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    TRAC T cell receptor alpha constant [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 28755, updated on 12-Dec-2017
    Official Symbol
    TRACprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    T cell receptor alpha constantprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:12029
    See related
    IMGT/GENE-DB:TRAC; MIM:186880
    Gene type
    other
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    TRA; IMD7; TCRA; TRCA
    Summary
    T cell receptors recognize foreign antigens which have been processed as small peptides and bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules at the surface of antigen presenting cells (APC). Each T cell receptor is a dimer consisting of one alpha and one beta chain or one delta and one gamma chain. In a single cell, the T cell receptor loci are rearranged and expressed in the order delta, gamma, beta, and alpha. If both delta and gamma rearrangements produce functional chains, the cell expresses delta and gamma. If not, the cell proceeds to rearrange the beta and alpha loci. This region represents the germline organization of the T cell receptor alpha and delta loci. Both the alpha and delta loci include V (variable), J (joining), and C (constant) segments and the delta locus also includes diversity (D) segments. The delta locus is situated within the alpha locus, between the alpha V and J segments. During T cell development, the delta chain is synthesized by a recombination event at the DNA level joining a D segment with a J segment; a V segment is then joined to the D-J gene. The alpha chain is synthesized by recombination joining a single V segment with a J segment. For both chains, the C segment is later joined by splicing at the RNA level. Recombination of many different V segments with several J segments provides a wide range of antigen recognition. Additional diversity is attained by junctional diversity, resulting from the random additional of nucleotides by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase. Five variable segments can be used in either alpha or delta chains and are described by TRAV/DV symbols. Several V and J segments of the alpha locus are known to be incapable of encoding a protein and are considered pseudogenes. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2016]
    Location:
    14q11.2
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 14 NC_000014.9 (22547506..22552132)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 14 NC_000014.8 (23016447..23021075)

    Chromosome 14 - NC_000014.9Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene T cell receptor alpha locus Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105370399 Neighboring gene long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 2332 Neighboring gene T cell receptor alpha joining 2 (non-functional) Neighboring gene T cell receptor alpha joining 1 (non-functional) Neighboring gene defender against cell death 1

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    • Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystemAdaptive immunity refers to antigen-specific immune response efficiently involved in clearing the pathogens. The adaptive immune system is comprised of B and T lymphocytes that express receptors with...
    • Costimulation by the CD28 family, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Costimulation by the CD28 family, organism-specific biosystemOptimal activation of T-lymphocytes requires at least two signals. A primary one is delivered by the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex after antigen recognition and additional costimulatory signals are d...
    • Downstream TCR signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Downstream TCR signaling, organism-specific biosystemChanges in gene expression are required for the T cell to gain full proliferative competence and to produce effector cytokines. Three transcription factors in particular have been found to play a key...
    • Generation of second messenger molecules, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Generation of second messenger molecules, organism-specific biosystemIn addition to serving as a scaffold via auto-phosphorylation, ZAP-70 also phosphorylates a restricted set of substrates following TCR stimulation - including LAT and SLP-76. These substrates have be...
    • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
    • Immunoregulatory interactions between a Lymphoid and a non-Lymphoid cell, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Immunoregulatory interactions between a Lymphoid and a non-Lymphoid cell, organism-specific biosystemA number of receptors and cell adhesion molecules play a key role in modifying the response of cells of lymphoid origin (such as B-, T- and NK cells) to self and tumor antigens, as well as to pathoge...
    • PD-1 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      PD-1 signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is one of the negative regulators of TCR signaling. PD-1 may exert its effects on cell differentiation and survival directly by inhibiting early activation ...
    • Phosphorylation of CD3 and TCR zeta chains, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Phosphorylation of CD3 and TCR zeta chains, organism-specific biosystemPrior to T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, CD4/CD8 associated Lck remains seperated from the TCR and is maintained in an inactive state by the action of Csk. Csk phosphorylates the negative regulato...
    • TCR signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      TCR signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe TCR is a multisubunit complex that consists of clonotypic alpha/beta chains noncovalently associated with the invariant CD3 delta/epsilon/gamma and TCR zeta chains. T cell activation by antigen p...
    • Translocation of ZAP-70 to Immunological synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Translocation of ZAP-70 to Immunological synapse, organism-specific biosystemThe dual phosphorylated ITAMs recruit Syk kinase ZAP-70 via their tandem SH2 domains (step 4). ZAP-70 subsequently undergoes phosphorylation on multiple tyrosine residues for further activation. ZAP-...
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Clone Names

    • FLJ59634

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    T cell costimulation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    T cell receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    regulation of immune response TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    integral component of membrane IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    plasma membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_001332.3 

      Range
      925603..930229
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000014.9 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

      Range
      22547506..22552132
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018925.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      23015408..23020034
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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