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    AKT2 AKT serine/threonine kinase 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 208, updated on 21-May-2017
    Official Symbol
    AKT2provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    AKT serine/threonine kinase 2provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:392
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000105221 MIM:164731; Vega:OTTHUMG00000137375
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    PKBB; PRKBB; HIHGHH; PKBBETA; RAC-BETA
    Summary
    This gene is a putative oncogene encoding a protein belonging to a subfamily of serine/threonine kinases containing SH2-like (Src homology 2-like) domains. The gene was shown to be amplified and overexpressed in 2 of 8 ovarian carcinoma cell lines and 2 of 15 primary ovarian tumors. Overexpression contributes to the malignant phenotype of a subset of human ductal pancreatic cancers. The encoded protein is a general protein kinase capable of phophorylating several known proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
    Orthologs
    Location:
    19q13.2
    Exon count:
    22
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 19 NC_000019.10 (40230317..40285531, complement)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 19 NC_000019.9 (40736224..40791443, complement)

    Chromosome 19 - NC_000019.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene tetratricopeptide repeat domain 9B Neighboring gene cyclin N-terminal domain containing 2 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107985289 Neighboring gene microRNA 641 Neighboring gene chromosome 19 open reading frame 47 Neighboring gene RNA, U6 small nuclear 945, pseudogene Neighboring gene phospholipase D family member 3 Neighboring gene microRNA 6796

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Associated conditions

    Description Tests
    Diabetes mellitus type 2
    MedGen: C0011860 OMIM: 125853 GeneReviews: Not available
    Compare labs
    Hypoglycemia, neonatal, simulating foetopathia diabetica
    MedGen: C1855860 OMIM: 240900 GeneReviews: Not available
    Compare labs

    Copy number response

    Description
    Copy number response
    Haploinsufficency

    No evidence available (Last evaluated (2015-05-07)

    ClinGen Genome Curation Page
    Triplosensitivity

    No evidence available (Last evaluated (2015-05-07)

    ClinGen Genome Curation Page

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 gp120 upregulates the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 via the p38 signaling pathway and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in astrocytes PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 activates AKT, ERK1/2, and p38 signaling in tonsil CD4+ T cells. Soluble CD4 inhibits AKT and ERK1/2 activation, but enhances phosphorylation of p38 PubMed
    env Pre-treatment of endothelial cells with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) protects cells from HIV-1 gp120 angiotoxicity; this protection is regulated by crosstalk among the ERK, PI3K-AKT and PKC signaling pathways PubMed
    env Gp120-mediated activation of caspase-3 is significantly reduced in cells pretreated with PDGF-B. PDGF-mediated protection against gp120 involves the phosphoinositide (PI)3-kinase/Akt pathway PubMed
    env Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and erythropoietin treatment protect against HIV/gp120-mediated neuronal damage in culture and in vivo, in part, through cooperative activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/GSK-3beta signaling PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 induced cell death is inhibited by a CCR5-mediated neuroprotective pathway that involves protein kinase Akt/PKB as an essential component and can be triggered by the CCR5 agonists MIP-1beta and RANTES PubMed
    env CD45 modulates HIV-1 gp120-induced apoptosis by regulating Fas ligand induction and activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway PubMed
    env Fractalkine (CX3CL1) protects hippocampal neurons from the neurotoxicity induced by the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120, and neuronal CX(3)CR1 receptors and Akt activation are responsible for the neuroprotective effects of fractalkine PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 downregulates expression of c-Myc, Max, and 14-3-3epsilon proteins, and decreases phosphorylation of ATP-dependent tyrosine kinases (Akt) at Ser-473 in human mesangial cells (HMC) PubMed
    Nef nef HIV-1 Nef synergizes with KSHV oncoprotein K1 to activate PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, and induces cell proliferation and microtubule formation in endothelial cells PubMed
    nef Knockdown of AKT2 and AKT3 by siRNA shows significant reduction of CCL5 levels, suggesting that AKT2 and AKT3 proteins are involved in Nef-mediated upregulation of CCL5 PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef induces phosphorylation of MEK1 at position serine 298, which depends on Pak and Rac activity PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef synergizes with IL-6 to activate the AKT pathway promoting angiogenesis and tumorigenesis in a chicken chorioallantoic membrane model and nude mice PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef synergizes with IL-6 to enhance vascular tube formation, cell proliferation, VEGF expression, and phosphorylated AKT activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells PubMed
    nef Incubation of human macrophages with exogenous HIV-1 Nef protein induces phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3ss, and promotes IL-10 release PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef decreases levels of AKT phosphorylation in insulin-stimulated adipocytes PubMed
    Tat tat HIV-1 Tat-mediated upregulation of CCL5 involves JAK2/3, AKT2/3, p38delta, NF-kappaB (p65/p50), C/EBP alpha/gamma, and AP-1 proteins PubMed
    tat Treatment with HIV-Tat and morphine activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2), upregulates p53 and p21 levels, and downregulates cyclin D1 and Akt levels in human fetal brain-derived neural precursor cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat induces phosphorylation of PI3K, AKT, PTEN, and GSK-3beta activating PI3K and AKT and inactivating PTEN and GSK-3beta in vIL-6 expressing cells PubMed
    tat PI3K/Akt, TRPC, and GSK3beta signaling pathways are all involved in PDGF-C mediated neuroprotection against HIV-1 Tat in human neuroblastoma cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat activates AKT kinase through activation of PI3 kinase, resulting in the protection of cells from apoptosis PubMed
    tat Lancemaside A1 inhibits the movement of Akt to the plasma membrane, a critical step for Akt activation, and Compound K inhibits Akt phosphorylation in Tat-expressing CHME5 cells PubMed
    tat PDGF-BB-mediated protection against HIV-1 Tat and morphine-induced neuron apoptosis involves Akt activation PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat inhibits autophagy in bystander macrophages/monocytic cells through Tat-mediated activation and phosphorylation of Src-Akt signaling PubMed
    tat Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway is involved in HIV-1 Tat-induced NADPH oxidase stimulation and LTR transactivation PubMed
    tat A Coumarin derivative BPRHIV001 modulates Tat function through a reduction of the p300 protein level and a concordant reduction of phosphorylated Akt PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat in combination with IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha increases CXCL10 mRNA and protein in human astrocytes through the activation of the p38, Jnk, and Akt signaling pathways and their downstream transcription factors, NF-kappaB and STAT-1alpha PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat in combination with KSHV kaposin A activates the MEK/ERK, STAT3, and PI3K/Akt signals in NIH3T3 cells PubMed
    tat Pro-survival effects of intracellular HIV-1 Tat in a microglial cell line is attributed to activation of the PI-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway via decreasing expression of PTEN, a negative regulator of the PI-3-K pathway PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat downregulates CREB transcription factor expression in PC12 neuronal cells through activation of a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/cyclic nucleoside phosphodiesterase pathway PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates several anti-apoptotic genes, including AKT-1, AKT-2, BCL2, BCL-XL, and insulin-like growth factor I in vincristine-treated Kaposi's sarcoma cells PubMed
    Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr-induced upregulation of CCL5 requires p50 and p65 subunits of NFKB1 (NF-kappa-B), p38delta MAPK, Akt-2 and Akt-3, and AP-1 transcription factor in HIV-1 Vpr transfected astrocytes PubMed
    vpr PI3K/Akt mediated activation of NFKB1 (NF-kappa-B) is involved in HIV-1 Vpr induced upregulation of CXCL8 (IL8) in astrocytes PubMed
    vpr PI3K/Akt mediated activation of NFKB1 (NF-kappa-B) is involved in HIV-1 Vpr induced upregulation of IL6 in astrocytes PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr-induced downregulation of sodium hydrogen exchanger, isoform 1 (NHE1), in Vpr(+) virus infected cells leads to acidification of cells, loss of ezrin, radixin and moesin (ERM) protein complex and decrease of AKT phosphorylation PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr inhibits Akt-induced cytoplasmic translocation of Foxo3a, a subtype of the forkhead transcription factors PubMed
    matrix gag HIV-1 p17 induces capillary-like structures in human endothelial cells by binding to CXCR1 and CXCR2, which requires activation of the Akt-dependent ERK signaling pathway PubMed
    gag HIV-1 p17 and its C-terminal truncated form of p17 (p17delta36) differentially regulate Akt phosphorylation by reducing and increasing phosphorylation levels of PTEN, respectively PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

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    • AKT phosphorylates targets in the cytosol, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • AKT phosphorylates targets in the nucleus, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • AMPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Activation of AKT2, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Activation of AKT2, organism-specific biosystem
      Activation of AKT2
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    • Acute myeloid leukemia, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Adipocytokine signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Apoptosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Autophagy - animal, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • B cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Breast cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Breast cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Carbohydrate digestion and absorption, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Cardiac Hypertrophic Response, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
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    • Choline metabolism in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Chronic myeloid leukemia, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Class I PI3K signaling events mediated by Akt, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
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    • Colorectal cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Colorectal cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Costimulation by the CD28 family, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Cyclin E associated events during G1/S transition, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Downstream signaling events of B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • E-cadherin signaling in keratinocytes, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
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    • Epstein-Barr virus infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Epstein-Barr virus infection, organism-specific biosystemEpstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is associated with oncogenesis. EBV infection to primary human B lymphocytes leads to induction of EBV-specific HLA-restricted cytotoxi...
    • Epstein-Barr virus infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Epstein-Barr virus infection, conserved biosystemEpstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is associated with oncogenesis. EBV infection to primary human B lymphocytes leads to induction of EBV-specific HLA-restricted cytotoxi...
    • ErbB signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      ErbB signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) couples binding of extracellular growth factor ligands to intracellular signaling pathways regulating diverse biologic responses, including prolife...
    • ErbB signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      ErbB signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) couples binding of extracellular growth factor ligands to intracellular signaling pathways regulating diverse biologic responses, including prolife...
    • Estrogen signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Estrogen signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemEstrogens are steroid hormones that regulate a plethora of physiological processes in mammals, including reproduction, cardiovascular protection, bone integrity, cellular homeostasis, and behavior. E...
    • Estrogen signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Estrogen signaling pathway, conserved biosystemEstrogens are steroid hormones that regulate a plethora of physiological processes in mammals, including reproduction, cardiovascular protection, bone integrity, cellular homeostasis, and behavior. E...
    • Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemFc epsilon RI-mediated signaling pathways in mast cells are initiated by the interaction of antigen (Ag) with IgE bound to the extracellular domain of the alpha chain of Fc epsilon RI. The activation...
    • Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway, conserved biosystemFc epsilon RI-mediated signaling pathways in mast cells are initiated by the interaction of antigen (Ag) with IgE bound to the extracellular domain of the alpha chain of Fc epsilon RI. The activation...
    • Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystemMast cells (MC) are distributed in tissues throughout the human body and have long been recognized as key cells of type I hypersensitivity reactions. They also play important roles in inflammatory an...
    • Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, organism-specific biosystemPhagocytosis plays an essential role in host-defense mechanisms through the uptake and destruction of infectious pathogens. Specialized cell types including macrophages, neutrophils, and monocytes ta...
    • Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, conserved biosystemPhagocytosis plays an essential role in host-defense mechanisms through the uptake and destruction of infectious pathogens. Specialized cell types including macrophages, neutrophils, and monocytes ta...
    • Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, organism-specific biosystemShear stress represents the frictional force that the flow of blood exerts at the endothelial surface of the vessel wall and plays a central role in vascular biology and contributes to the progress o...
    • Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, conserved biosystemShear stress represents the frictional force that the flow of blood exerts at the endothelial surface of the vessel wall and plays a central role in vascular biology and contributes to the progress o...
    • Focal Adhesion, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Focal Adhesion, organism-specific biosystemCell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the...
    • Focal adhesion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Focal adhesion, organism-specific biosystemCell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the...
    • Focal adhesion, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Focal adhesion, conserved biosystemCell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the...
    • FoxO signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      FoxO signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe forkhead box O (FOXO) family of transcription factors regulates the expression of genes in cellular physiological events including apoptosis, cell-cycle control, glucose metabolism, oxidative str...
    • G beta:gamma signalling through PI3Kgamma, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      G beta:gamma signalling through PI3Kgamma, organism-specific biosystemPI3K gamma (PI3KG) is a heterodimer consisting of a p110 catalytic subunit associated with a regulatory p101 or p84 subunit. PI3KG is most highly expressed in neutrophils, where the p101 form predomi...
    • G-protein beta:gamma signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      G-protein beta:gamma signalling, organism-specific biosystemThe classical role of the G-protein beta/gamma dimer was believed to be the inactivation of the alpha subunit, Gbeta/gamma was viewed as a negative regulator of Galpha signalling. It is now known tha...
    • G1/S Transition, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      G1/S Transition, organism-specific biosystemCyclin E - Cdk2 complexes control the transition from G1 into S-phase. In this case, the binding of p21Cip1/Waf1 or p27kip1 is inhibitory. Important substrates for Cyclin E - Cdk2 complexes include p...
    • GAB1 signalosome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GAB1 signalosome, organism-specific biosystemGAB1 is recruited to the activated EGFR indirectly, through GRB2. GAB1 acts as an adaptor protein that enables formation of an active PIK3, through recruitment of PIK3 regulatory subunit PIK3R1 (also...
    • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
    • GPVI-mediated activation cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GPVI-mediated activation cascade, organism-specific biosystemThe GPVI receptor is a complex of the GPVI protein with Fc epsilon R1 gamma (FcR). The Src family kinases Fyn and Lyn constitutively associate with the GPVI-FcR complex in platelets and initiate plat...
    • Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystemGene Expression covers the pathways by which genomic DNA is transcribed to yield RNA, the regulation of these transcription processes, and the pathways by which newly-made RNA Transcripts are process...
    • Generic Transcription Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Generic Transcription Pathway, organism-specific biosystemOVERVIEW OF TRANSCRIPTION REGULATION: Detailed studies of gene transcription regulation in a wide variety of eukaryotic systems has revealed the general principles and mechanisms by which cell- or t...
    • Glioma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Glioma, organism-specific biosystemGliomas are the most common of the primary brain tumors and account for more than 40% of all central nervous system neoplasms. Gliomas include tumours that are composed predominantly of astrocytes (a...
    • Glioma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Glioma, conserved biosystemGliomas are the most common of the primary brain tumors and account for more than 40% of all central nervous system neoplasms. Gliomas include tumours that are composed predominantly of astrocytes (a...
    • Glucagon signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Glucagon signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemGlucagon is conventionally regarded as a counterregulatory hormone for insulin and plays a critical anti-hypoglycemic role by maintaining glucose homeostasis in both animals and humans. To increase ...
    • Glucagon signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Glucagon signaling pathway, conserved biosystemGlucagon is conventionally regarded as a counterregulatory hormone for insulin and plays a critical anti-hypoglycemic role by maintaining glucose homeostasis in both animals and humans. To increase ...
    • HIF-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      HIF-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemHypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that functions as a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis. It consists of two subunits: an inducibly-expressed HIF-1alpha subunit and a c...
    • HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
    • HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
    • Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystemHemostasis is a physiological response that culminates in the arrest of bleeding from an injured vessel. Under normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhe...
    • Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped virus and contains a partially double-stranded relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) genome. After entry into hepatocytes, HBV RC-DNA is transported to the nucleus and...
    • Hepatitis C, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Hepatitis C, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The HCV employ several strategies to perturb host cell immunity. After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the...
    • Hepatitis C, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Hepatitis C, conserved biosystemHepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The HCV employ several strategies to perturb host cell immunity. After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the...
    • IGF1R signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      IGF1R signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystemAfter autophosphorylation the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) binds and phosphorylates scaffold proteins, IRS1/2/4 and SHC1, which in turn bind effectors possessing enzymatic activ...
    • IRS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      IRS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemRelease of phospho-IRS from the insulin receptor triggers a cascade of signalling events via PI3K, SOS, RAF and the MAP kinases.
    • IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphorylated type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor phosphorylates IR1, IRS2, IRS4 and possibly other IRS/DOK family members (reviewed in Pavelic et al. 2007, Chitnis et al. 2008, Maki et a...
    • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
    • Influenza A, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Influenza A, organism-specific biosystemInfluenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. Novel strains ...
    • Influenza A, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Influenza A, conserved biosystemInfluenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. Novel strains ...
    • Inhibition of TSC complex formation by PKB, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Inhibition of TSC complex formation by PKB, organism-specific biosystemPhosphorylation of TSC2 by PKB disrupts TSC1/TSC2 heterodimer formation (Hay & Sonenberg 2004). TSC2 function is affected in at least two ways: first, phosphorylation decreases the activity of TSC2; ...
    • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
    • Insulin Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Insulin Pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      Insulin Pathway
    • Insulin Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Insulin Signaling, organism-specific biosystemInsulin signaling influences energy metabolism as well as growth. The presence of insulin signals the fed state, and this signal is passed via the AKT branch, which leads to the uptake of glucose fro...
    • Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystemAutophosphorylation of the insulin receptor triggers a series of signalling events, mediated by SHC or IRS, and resulting in activation of the Ras/RAF and MAP kinase cascades. A second effect of the ...
    • Insulin resistance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Insulin resistance, organism-specific biosystemInsulin resistance is a condition where cells become resistant to the effects of insulin. It is often found in people with health disorders, including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic...
    • Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
    • Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
    • Insulin signalling in human adipocytes (diabetic condition), organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Insulin signalling in human adipocytes (diabetic condition), organism-specific biosystemThe paper describes insulin signalling in human adipocytes under normal and diabetic states using mathematical models based on experimental data. This model corresponds to insulin signalling under di...
    • Insulin signalling in human adipocytes (normal condition), organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Insulin signalling in human adipocytes (normal condition), organism-specific biosystemThe paper describes insulin signalling in human adipocytes under normal and diabetic states using mathematical models based on experimental data. This model corresponds to insulin signalling under no...
    • Insulin-mediated glucose transport, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Insulin-mediated glucose transport, organism-specific biosystem
      Insulin-mediated glucose transport
    • Integrin-mediated Cell Adhesion, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Integrin-mediated Cell Adhesion, organism-specific biosystemIntegrins are receptors that mediate attachment between a cell and the tissues surrounding it, which may be other cells or the extracellular matrix (ECM). They also play a role in cell signaling and ...
    • Intrinsic Pathway for Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Intrinsic Pathway for Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystemThe intrinsic (Bcl-2 inhibitable or mitochondrial) pathway of apoptosis functions in response to various types of intracellular stress including growth factor withdrawal, DNA damage, unfolding stress...
    • Jak-STAT signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Jak-STAT signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway is one of a handful of pleiotropic cascades used to transduce a multitude of signals for development and homeost...
    • Jak-STAT signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Jak-STAT signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway is one of a handful of pleiotropic cascades used to transduce a multitude of signals for development and homeost...
    • Longevity regulating pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Longevity regulating pathway, organism-specific biosystemRegulation of longevity depends on genetic and environmental factors. Caloric restriction (CR), that is limiting food intake, is recognized in mammals as the best characterized and most reproducible ...
    • Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species, organism-specific biosystemAging is a complex process of accumulation of molecular, cellular, and organ damage, leading to loss of function and increased vulnerability to disease and death. Despite the complexity of aging, rec...
    • Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species, conserved biosystemAging is a complex process of accumulation of molecular, cellular, and organ damage, leading to loss of function and increased vulnerability to disease and death. Despite the complexity of aging, rec...
    • MAPK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      MAPK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
    • MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
    • MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
    • Measles, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Measles, organism-specific biosystemMeasles virus (MV) is highly contagious virus that leads infant death worldwide. Humans are the unique natural reservoir for this virus. It causes severe immunosuppression favouring secondary bacteri...
    • Measles, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Measles, conserved biosystemMeasles virus (MV) is highly contagious virus that leads infant death worldwide. Humans are the unique natural reservoir for this virus. It causes severe immunosuppression favouring secondary bacteri...
    • Melanoma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Melanoma, organism-specific biosystemMelanoma is a form of skin cancer that has a poor prognosis and which is on the rise in Western populations. Melanoma arises from the malignant transformation of pigment-producing cells, melanocytes...
    • Melanoma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Melanoma, conserved biosystemMelanoma is a form of skin cancer that has a poor prognosis and which is on the rise in Western populations. Melanoma arises from the malignant transformation of pigment-producing cells, melanocytes...
    • Membrane Trafficking, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Membrane Trafficking, organism-specific biosystemThe secretory membrane system allows a cell to regulate delivery of newly synthesized proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids to the cell surface, a necessity for growth and homeostasis. The system is ma...
    • MicroRNAs in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      MicroRNAs in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway shows the role of microRNAs in the process of cardiac hypertrophy. MicroRNA targets were predicted by the TargetScan algorithm, and the predicted interactions are shown in red dashed lin...
    • Mitotic G1-G1/S phases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Mitotic G1-G1/S phases, organism-specific biosystem
      Mitotic G1-G1/S phases
    • NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemTrk receptors signal from the plasma membrane and from intracellular membranes, particularly from early endosomes. Signalling from the plasma membrane is fast but transient; signalling from endosomes...
    • Negative regulation of the PI3K/AKT network, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Negative regulation of the PI3K/AKT network, organism-specific biosystemThe PI3K/AKT network is negatively regulated by phosphatases that dephosphorylate PIP3, thus hampering AKT activation.
    • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
    • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
    • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), organism-specific biosystemNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to more severe steatohepatitis with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, known as nonalcoholic steatohepati...
    • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), conserved biosystemNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to more severe steatohepatitis with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, known as nonalcoholic steatohepati...
    • Non-small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Non-small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystemLung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of lung cancer and represents a heter...
    • Non-small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Non-small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystemLung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of lung cancer and represents a heter...
    • Osteoclast differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Osteoclast differentiation, organism-specific biosystemThe osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways...
    • Osteoclast differentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Osteoclast differentiation, conserved biosystemThe osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways...
    • PDE3B signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      PDE3B signalling, organism-specific biosystem
      PDE3B signalling
    • PI3K Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      PI3K Cascade, organism-specific biosystem
      PI3K Cascade
    • PI3K-Akt signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      PI3K-Akt signaling, organism-specific biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
    • PI3K-Akt signaling, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      PI3K-Akt signaling, conserved biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
    • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
    • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
    • PI3K/AKT Signaling in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      PI3K/AKT Signaling in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemClass IA PI3K is a heterodimer of a p85 regulatory subunit (encoded by PIK3R1, PIK3R2 or PIK3R3) and a p110 catalytic subunit (encoded by PIK3CA, PIK3CB or PIK3CD). In the absence of activating signa...
    • PI3K/AKT activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      PI3K/AKT activation, organism-specific biosystemPI3K/AKT signalling is a major regulator of neuron survival. It blocks cell death by both impinging on the cytoplasmic cell death machinery and by regulating the expression of genes involved in cell...
    • PIP3 activates AKT signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      PIP3 activates AKT signaling, organism-specific biosystemSignaling by AKT is one of the key outcomes of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation. AKT is activated by the cellular second messenger PIP3, a phospholipid that is generated by PI3K. In ustimula...
    • PKB-mediated events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      PKB-mediated events, organism-specific biosystemPKB and PDK1 are activated via membrane-bound PIP3. Activated PDK1 phosphorylates PKB, which in turn phosphorylates PDE3B. The latter hydrolyses cAMP to 5'AMP, depleting cAMP pools.
    • Pancreatic cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pancreatic cancer, organism-specific biosystemInfiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy of the pancreas. When most investigators use the term 'pancreatic cancer' they are referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)...
    • Pancreatic cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pancreatic cancer, conserved biosystemInfiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy of the pancreas. When most investigators use the term 'pancreatic cancer' they are referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)...
    • Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
      Pathways in cancer
    • Phospholipase D signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Phospholipase D signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemPhospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membra...
    • Phospholipase D signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Phospholipase D signaling pathway, conserved biosystemPhospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membra...
    • Platelet activation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Platelet activation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelets play a key and beneficial role for primary hemostasis on the disruption of the integrity of vessel wall. Platelet adhesion and activation at sites of vascular wall injury is initiated by ad...
    • Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet activation begins with the initial binding of adhesive ligands and of the excitatory platelet agonists (released or generated at the sites of vascular trauma) to cognate receptors on the pla...
    • Platinum drug resistance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Platinum drug resistance, organism-specific biosystemPlatinum-based drugs cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are widely used in the therapy of solid malignancies, including testicular, ovarian, head and neck, colorectal, bladder and lung cancers. T...
    • Platinum drug resistance, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Platinum drug resistance, conserved biosystemPlatinum-based drugs cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are widely used in the therapy of solid malignancies, including testicular, ovarian, head and neck, colorectal, bladder and lung cancers. T...
    • Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, organism-specific biosystemXenopus oocytes are naturally arrested at G2 of meiosis I. Exposure to either insulin/IGF-1 or the steroid hormone progesterone breaks this arrest and induces resumption of the two meiotic division c...
    • Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, conserved biosystemXenopus oocytes are naturally arrested at G2 of meiosis I. Exposure to either insulin/IGF-1 or the steroid hormone progesterone breaks this arrest and induces resumption of the two meiotic division c...
    • Programmed Cell Death, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Programmed Cell Death, organism-specific biosystemCell death is a fundamental cellular response that has a crucial role in shaping our bodies during development and in regulating tissue homeostasis by eliminating unwanted cells. There are a number o...
    • Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
    • Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
    • Prostate cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prostate cancer, organism-specific biosystemProstate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of...
    • Prostate cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prostate cancer, conserved biosystemProstate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of...
    • Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
    • Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
    • RAB GEFs exchange GTP for GDP on RABs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RAB GEFs exchange GTP for GDP on RABs, organism-specific biosystemHuman cells have more than 60 RAB proteins that are key regulators of intracellular membrane trafficking. These small GTPases contribute to trafficking specificity by localizing to the membranes of d...
    • RANKL/RANK (Receptor activator of NFKB (ligand)) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      RANKL/RANK (Receptor activator of NFKB (ligand)) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemRANKL (Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand), RANK (Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B) and the natural decoy receptor of RANKL, OPG (Osteoprotegerin) are three important mol...
    • Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
    • Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
    • Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras prote...
    • Regulation of TP53 Activity, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Regulation of TP53 Activity, organism-specific biosystemProtein stability and transcriptional activity of TP53 (p53) tumor suppressor are regulated by post-translational modifications that include ubiquitination, phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation,...
    • Regulation of TP53 Activity through Acetylation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Regulation of TP53 Activity through Acetylation, organism-specific biosystemTranscriptional activity of TP53 is positively regulated by acetylation of several of its lysine residues. BRD7 binds TP53 and promotes acetylation of TP53 lysine residue K382 by acetyltransferase EP...
    • Regulation of TP53 Activity through Association with Co-factors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Regulation of TP53 Activity through Association with Co-factors, organism-specific biosystemAssociation of TP53 (p53) with various transcriptional co-factors can promote, inhibit or provide specificity towards either transcription of cell cycle arrest genes or transcription of cell death ge...
    • Regulation of TP53 Degradation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Regulation of TP53 Degradation, organism-specific biosystemIn unstressed cells, TP53 (p53) has a short half-life as it undergoes rapid ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. The E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2, which is a transcriptional target of TP53...
    • Regulation of TP53 Expression and Degradation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Regulation of TP53 Expression and Degradation, organism-specific biosystemTP53 (p53) tumor suppressor protein is a transcription factor that functions as a homotetramer (Jeffrey et al. 1995). The protein levels of TP53 are low in unstressed cells due to MDM2-mediated ubiqu...
    • Regulation of beta-cell development, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Regulation of beta-cell development, organism-specific biosystemThe normal development of the pancreas during gestation has been intensively investigated over the past decade especially in the mouse (Servitja and Ferrer 2004; Chakrabarti and Mirmira 2003). Studie...
    • Regulation of gene expression in beta cells, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Regulation of gene expression in beta cells, organism-specific biosystemTwo transcription factors, PDX1 and HNF1A, play key roles in maintaining the gene expression pattern characteristic of mature beta cells in the endocrine pancreas. Targets of these regulatory molecul...
    • Regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes, organism-specific biosystemLipolysis in adipocytes, the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) to release fatty acids (FAs) and glycerol for use by other organs as energy substrates, is a unique function of white adipose tissue. ...
    • Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway
    • Renal cell carcinoma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Renal cell carcinoma, organism-specific biosystemRenal cell cancer (RCC) accounts for ~3% of human malignancies and its incidence appears to be rising. Although most cases of RCC seem to occur sporadically, an inherited predisposition to renal canc...
    • Renal cell carcinoma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Renal cell carcinoma, conserved biosystemRenal cell cancer (RCC) accounts for ~3% of human malignancies and its incidence appears to be rising. Although most cases of RCC seem to occur sporadically, an inherited predisposition to renal canc...
    • Role of LAT2/NTAL/LAB on calcium mobilization, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Role of LAT2/NTAL/LAB on calcium mobilization, organism-specific biosystemThe lipid raft resident adaptor molecules LAT1 and Non-T cell activation linker (NTAL), also known as linker for activation of B cells (LAB)/LAT2 are known participants in the regulation of mast cell...
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signal Transduction of S1P Receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Signal Transduction of S1P Receptor, organism-specific biosystemMetabolism of sphingomyelin by the sphingomyelinase, ceramidase (Cer'ase) and the sphingosine kinase (SK) enzymes results in formation of S1P and receptor activation. Autocrine and paracrine modes of...
    • Signaling Pathways in Glioblastoma, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Signaling Pathways in Glioblastoma, organism-specific biosystemThe most frequently altered genes in glioblastoma. This pathway originally accompanied the 2008 Nature publication on the comprehensive genomic characterization of human glioblastoma genes and core p...
    • Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystemThe epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one member of the ERBB family of transmembrane glycoprotein tyrosine receptor kinases (RTK). Binding of EGFR to its ligands induces conformational chang...
    • Signaling by ERBB2, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by ERBB2, organism-specific biosystemERBB2, also known as HER2 or NEU, is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) belonging to the EGFR family. ERBB2 possesses an extracellular domain that does not bind any known ligand, contrary to other EGFR...
    • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
    • Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in receptor autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues and the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (e.g. IRS and Shc) by the insulin receptor...
    • Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet-derived Growth Factor (PDGF) is a potent stimulator of growth and motility of connective tissue cells such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells as well as other cells such as capillary end...
    • Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystemStem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor with membrane bound and soluble forms. It is expressed by fibroblasts and endothelial cells throughout the body, promoting proliferation, migration, survival...
    • Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystemBinding of IGF1 (IGF-I) or IGF2 (IGF-II) to the extracellular alpha peptides of the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) triggers the activation of two major signaling pathways: the SOS...
    • Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystemIn normal development vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are crucial regulators of vascular development during embryogenesis (vasculogenesis) and blood-vessel formation in the adult (angioge...
    • Signaling by Wnt, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Wnt, organism-specific biosystemWNT signaling pathways control a wide range of developmental and adult process in metozoans including cell proliferation, cell fate decisions, cell polarity and stem cell maintenance (reviewed in Sai...
    • Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystemMature B cells express IgM and IgD immunoglobulins which are complexed at the plasma membrane with Ig-alpha (CD79A, MB-1) and Ig-beta (CD79B, B29) to form the B cell receptor (BCR) (Fu et al. 1974, F...
    • Signaling events mediated by Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor (c-Met), organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Signaling events mediated by Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor (c-Met), organism-specific biosystem
      Signaling events mediated by Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor (c-Met)
    • Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, organism-specific biosystemPluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are basic cells with an indefinite self-renewal capacity and the potential to generate all the cell types of the three germinal layers. The types of PSCs known to date i...
    • Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, conserved biosystemPluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are basic cells with an indefinite self-renewal capacity and the potential to generate all the cell types of the three germinal layers. The types of PSCs known to date i...
    • Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4/5) play pivotal roles in survival, differentiation, and plasticity of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. They are produced, and secreted in mi...
    • Small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystemLung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is a highly aggressive neoplasm, which accounts for approximately 25% ...
    • Small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystemLung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is a highly aggressive neoplasm, which accounts for approximately 25% ...
    • Sphingolipid signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Sphingolipid signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) ...
    • Sphingolipid signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Sphingolipid signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) ...
    • T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
    • T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
    • TCF dependent signaling in response to WNT, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      TCF dependent signaling in response to WNT, organism-specific biosystem19 WNT ligands and 10 FZD receptors have been identified in human cells; interactions amongst these ligands and receptors vary in a developmental and tissue-specific manner and lead to activation of ...
    • TFs Regulate miRNAs related to cardiac hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      TFs Regulate miRNAs related to cardiac hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystemTranscription Factors that possibly regulate the expression of microRNAs related to cardiac hypertrophy. Interactions found by using TransMir. MicroRNAs are represented by a purple color and a rounde...
    • TNF related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      TNF related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemTNF related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a small pleiotropic cytokine of the TNF super family and its gene is located at chromosome 17p13.1. TWEAK has been reported to be expressed in tissues...
    • TNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      TNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemTumor necrosis factor (TNF), as a critical cytokine, can induce a wide range of intracellular signal pathways including apoptosis and cell survival as well as inflammation and immunity. Activated TNF...
    • TNF signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      TNF signaling pathway, conserved biosystemTumor necrosis factor (TNF), as a critical cytokine, can induce a wide range of intracellular signal pathways including apoptosis and cell survival as well as inflammation and immunity. Activated TNF...
    • TP53 Regulates Metabolic Genes, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      TP53 Regulates Metabolic Genes, organism-specific biosystemWhile the p53 tumor suppressor protein (TP53) is known to inhibit cell growth by inducing apoptosis, senescence and cell cycle arrest, recent studies have found that p53 is also able to influence cel...
    • Thyroid hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Thyroid hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe thyroid hormones (THs) are important regulators of growth, development and metabolism. The action of TH is mainly mediated by T3 (3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine). Thyroid hormones, L-thyroxine (T4) a...
    • Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
    • Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
    • Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
    • Toxoplasmosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toxoplasmosis, organism-specific biosystemToxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is prevalent worldwide. The tachyzoite form acquired by oral ingestion downmodulates proinflammatory signaling pathways via various mechan...
    • Toxoplasmosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toxoplasmosis, conserved biosystemToxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is prevalent worldwide. The tachyzoite form acquired by oral ingestion downmodulates proinflammatory signaling pathways via various mechan...
    • Transcriptional Regulation by TP53, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Transcriptional Regulation by TP53, organism-specific biosystemThe tumor suppressor TP53 (encoded by the gene p53) is a transcription factor. Under stress conditions, it recognizes specific responsive DNA elements and thus regulates the transcription of many gen...
    • Translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemIn adipocytes and myocytes insulin signaling causes intracellular vesicles carrying the GLUT4 (SLC2A4) glucose transporter to translocate to the plasma membrane, allowing the cells to take up glucose...
    • Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
    • Tuberculosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Tuberculosis, conserved biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
    • VEGF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      VEGF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThere is now much evidence that VEGFR-2 is the major mediator of VEGF-driven responses in endothelial cells and it is considered to be a crucial signal transducer in both physiologic and pathologic a...
    • VEGF signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      VEGF signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThere is now much evidence that VEGFR-2 is the major mediator of VEGF-driven responses in endothelial cells and it is considered to be a crucial signal transducer in both physiologic and pathologic a...
    • VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystemAngiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vasculature. One of the most important proangiogenic factors is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF exerts its biologic...
    • VEGFR2 mediated vascular permeability, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      VEGFR2 mediated vascular permeability, organism-specific biosystemThe free radical nitric oxide (NO), produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), is an important vasoactive substance in normal vascular biology and pathophysiology. It plays an important role in vasc...
    • Vesicle-mediated transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Vesicle-mediated transport, organism-specific biosystemThe transit of proteins and other cargo through the cell requires a cellular transport process in which transported substances are moved in membrane-bounded vesicles. Transported substances are enclo...
    • cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...
    • cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...
    • cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemCyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated i...
    • cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, conserved biosystemCyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated i...
    • mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, which exists in two complexes termed mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 conta...
    • mTOR signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      mTOR signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, which exists in two complexes termed mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 conta...
    • mTOR signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      mTOR signalling, organism-specific biosystemTarget of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly-conserved serine/threonine kinase that regulates cell growth and division in response to energy levels, growth signals, and nutrients (Zoncu et al. 2011). Contr...
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    ATP binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein serine/threonine kinase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein serine/threonine kinase activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    activation of GTPase activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    carbohydrate transport IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cellular protein modification process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to high light intensity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cellular response to insulin stimulus IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    fat cell differentiation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    glucose metabolic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    glycogen biosynthetic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    insulin receptor signaling pathway IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    insulin receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    intracellular protein transmembrane transport ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    intracellular signal transduction IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    mammary gland epithelial cell differentiation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of plasma membrane long-chain fatty acid transport IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    peptidyl-serine phosphorylation IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    peripheral nervous system myelin maintenance IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of cell migration IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cell motility IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of fatty acid beta-oxidation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of glucose import IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of glucose import in response to insulin stimulus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of glucose metabolic process IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of protein phosphorylation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of protein targeting to membrane ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of vesicle fusion ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    protein localization to plasma membrane IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    regulation of cell cycle arrest TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of cell migration TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of translation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    retinal rod cell apoptotic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    signal transduction TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    cell cortex ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    cytosol IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    early endosome IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    intracellular membrane-bounded organelle IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    nucleoplasm TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    nucleus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    nucleus TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    plasma membrane ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    plasma membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    ruffle membrane ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    Preferred Names
    RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase
    Names
    PKB beta
    RAC-PK-beta
    murine thymoma viral (v-akt) homolog-2
    protein kinase Akt-2
    protein kinase B beta
    putative v-akt murine thymoma viral oncoprotein 2
    rac protein kinase beta
    v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 2
    NP_001229956.1
    NP_001229957.1
    NP_001617.1
    XP_011524916.1
    XP_011524917.1
    XP_011524918.1
    XP_011524920.1
    XP_011524921.1
    XP_011524922.1
    XP_011524924.1
    XP_016881959.1
    XP_016881960.1

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_012038.2 RefSeqGene

      Range
      4964..60042
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001243027.2NP_001229956.1  RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform 2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001229956.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR, contains an alternate splice site in the 5' coding region, and initiates translation at a downstream AUG. This results in a protein (isoform 2) with a shorter N-terminus, compared to isoform 1. Variants 2 and 3 encode isoform 2.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC118344, AK122839, AK294453, BM675176, CN351354, KC877734
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      B4DG79
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      cd05595
      Location:94416
      STKc_PKB_beta; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Protein Kinase B beta (also called Akt2)
      smart00220
      Location:90347
      S_TKc; Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain
      cl17171
      Location:149
      PH-like; Pleckstrin homology-like domain
    2. NM_001243028.2NP_001229957.1  RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform 2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001229957.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs in the 5' UTR, lacks an alternate exon in the 5' coding region, and initiates translation at a downstream AUG. This results in a protein (isoform 2) with a shorter N-terminus, compared to isoform 1. Variants 2 and 3 encode isoform 2.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC118344, AK122839, AK308006, BM675176, CN351354, KC877734
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      B4DG79
      Related
      ENSP00000471369.1, OTTHUMP00000270561, ENST00000579047.5, OTTHUMT00000441276
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      cd05595
      Location:94416
      STKc_PKB_beta; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Protein Kinase B beta (also called Akt2)
      smart00220
      Location:90347
      S_TKc; Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain
      cl17171
      Location:149
      PH-like; Pleckstrin homology-like domain
    3. NM_001330511.1NP_001317440.1  RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform 4

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AC118344, BC120995, KC877734
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS82350.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P31751
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      smart00220
      Location:152366
      S_TKc; Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain
      cd01241
      Location:4111
      PH_PKB; Protein Kinase B-like pleckstrin homology (PH) domain
      pfam00169
      Location:6106
      PH; PH domain
      cl21453
      Location:156435
      PKc_like; Protein Kinases, catalytic domain
    4. NM_001626.5NP_001617.1  RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001617.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longest isoform (1).
      Source sequence(s)
      AC118344, AK122839, BC040028, BC120994, BM675176, CN351354, KC877734
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS12552.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P31751
      Related
      ENSP00000375892.2, OTTHUMP00000174417, ENST00000392038.6, OTTHUMT00000268029
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      cd05595
      Location:156478
      STKc_PKB_beta; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Protein Kinase B beta (also called Akt2)
      smart00220
      Location:152409
      S_TKc; Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain
      cd01241
      Location:4111
      PH_PKB; Protein Kinase B-like pleckstrin homology (PH) domain
      pfam00169
      Location:6106
      PH; PH domain

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...Open this link in a new tab

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000019.10 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

      Range
      40230317..40285531 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_011526620.1XP_011524922.1  RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011524922.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P31751
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      cd05595
      Location:156478
      STKc_PKB_beta; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Protein Kinase B beta (also called Akt2)
      smart00220
      Location:152409
      S_TKc; Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain
      cd01241
      Location:4111
      PH_PKB; Protein Kinase B-like pleckstrin homology (PH) domain
      pfam00169
      Location:6106
      PH; PH domain
    2. XM_017026471.1XP_016881960.1  RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X2

      Related
      ENSP00000399532.2, ENST00000424901.5
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      smart00220
      Location:152366
      S_TKc; Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain
      cd01241
      Location:4111
      PH_PKB; Protein Kinase B-like pleckstrin homology (PH) domain
      pfam00169
      Location:6106
      PH; PH domain
      cl21453
      Location:156435
      PKc_like; Protein Kinases, catalytic domain
    3. XM_011526618.1XP_011524920.1  RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011524920.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P31751
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      cd05595
      Location:156478
      STKc_PKB_beta; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Protein Kinase B beta (also called Akt2)
      smart00220
      Location:152409
      S_TKc; Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain
      cd01241
      Location:4111
      PH_PKB; Protein Kinase B-like pleckstrin homology (PH) domain
      pfam00169
      Location:6106
      PH; PH domain
    4. XM_017026470.1XP_016881959.1  RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P31751
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      cd05595
      Location:156478
      STKc_PKB_beta; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Protein Kinase B beta (also called Akt2)
      smart00220
      Location:152409
      S_TKc; Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain
      cd01241
      Location:4111
      PH_PKB; Protein Kinase B-like pleckstrin homology (PH) domain
      pfam00169
      Location:6106
      PH; PH domain
    5. XM_011526614.1XP_011524916.1  RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011524916.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P31751
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      cd05595
      Location:156478
      STKc_PKB_beta; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Protein Kinase B beta (also called Akt2)
      smart00220
      Location:152409
      S_TKc; Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain
      cd01241
      Location:4111
      PH_PKB; Protein Kinase B-like pleckstrin homology (PH) domain
      pfam00169
      Location:6106
      PH; PH domain
    6. XM_011526615.1XP_011524917.1  RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011524917.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P31751
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      cd05595
      Location:156478
      STKc_PKB_beta; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Protein Kinase B beta (also called Akt2)
      smart00220
      Location:152409
      S_TKc; Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain
      cd01241
      Location:4111
      PH_PKB; Protein Kinase B-like pleckstrin homology (PH) domain
      pfam00169
      Location:6106
      PH; PH domain
    7. XM_011526619.1XP_011524921.1  RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011524921.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P31751
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      cd05595
      Location:156478
      STKc_PKB_beta; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Protein Kinase B beta (also called Akt2)
      smart00220
      Location:152409
      S_TKc; Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain
      cd01241
      Location:4111
      PH_PKB; Protein Kinase B-like pleckstrin homology (PH) domain
      pfam00169
      Location:6106
      PH; PH domain
    8. XM_011526616.1XP_011524918.1  RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011524918.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P31751
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      cd05595
      Location:156478
      STKc_PKB_beta; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Protein Kinase B beta (also called Akt2)
      smart00220
      Location:152409
      S_TKc; Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain
      cd01241
      Location:4111
      PH_PKB; Protein Kinase B-like pleckstrin homology (PH) domain
      pfam00169
      Location:6106
      PH; PH domain
    9. XM_011526622.2XP_011524924.1  RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X3

      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      smart00220
      Location:152391
      S_TKc; Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain
      cd01241
      Location:4111
      PH_PKB; Protein Kinase B-like pleckstrin homology (PH) domain
      pfam00169
      Location:6106
      PH; PH domain
      cl21453
      Location:156391
      PKc_like; Protein Kinases, catalytic domain

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018930.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      40735896..40790984 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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