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    RHOA ras homolog family member A [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 387, updated on 23-Apr-2017
    Official Symbol
    RHOAprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    ras homolog family member Aprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:667
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000067560 MIM:165390; Vega:OTTHUMG00000156838
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    ARHA; ARH12; RHO12; RHOH12
    Summary
    This gene encodes a member of the Rho family of small GTPases, which cycle between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound states and function as molecular switches in signal transduction cascades. Rho proteins promote reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and regulate cell shape, attachment, and motility. Overexpression of this gene is associated with tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. Multiple alternatively spliced variants have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2015]
    Orthologs
    Location:
    3p21.31
    Exon count:
    7
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 3 NC_000003.12 (49359136..49412097, complement)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 3 NC_000003.11 (49396569..49449526, complement)

    Chromosome 3 - NC_000003.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene ubiquitin specific peptidase 4 Neighboring gene Sjoegren syndrome nuclear autoantigen 1 homolog Neighboring gene glutathione peroxidase 1 Neighboring gene T-cell leukemia translocation altered Neighboring gene aminomethyltransferase Neighboring gene nicolin 1

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Inhibition of the RhoA/Rac1 signal cascade by guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors limits the HIV-1 gp120-dependent early phase of the viral life cycle PubMed
    env Filamin-A-dependent activation of the RhoA-ROCK-LIMK-cofilin pathway is a major event in HIV-1 gp120-induced receptor clustering PubMed
    Nef nef MYH9 is downregulated by HIV-1 infection, which indicates that MYH9 downregulation is likely part of the Nef-mediated signaling cascade that includes RhoA downregulation PubMed
    Tat tat The basic domain (49RKKRRQRRR57) of HIV-1 Tat is essential for enhancing the FGF-induced activation of ERK, Rho-A, and MLC2 and upregulates the expression of MMP-9 in human podocytes PubMed
    tat Disruption of lipid rafts by depletion of membrane cholesterol with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin abolishes Tat-mediated RhoA activation and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) upregulation PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat-mediated downregulation of occludin expression requires activities of the RhoA and p160-Rho-associated coiled kinase (ROCK) proteins in primary human brain micro vascular endothelial cells PubMed
    tat Treatment of human brain endothelial cells with Tat markedly elevates GTP-RhoA levels and the potential downstream effectors, such as myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 and myosin light chain PubMed
    tat Knocking down oxidase Nox4 completely suppresses Tat-dependent Ras and ERK activation downstream of Rac1 and RhoA and blocks Tat-dependent proliferation PubMed
    tat Tat activates both Ras and Rho GTPases in endothelial cells, leading to ERK phosphorylation PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat exerts several pleiotropic effects by interacting with different cellular receptors, including integrin alpha(v)beta3, which triggers the activation of focal adhesion kinase, RhoA and pp60src PubMed
    Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr-expressing Jurkat T cell clones showed a significant upregulation of RhoA expression PubMed
    capsid gag Prostaglandin E2-mediated HIV-1 inhibition requires the EPAC/RAP/RhoA signaling pathway by downregulation of HIV-1 CA production PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

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    • Axonal growth stimulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Deubiquitination, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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      E-cadherin signaling in keratinocytes
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    • EPHA forward signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      EPHA forward signaling, organism-specific biosystem
      EPHA forward signaling
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      EPHA2 forward signaling, organism-specific biosystem
      EPHA2 forward signaling
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    • ERBB2 Regulates Cell Motility, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Endocytosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Endocytosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Endothelins, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Endothelins, organism-specific biosystem
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    • Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Focal Adhesion, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Focal Adhesion, organism-specific biosystemCell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the...
    • Focal adhesion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Focal adhesion, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • G Protein Signaling Pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
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    • G alpha (12/13) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • G beta:gamma signalling through PI3Kgamma, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • G-protein beta:gamma signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • G13 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
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    • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • GPVI-mediated activation cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Hypothetical Craniofacial Development Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
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    • IL2-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      IL2-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
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    • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Integrins in angiogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Integrins in angiogenesis, organism-specific biosystem
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    • LPA receptor mediated events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      LPA receptor mediated events, organism-specific biosystem
      LPA receptor mediated events
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    • Leukocyte transendothelial migration, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Leukocyte transendothelial migration, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Lissencephaly gene (LIS1) in neuronal migration and development, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Lissencephaly gene (LIS1) in neuronal migration and development, organism-specific biosystem
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    • Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • N-cadherin signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      N-cadherin signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
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      Noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
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      Osteopontin-mediated events, organism-specific biosystem
      Osteopontin-mediated events
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    • PDGF Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
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    • PI3K/AKT activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • PLK1 signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      PLK1 signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
      PLK1 signaling events
    • PTK6 Regulates RHO GTPases, RAS GTPase and MAP kinases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    • Pancreatic secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Pancreatic secretion, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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      Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, conserved biosystemEnteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are closely related pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. The hallmark of EPEC/EHEC infections [DS:H00278 H00277] is induction o...
    • Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, organism-specific biosystemSources: [http://www.genome.jp/kegg/pathway/hsa/hsa05130.html KEGG]
    • Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
      Pathways in cancer
    • Paxillin-independent events mediated by a4b1 and a4b7, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Paxillin-independent events mediated by a4b1 and a4b7, organism-specific biosystem
      Paxillin-independent events mediated by a4b1 and a4b7
    • Pertussis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pertussis, organism-specific biosystemPertussis, also known as whooping cough, is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by a bacteria called Bordetella Pertussis. The characteristic symptoms are paroxysmal cough, inspiratory whe...
    • Pertussis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Phospholipase D signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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    • Phospholipase D signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Phospholipase D signaling pathway, conserved biosystemPhospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membra...
    • Physiological and Pathological Hypertrophy of the Heart, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Physiological and Pathological Hypertrophy of the Heart, organism-specific biosystemPathways in physiological and pathological hypertrophy of the heart. Largely based on the article from Wang Y; ''Signal transduction in cardiac hypertrophy--dissecting compensatory versus pathologica...
    • Plasma membrane estrogen receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Plasma membrane estrogen receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem
      Plasma membrane estrogen receptor signaling
    • Platelet activation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Platelet activation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelets play a key and beneficial role for primary hemostasis on the disruption of the integrity of vessel wall. Platelet adhesion and activation at sites of vascular wall injury is initiated by ad...
    • Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet activation begins with the initial binding of adhesive ligands and of the excitatory platelet agonists (released or generated at the sites of vascular trauma) to cognate receptors on the pla...
    • Post-translational protein modification, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Post-translational protein modification, organism-specific biosystemAfter translation, many newly formed proteins undergo further covalent modifications that alter their functional properties and that are essentially irreversible under physiological conditions in the...
    • Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
    • Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
    • RHO GTPase Effectors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RHO GTPase Effectors, organism-specific biosystemRHO GTPases regulate cell behaviour by activating a number of downstream effectors that regulate cytoskeletal organization, intracellular trafficking and transcription (reviewed by Sahai and Marshall...
    • RHO GTPases Activate Formins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RHO GTPases Activate Formins, organism-specific biosystemFormins are a family of proteins with 15 members in mammals, organized into 8 subfamilies. Formins are involved in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton. Many but not all formin family members are act...
    • RHO GTPases Activate ROCKs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RHO GTPases Activate ROCKs, organism-specific biosystemRHO associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinases ROCK1 and ROCK2 consist of a serine/threonine kinase domain, a coiled-coil region, a RHO-binding domain and a plekstrin homology (PH) domain int...
    • RHO GTPases Activate Rhotekin and Rhophilins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RHO GTPases Activate Rhotekin and Rhophilins, organism-specific biosystemRhotekin (RTKN) is a protein with an N-terminally located RHO GTPase binding domain, that shares a limited sequence homology with PKNs and rhophilins. RTKN binds to GTP-bound RHOA, RHOB and RHOC and ...
    • RHO GTPases activate CIT, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RHO GTPases activate CIT, organism-specific biosystemCitron kinase (CIT) or citron RHO-interacting kinase (CRIK) shares similarities with ROCK kinases. Like ROCK, it consists of a serine/threonine kinase domain, a coiled-coil region, a RHO-binding doma...
    • RHO GTPases activate KTN1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RHO GTPases activate KTN1, organism-specific biosystemGTP-bound active forms of RHO GTPases RHOA, RHOG, RAC1 and CDC42 bind kinectin (KTN1), a protein inserted in endoplasmic reticulum membranes that interacts with the cargo-binding site of kinesin and ...
    • RHO GTPases activate PKNs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RHO GTPases activate PKNs, organism-specific biosystemProtein kinases N (PKN), also known as protein kinase C-related kinases (PKR) feature a C-terminal serine/threonine kinase domain and three RHO-binding motifs at the N-terminus. RHO GTPases RHOA, RHO...
    • Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
    • Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
    • Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras prote...
    • Regulation of Actin Cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Regulation of Actin Cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystemhttp://www.genome.jp/kegg/pathway/hsa/hsa04810.html
    • Regulation of RhoA activity, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Regulation of RhoA activity, organism-specific biosystem
      Regulation of RhoA activity
    • Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystem
      Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
    • Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, conserved biosystem
      Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
    • Rho GTPase cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Rho GTPase cycle, organism-specific biosystemThe cycling of Rho GTPases is tightly controlled by three classes of protein. These are (1) guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors or GDIs, which maintain Rho proteins in an inactive state in the...
    • RhoA signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      RhoA signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      RhoA signaling pathway
    • S1P1 pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      S1P1 pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      S1P1 pathway
    • S1P2 pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      S1P2 pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      S1P2 pathway
    • S1P3 pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      S1P3 pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      S1P3 pathway
    • S1P4 pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      S1P4 pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      S1P4 pathway
    • S1P5 pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      S1P5 pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      S1P5 pathway
    • Sema4D in semaphorin signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Sema4D in semaphorin signaling, organism-specific biosystemSemaphorin 4D (Sema 4D/CD100) is an axon guidance molecule with two disulfide-linked 150-kDa subunits. SEMA4D is structurally defined by a conserved 500-amino acid extracellular domain with 16 cyste...
    • Sema4D induced cell migration and growth-cone collapse, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Sema4D induced cell migration and growth-cone collapse, organism-specific biosystemSema4D-mediated attraction of endothelial cells requires Rho, but not R-Ras, signaling. Sema4D-mediated plexinB1 activation activates Rho and its downstream effector ROCK. ROCK then phosphorylates ML...
    • Sema4D mediated inhibition of cell attachment and migration, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Sema4D mediated inhibition of cell attachment and migration, organism-specific biosystemRepulsive Sema4D-Plexin-B1 signaling involves four GTPases, Rnd1, R-Ras, Rho and Rac1. Sema4D-Plexin-B1 binding promotes Rnd1-dependent activation of the plexin-B1 GAP domain and transient suppressio...
    • Semaphorin interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Semaphorin interactions, organism-specific biosystemSemaphorins are a large family of cell surface and secreted guidance molecules divided into eight classes on the basis of their structures. They all have an N-terminal conserved sema domain. Semaphor...
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signaling by ERBB2, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by ERBB2, organism-specific biosystemERBB2, also known as HER2 or NEU, is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) belonging to the EGFR family. ERBB2 possesses an extracellular domain that does not bind any known ligand, contrary to other EGFR...
    • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
    • Signaling by PTK6, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by PTK6, organism-specific biosystemPTK6 (BRK) is an oncogenic non-receptor tyrosine kinase that functions downstream of ERBB2 (HER2) (Xiang et al. 2008, Peng et al. 2015) and other receptor tyrosine kinases, such as EGFR (Kamalati et ...
    • Signaling by Rho GTPases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Rho GTPases, organism-specific biosystemThe Rho family of small guanine nucleotide binding proteins is one of five generally recognized branches of the Ras superfamily. Like most Ras superfamily members, typical Rho proteins function as bi...
    • Signaling by TGF-beta Receptor Complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by TGF-beta Receptor Complex, organism-specific biosystemThe TGF-beta/BMP pathway incorporates several signaling pathways that share most, but not all, components of a central signal transduction engine. The general signaling scheme is rather simple: upon ...
    • Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystemIn normal development vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are crucial regulators of vascular development during embryogenesis (vasculogenesis) and blood-vessel formation in the adult (angioge...
    • Signaling by Wnt, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Wnt, organism-specific biosystemWNT signaling pathways control a wide range of developmental and adult process in metozoans including cell proliferation, cell fate decisions, cell polarity and stem cell maintenance (reviewed in Sai...
    • Signaling events mediated by Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor (c-Met), organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Signaling events mediated by Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor (c-Met), organism-specific biosystem
      Signaling events mediated by Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor (c-Met)
    • Signaling events mediated by PRL, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Signaling events mediated by PRL, organism-specific biosystem
      Signaling events mediated by PRL
    • Signaling events mediated by PTP1B, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Signaling events mediated by PTP1B, organism-specific biosystem
      Signaling events mediated by PTP1B
    • Signaling events mediated by VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Signaling events mediated by VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, organism-specific biosystem
      Signaling events mediated by VEGFR1 and VEGFR2
    • Signaling events mediated by focal adhesion kinase, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Signaling events mediated by focal adhesion kinase, organism-specific biosystem
      Signaling events mediated by focal adhesion kinase
    • Signaling events regulated by Ret tyrosine kinase, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Signaling events regulated by Ret tyrosine kinase, organism-specific biosystem
      Signaling events regulated by Ret tyrosine kinase
    • Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4/5) play pivotal roles in survival, differentiation, and plasticity of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. They are produced, and secreted in mi...
    • Sphingolipid signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Sphingolipid signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) ...
    • Sphingolipid signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Sphingolipid signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) ...
    • Spinal Cord Injury, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Spinal Cord Injury, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway provides an overview of cell types, therapeutic targets, drugs, new proposed targets and pathways implicated in spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is a complex multistep process that...
    • Stabilization and expansion of the E-cadherin adherens junction, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Stabilization and expansion of the E-cadherin adherens junction, organism-specific biosystem
      Stabilization and expansion of the E-cadherin adherens junction
    • Syndecan-2-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Syndecan-2-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
      Syndecan-2-mediated signaling events
    • Syndecan-4-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Syndecan-4-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
      Syndecan-4-mediated signaling events
    • T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
    • T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
    • TGF-beta Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      TGF-beta Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe signal transduction mechanisms underlying the pathophysiological activities of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) have been extensively studied since its discovery nearly 30 years ago. TGF-? li...
    • TGF-beta receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      TGF-beta receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem
      TGF-beta receptor signaling
    • TGF-beta receptor signaling in EMT (epithelial to mesenchymal transition), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      TGF-beta receptor signaling in EMT (epithelial to mesenchymal transition), organism-specific biosystemIn normal cells and in the early stages of cancer development, signaling by TGF-beta plays a tumor suppressive role, as SMAD2/3:SMAD4-mediated transcription inhibits cell division by downregulating M...
    • TGF-beta signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      TGF-beta signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family members, which include TGF-betas, activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), are structurally related secreted cytokines found in species r...
    • TGF-beta signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      TGF-beta signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family members, which include TGF-betas, activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), are structurally related secreted cytokines found in species r...
    • Thromboxane A2 receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Thromboxane A2 receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem
      Thromboxane A2 receptor signaling
    • Tight junction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Tight junction, organism-specific biosystemTight junctions (TJs) are essential for establishing a selectively permeable barrier to diffusion through the paracellular space between neighboring cells. TJs are composed of at least three types of...
    • Tight junction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Tight junction, conserved biosystemTight junctions (TJs) are essential for establishing a selectively permeable barrier to diffusion through the paracellular space between neighboring cells. TJs are composed of at least three types of...
    • Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
    • Tuberculosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Tuberculosis, conserved biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
    • VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystemAngiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vasculature. One of the most important proangiogenic factors is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF exerts its biologic...
    • Vascular smooth muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Vascular smooth muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystemThe vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is a highly specialized cell whose principal function is contraction. On contraction, VSMCs shorten, thereby decreasing the diameter of a blood vessel to regula...
    • Vascular smooth muscle contraction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Vascular smooth muscle contraction, conserved biosystemThe vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is a highly specialized cell whose principal function is contraction. On contraction, VSMCs shorten, thereby decreasing the diameter of a blood vessel to regula...
    • Viral carcinogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Viral carcinogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThere is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C vi...
    • Viral carcinogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Viral carcinogenesis, conserved biosystemThere is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C vi...
    • Wnt Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Wnt Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemWnt proteins are secreted morphogens that are required for basic developmental processes, such as cell-fate specification, progenitor-cell proliferation and the control of asymmetric cell division, i...
    • Wnt Signaling Pathway Netpath, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Wnt Signaling Pathway Netpath, organism-specific biosystemWNT signal, through the canonical pathway, controls cell fate determination and through the non-canonical pathway controls cell movement and tissue polarity. The name "wnt" is a fusion of two terms, ...
    • Wnt Signaling Pathway and Pluripotency, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Wnt Signaling Pathway and Pluripotency, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway was adapted from several resources and is designed to provide a theoretical frame-work for examining Wnt signaling and interacting components in the context of embryonic stem-cell plurip...
    • Wnt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Wnt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemWnt proteins are secreted morphogens that are required for basic developmental processes, such as cell-fate specification, progenitor-cell proliferation and the control of asymmetric cell division, i...
    • Wnt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Wnt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemWnt proteins are secreted morphogens that are required for basic developmental processes, such as cell-fate specification, progenitor-cell proliferation and the control of asymmetric cell division, i...
    • amb2 Integrin signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      amb2 Integrin signaling, organism-specific biosystem
      amb2 Integrin signaling
    • cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...
    • cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...
    • cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemCyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated i...
    • cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, conserved biosystemCyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated i...
    • mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, which exists in two complexes termed mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 conta...
    • mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      mTOR signaling pathway
    • mTOR signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      mTOR signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, which exists in two complexes termed mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 conta...
    • p75 NTR receptor-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      p75 NTR receptor-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemBesides signalling through the tyrosine kinase receptors TRK A, B, and C, the mature neurotrophins NGF, BDNF, and NT3/4 signal through their common receptor p75NTR. NGF binding to p75NTR activates a ...
    • p75(NTR)-mediated signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      p75(NTR)-mediated signaling, organism-specific biosystem
      p75(NTR)-mediated signaling
    • p75NTR regulates axonogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      p75NTR regulates axonogenesis, organism-specific biosystemp75NTR modulates axonal growth by regulating the activity of small GTPases like RHOA and RHOB, that control the state of actin polymerization. The best studied is RHOA. In its active, GTP-bound form,...
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    GTP binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    GTPase activity EXP
    Inferred from Experiment
    more info
    PubMed 
    GTPase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    GTPase activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    myosin binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    Rho protein signal transduction IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Rho protein signal transduction IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    Rho protein signal transduction TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Roundabout signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Wnt signaling pathway, planar cell polarity pathway NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Wnt signaling pathway, planar cell polarity pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    actin cytoskeleton organization TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    actin cytoskeleton reorganization IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    apical junction assembly IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    apolipoprotein A-I-mediated signaling pathway IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    cell migration IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cell migration IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to chemokine IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    cleavage furrow formation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    endothelial cell migration IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    endothelial tube lumen extension IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    ephrin receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    mitotic cleavage furrow formation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    mitotic spindle assembly IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative chemotaxis IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of axonogenesis TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    negative regulation of cell migration involved in sprouting angiogenesis IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of cell size IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    neutrophil degranulation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    ossification involved in bone maturation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    phosphatidylinositol-mediated signaling TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    platelet activation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling IEP
    Inferred from Expression Pattern
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of NF-kappaB import into nucleus NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of T cell migration IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of axonogenesis TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    positive regulation of cytokinesis IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of lipase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of lipase activity IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of neuron differentiation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of protein serine/threonine kinase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of stress fiber assembly IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of stress fiber assembly IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein deubiquitination TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of cell migration IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of cell motility TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    regulation of osteoblast proliferation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    skeletal muscle satellite cell migration ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    stress fiber assembly IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    substantia nigra development IEP
    Inferred from Expression Pattern
    more info
    PubMed 
    trabecula morphogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    viral process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    wound healing, spreading of cells ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    apical junction complex IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cell cortex IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cell junction TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    cell periphery IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    colocalizes_with cleavage furrow IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytoskeleton IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cytosol IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    dendritic spine IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    endosome IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular exosome IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    extrinsic component of cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    ficolin-1-rich granule membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    focal adhesion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    lamellipodium ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    midbody IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    plasma membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    secretory granule membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    vesicle IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Preferred Names
    transforming protein RhoA
    Names
    Aplysia ras-related homolog 12
    oncogene RHO H12
    small GTP binding protein RhoA

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_051308.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5001..57962
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001313941.1NP_001300870.1  transforming protein RhoA isoform 1 precursor

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR compared to variant 1. Both variants 1 and 2 encode the same protein.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC104452, AC121247, AI269293, BF966305
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS2795.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P61586
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A024R324
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00174
      Location:8181
      RHO; Rho (Ras homology) subfamily of Ras-like small GTPases
      cd01870
      Location:5179
      RhoA_like; Ras homology family A (RhoA)-like includes RhoA, RhoB and RhoC
    2. NM_001313943.1NP_001300872.1  transforming protein RhoA isoform 2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (3) contains an alternate 3' coding exon, compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) has a shorter and distinct C-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC104452, AC121247, AI269293, BQ721697
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS82775.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      C9JX21
      Related
      ENSP00000413587.1, OTTHUMP00000210783, ENST00000422781.5, OTTHUMT00000346201
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      smart00174
      Location:8146
      RHO; Rho (Ras homology) subfamily of Ras-like small GTPases
      pfam13900
      Location:151182
      GVQW; Putative domain of unknown function
      cl21455
      Location:5138
      P-loop_NTPase; P-loop containing Nucleoside Triphosphate Hydrolases
    3. NM_001313944.1NP_001300873.1  transforming protein RhoA isoform 3

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (4) uses two alternate in-frame splice sites in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (3) is shorter compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC104452, AC121247, AI269293, AK296654
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      B4DKN9
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00174
      Location:8161
      RHO; Rho (Ras homology) subfamily of Ras-like small GTPases
      cd01870
      Location:5159
      RhoA_like; Ras homology family A (RhoA)-like includes RhoA, RhoB and RhoC
    4. NM_001313945.1NP_001300874.1  transforming protein RhoA isoform 4

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate splice site in the 5' region and uses a downstream start codon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (4) has a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC104452, AC121247, AI269293, AK307220, DB488811, EL952052
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cl21455
      Location:198
      P-loop_NTPase; P-loop containing Nucleoside Triphosphate Hydrolases
    5. NM_001313946.1NP_001300875.1  transforming protein RhoA isoform 5

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (6) lacks two alternate in-frame exons in the 3' coding region compared to variant 1.The resulting isoform (5) is shorter compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC104452, AC121247, AI269293, AW403464
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00174
      Location:897
      RHO; Rho (Ras homology) subfamily of Ras-like small GTPases
      cl21455
      Location:595
      P-loop_NTPase; P-loop containing Nucleoside Triphosphate Hydrolases
    6. NM_001313947.1NP_001300876.1  transforming protein RhoA isoform 6

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (7) lacks an alternate exon in the 5' coding region which results in a frameshift, compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (6) has a shorter and distinct C-terminus compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC104452, AC121247, AI269293, BU509012
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS82774.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      C9JRM1
      Related
      ENSP00000394483.2, OTTHUMP00000210784, ENST00000454011.6, OTTHUMT00000346202
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cl21455
      Location:552
      P-loop_NTPase; P-loop containing Nucleoside Triphosphate Hydrolases
    7. NM_001664.3NP_001655.1  transforming protein RhoA isoform 1 precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001655.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longest isoform (1). Both variants 1 and 2 encode the same protein.
      Source sequence(s)
      AA542841, AC104452, AI269293, AK130066, BC000946
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS2795.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P61586
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A024R324, Q9BVT0
      Related
      ENSP00000400175.1, OTTHUMP00000210767, ENST00000418115.5, OTTHUMT00000346157
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00174
      Location:8181
      RHO; Rho (Ras homology) subfamily of Ras-like small GTPases
      cd01870
      Location:5179
      RhoA_like; Ras homology family A (RhoA)-like includes RhoA, RhoB and RhoC

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...Open this link in a new tab

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000003.12 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

      Range
      49359136..49412097 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018914.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      49349379..49402297 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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