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    JUN kinase activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    enzyme binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    histone deacetylase binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    histone deacetylase regulator activity IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    kinase activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein serine/threonine kinase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    Fc-epsilon receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    JNK cascade IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    JNK cascade TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    JUN phosphorylation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to amino acid starvation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to cadmium ion IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to lipopolysaccharide IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to mechanical stimulus IEP
    Inferred from Expression Pattern
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to reactive oxygen species IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of apoptotic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of protein binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    neuron development IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    peptidyl-serine phosphorylation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of apoptotic process IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    positive regulation of apoptotic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    positive regulation of cyclase activity IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of deacetylase activity IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of gene expression IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of protein insertion into mitochondrial membrane involved in apoptotic signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    positive regulation of protein metabolic process IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein phosphorylation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein phosphorylation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of DNA binding transcription factor activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    regulation of DNA replication origin binding IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of circadian rhythm ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    regulation of histone deacetylation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    regulation of macroautophagy TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of protein localization IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    response to UV IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    response to stress TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    rhythmic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    stress-activated MAPK cascade IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    cytoplasm IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    mitochondrion IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    neuron projection IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    nucleoplasm TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    nucleus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Preferred Names
    mitogen-activated protein kinase 8
    Names
    JUN N-terminal kinase
    MAP kinase 8
    c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1
    mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 isoform JNK1 alpha1
    mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 isoform JNK1 beta2
    stress-activated protein kinase 1
    stress-activated protein kinase 1c
    NP_001265476.1
    NP_001265477.1
    NP_001310231.1
    NP_001310249.1
    NP_001310250.1
    NP_001310251.1
    NP_001310252.1
    NP_001310253.1
    NP_001310254.1
    NP_001310255.1
    NP_001310256.1
    NP_001310257.1
    NP_001310258.1
    NP_001310259.1
    NP_001310260.1
    NP_620634.1
    NP_620637.1

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_029053.2 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5001..137722
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001278547.1NP_001265476.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 isoform beta2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001265476.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (JNK1-b2) encodes the longer of the two JNK1 beta isoforms (JNK1 beta2). The JNK1-b2 variant differs from the JNK1-a2 variant in the use of an alternate internal coding exon of the same length. Thus, JNK1 beta2 isoform is the same length as JNK1 alpha2 isoform, with a few aa difference in an internal protein segment. Variants JNK1-b2, 8, 9, and 16 all encode isoform beta2.
      Source sequence(s)
      AA808177, AC016397, AK292523, DA159335
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS7223.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P45983
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A1L4K2
      Related
      ENSP00000378974.4, ENST00000395611.7
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd07850
      Location:25360
      STKc_JNK; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase
    2. NM_001278548.1NP_001265477.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 isoform 5

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001265477.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (5) lacks an alternate in-frame segment and uses a different acceptor splice site in the last coding exon compared to transcript variant JNK1-b2, resulting in a frameshift and a shorter isoform (5) with a different C-terminus compared to isoform JNK1 beta2.
      Source sequence(s)
      AA808177, AC016397, AK292523, DQ234352
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS60527.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P45983
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A1L4K2
      Related
      ENSP00000353483.4, ENST00000360332.7
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cl21453
      Location:25284
      PKc_like; Protein Kinases, catalytic domain
    3. NM_001323302.1NP_001310231.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 isoform alpha1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (JNK1-a1) uses a different acceptor splice site in the last coding exon compared to transcript variant JNK1-a2, resulting in a frameshift and a shorter isoform (JNK1 alpha1) with a different C-terminus, compared to isoform JNK1 alpha2. The JNK1-a1 variant differs from the JNK1-b1 variant in the use of an alternate internal coding exon of the same length. Thus, JNK1 alpha1 isoform is the same length as JNK1 beta1 isoform, with a few aa difference in an internal protein segment. Variants JNK1-a1, 10, 12, and 13 all encode isoform alpha1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC016397, AC074325
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS7225.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P45983
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd07850
      Location:25360
      STKc_JNK; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase
    4. NM_001323320.1NP_001310249.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 isoform 6

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AC016397, AC074325
    5. NM_001323321.1NP_001310250.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 isoform beta1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (7), along with variants JNK1-b1 and 11, encodes isoform beta1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC016397, AC074325
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS7226.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P45983
      Related
      ENSP00000363294.3, OTTHUMP00000019556, ENST00000374179.7, OTTHUMT00000047937
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd07850
      Location:25360
      STKc_JNK; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase
    6. NM_001323322.1NP_001310251.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 isoform beta2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (8), along with variants JNK1-b2, 9, and 16, encodes isoform beta2.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC016397, AC074325
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS7223.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P45983
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A1L4K2
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd07850
      Location:25360
      STKc_JNK; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase
    7. NM_001323323.1NP_001310252.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 isoform beta2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (9), along with variants JNK1-b2, 8, and 16, encodes isoform beta2.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC016397, AC074325
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS7223.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P45983
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A1L4K2
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd07850
      Location:25360
      STKc_JNK; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase
    8. NM_001323324.1NP_001310253.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 isoform alpha1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (10), along with variants JNK1-a1, 12, and 13, encodes isoform alpha1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC016397, AC074325
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS7225.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P45983
      Related
      ENSP00000363297.3, OTTHUMP00000019555, ENST00000374182.7, OTTHUMT00000047936
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd07850
      Location:25360
      STKc_JNK; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase
    9. NM_001323325.1NP_001310254.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 isoform beta1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (11), along with variants JNK1-b1 and 7, encodes isoform beta1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC016397, AC074325
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS7226.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P45983
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd07850
      Location:25360
      STKc_JNK; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase
    10. NM_001323326.1NP_001310255.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 isoform alpha1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (12), along with variants JNK1-a1, 10, and 13, encodes isoform alpha1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC016397, AC074325
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS7225.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P45983
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd07850
      Location:25360
      STKc_JNK; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase
    11. NM_001323327.1NP_001310256.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 isoform alpha1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (13), along with variants JNK1-a1, 10, and 12, encodes isoform alpha1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC016397, AC074325
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS7225.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P45983
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd07850
      Location:25360
      STKc_JNK; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase
    12. NM_001323328.1NP_001310257.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 isoform alpha2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (14), along with variants JNK1-a2, 15, and 17, encodes isoform alpha2.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC016397, AC074325
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS7224.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P45983
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00220
      Location:26321
      S_TKc; Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain
      cd07850
      Location:25360
      STKc_JNK; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase
    13. NM_001323329.1NP_001310258.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 isoform alpha2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (15), along with variants JNK1-a2, 14, and 17, encodes isoform alpha2.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC016397, AC074325
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS7224.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P45983
      Related
      ENSP00000363304.1, OTTHUMP00000019552, ENST00000374189.5, OTTHUMT00000047931
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00220
      Location:26321
      S_TKc; Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain
      cd07850
      Location:25360
      STKc_JNK; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase
    14. NM_001323330.1NP_001310259.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 isoform beta2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (16), along with variants JNK1-b2, 8, and 9, encodes isoform beta2.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC016397, AC074325
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS7223.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P45983
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A1L4K2
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd07850
      Location:25360
      STKc_JNK; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase
    15. NM_001323331.1NP_001310260.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 isoform alpha2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (17), along with variants JNK1-a2, 14, and 15, encodes isoform alpha2.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC016397, AC074325
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS7224.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P45983
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00220
      Location:26321
      S_TKc; Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain
      cd07850
      Location:25360
      STKc_JNK; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase
    16. NM_139046.3NP_620634.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 isoform beta1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_620634.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (JNK1-b1) uses a different acceptor splice site in the last coding exon compared to transcript variant JNK1-b2, resulting in a frameshift and a shorter isoform (JNK1 beta1) with a different C-terminus, compared to isoform JNK1 beta2. The JNK1-b1 variant differs from the JNK1-a1 variant in the use of an alternate internal coding exon of the same length. Thus, JNK1 beta1 isoform is the same length as JNK1 alpha1 isoform, with a few aa difference in an internal protein segment. Variants JNK1-b1, 7, and 11 all encode isoform beta1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC016397, AC074325
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS7226.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P45983
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd07850
      Location:25360
      STKc_JNK; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase
    17. NM_139049.3NP_620637.1  mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 isoform alpha2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_620637.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (JNK1-a2) encodes the longer of the two JNK1 alpha isoforms (JNK1 alpha2). The JNK1-a2 variant differs from the JNK1-b2 variant in the use of an alternate internal coding exon of the same length. Thus, JNK1 alpha2 isoform is the same length as JNK1 beta2 isoform, with a few aa difference in an internal protein segment. Variants JNK1-a2, 14, 15 and 17 all encode isoform alpha2.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC016397, AC074325
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS7224.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P45983
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00220
      Location:26321
      S_TKc; Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain
      cd07850
      Location:25360
      STKc_JNK; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase

    RNA

    1. NR_136583.1 RNA Sequence

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AC016397, AC074325
    2. NR_136584.1 RNA Sequence

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AC016397, AC074325
    3. NR_136585.1 RNA Sequence

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AC016397, AC074325

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...Open this link in a new tab

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000010.11 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

      Range
      48306639..48439360
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018921.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      49796560..49929236
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

    The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

    1. NM_002750.3: Suppressed sequence

      Description
      NM_002750.3: This RefSeq was removed because the 5' UTR was partial.
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