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    RELA RELA proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 5970, updated on 16-Sep-2018

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    RELAprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    RELA proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunitprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:9955
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000173039 MIM:164014; Vega:OTTHUMG00000166566
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    p65; NFKB3
    Summary
    NF-kappa-B is a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in several biological processes. It is held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state by specific inhibitors. Upon degradation of the inhibitor, NF-kappa-B moves to the nucleus and activates transcription of specific genes. NF-kappa-B is composed of NFKB1 or NFKB2 bound to either REL, RELA, or RELB. The most abundant form of NF-kappa-B is NFKB1 complexed with the product of this gene, RELA. Four transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
    Expression
    Ubiquitous expression in bone marrow (RPKM 28.6), spleen (RPKM 25.4) and 25 other tissues See more
    Orthologs

    Genomic context

    See RELA in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    11q13.1
    Exon count:
    11
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 11 NC_000011.10 (65653596..65662972, complement)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 11 NC_000011.9 (65421067..65430443, complement)

    Chromosome 11 - NC_000011.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene pecanex 3 Neighboring gene microRNA 4690 Neighboring gene signal-induced proliferation-associated 1 Neighboring gene microRNA 4489 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105369347 Neighboring gene RNA, 7SL, cytoplasmic 309, pseudogene

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Phenotypes

    NHGRI GWAS Catalog

    Description
    Host-microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog

    HIV-1 interactions

    Replication interactions

    Interaction Pubs
    Knockdown of v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A (RELA) by siRNA inhibits HIV-1 replication in HeLa-derived TZM-bl cells PubMed
    Knockdown of v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A (RELA) by siRNA inhibits the early stages of HIV-1 replication in 293T cells infected with VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1 PubMed
    Knockdown of v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A (RELA) by siRNA inhibits HIV-1 replication in HeLa P4/R5 cells PubMed

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 Env (gp120) binds to CD209 (DC-SIGN), which activates NFKB1 (NF-kB), MAPK1 (ERK1/2), and MAPK14 (p38) PubMed
    env HIV-1 CN54 Env (gp120) induces phosphorylation of RELA (p65), IRF3, MAPK14 (p38), and MAPK1 (ERK1/2) through TLR4 induction in monocyte derived macrophages; anti-TLR4 antibodies could inhibit this activation PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120-induced release of IL-6 is regulated by p38 MAPK, IkappaBalpha, and p65 NF-kappaB activation in primary human monocyte-derived dendritic cells PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120-induced release of IL-10 depends on the activation of Raf-1 along with NF-kappaB p65 in immature dentritic cells PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 co-localizes with the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB in human female genital epithelial cells PubMed
    env Inhibition of NRF2 by siRNA results in increased NOX2, NFkappaB (p65/p50), TNF-alpha, and MMP-9 proteins in astrocytes exposed to HIV-1 gp120 PubMed
    Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env Exposure of TZM-bl-2 cells to HIV gp41 increases RELA (NFkappaB subunit p65) nucelar translocation PubMed
    env The binding of soluble TLR2 to HIV-1 MA, CA, or gp41 inhibits the nuclear translocation of NFKB p65 subunit and downregulates IL-8 and CCR5 expression, leading to inhibition of HIV-1 infection in cells PubMed
    env The HIV-1 gp41 cytoplasmic domain-induced NFkappaB activation requires TAK1, RelA, and NEMO proteins PubMed
    Nef nef HIV-1 Nef induces RELA (NFKB p65) translocation/nuclear localization PubMed
    nef HIV-1 and SIVcpz Nef proteins enhance TNF-alpha, IKK-beta, and RelA/p65-induced NF-kappaB activation in 293T cells PubMed
    nef Knockdown of the p50 and p65 subunits of NF-kappaB by siRNA shows significant reduction of CCL5 levels, suggesting that NF-kappaB is involved in Nef-mediated upregulation of CCL5 PubMed
    Tat tat HIV-1 Tat increases binding of RELA (p65) to the NF-kappaB consensus site PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat protein activates RELA (p65), MAP kinases ERK1/2 and p38, and PKC-bII in a TLR4-dependent manner in human monocytes PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat relocalizes PRKCQ (PKC-theta) and RELA (NFkB) to the nucleus of Jurkat T cells that stably express Tat PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat activates PRKCQ (PKC-theta) kinase activity, which leads to RELA (NFkB), NRAS, RAF1, MAP2K1 (MEK1), MAP2K2 (MEK2), MAPK3 (ERK1), and MAPK1 (ERK2) activation, in Jurkat T cells that stably express Tat PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat induces phosphorylation of RELA (p65) in CRT-MG human astroglioma cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat increases nuclear localization of RELA (p65) in Huvec and EA.hy926 cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat induces phosphorylation of RELA (p65) in HUVEC and EA.hy926 cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat activates RELA (NF-kappaB) in a TLR4 dependent manner PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat treatment induces phosphorylation of NFKB p65 (RELA) at position Ser-536 in human mesenchymal stem cells PubMed
    tat The gene expression of RELA is significantly upregulated in both clade B and clade C Tat treated SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat enhances the NFkappaB activity by inhibiting IkappaB-alpha binding to p65 RelA PubMed
    tat Curcumin and celastrol attenuate HIV-1 Tat-induced p65/NFKappaB phosphorylation and IKK phosphorylation PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat-mediated transcriptional activation of the HIV-1 LTR promoter requires NFkappaB binding sites in the promoter and involves the activation of NFkappaB by Tat PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat-mediated upregulation of CCL5 involves JAK2/3, AKT2/3, p38delta, NF-kappaB (p65/p50), C/EBP alpha/gamma, and AP-1 proteins PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat-induced upregulation of miR-222 is a NF-kappaB p65-dependent manner PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat-mediated upregulation of ICAM-1 expression involves MEK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK proteins and downstream IKK2/NF-kappaB(p65) signaling pathways PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat downregulates the expression of p65 NFkappaB in CD4+ T cells, which may contribute to the reduced levels of nuclear hTERT in Tat exposed cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates miR-34a in TZM-bl cells, which results in downregulation of SIRT1 protein expression and activity and induction of NFkappaB p65 acetylation by MiR-34a PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat enhances the NFkappaB activity and promotes the transcriptional activation of MIP-1alpha by interacting with IkappaB-alpha and p65 RelA PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat induces the acetylation of the NFkappaB p50 subunit as well as the p50/p65 complex by p300, causing an increase in NFkappaB DNA binding activity and in the rate of transcription PubMed
    tat Inhibition of HIV-1 Tat-mediated transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR promoter by NFkappaB/Rel inhibitors correlates with their inhibitory activities on the RelA subunit of the NFkappaB complex, indicating an interaction of Tat with RelA PubMed
    tat A compound in curry known as Curcumin inhibits HIV-1 Tat-mediated long terminal repeat transactivation by reversing Tat-induced dissociation of HDAC1 from LTR and by reducing the binding of p65/NFKappaB to LTR promoted by Tat PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat increases the p65 RelA affinity binding to DNA through association with p65 RelA PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat and morphine treatment significantly increase the levels of phosphorylated p65 NF-kappaB in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat inhibits the LPS-induced activation of NFkappaB p65 via its induction of IkappaBalpha expression, which results in retention of NFkappaB p65 in the cytosol PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat has been shown to bind NFkappaB in vitro in gel shift, GST-pull down and affinity matrix assays PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat recruits P/CAF to the integrated HIV-1 LTR promoter causing the acetylation of histones, which in turn leads to the recruitment the p65 subunit of NFkappaB to the promoter PubMed
    tat NFAT-1 negatively regulates HIV-1 Tat-mediated transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR by competing with NFkappaB for its binding to the LTR, thereby blocking the interaction of NFkappaB with Tat PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat enhances tumor necrosis factor-induced activation of NFkappaB by downregulating manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) PubMed
    tat NFkappaB tethers the p160 nuclear receptor co-activator GRIP1 to the HIV-1 LTR promoter, thereby regulating the full activation of this promoter by HIV-1 Tat PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat activates NFkappaB through the cellular interferon-inducible, double-stranded RNA dependent protein kinase, PKR PubMed
    tat p56-lck plays a critical role in the activation of NFkappaB by HIV-1 Tat PubMed
    tat Activation of NFkappaB by HIV-1 Tat leads to a reduction in adenylyl cyclase activity and an inhibition of cAMP synthesis PubMed
    tat Activation of NFkappaB by HIV-1 Tat is inhibited by Nitric Oxide PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat activates NFkappaB, causing the induction of CD95 ligand, CD69, iNOS, MCP-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-alpha, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin, and MMP-9, as well as monocyte adhesion, cellular activation and angiogenesis PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates c-rel and RelA transcription factor binding to the CD28-responsive element in the IL-8 promoter, leading to super-induction of IL-8 PubMed
    Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr activates RELA (NFkappaB) signaling following internalization into PEL cells PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr-induced upregulation of CCL5 requires p50 and p65 subunits of NF-kappaB, p38delta MAPK, Akt-2 and Akt-3, and AP-1 transcription factor in HIV-1 Vpr transfected astrocytes PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr induces phosphorylation of Rel A (p65) and relocates Rel A from the cytoplasm into the nucleus PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr inhibits the phosphorylation of NFkappaB p65 subunit in response to TNF-alpha treatment PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr decreases in nuclear translocation of NF-KappaB/p65 protein and p65 DNA-binding activity in multidrug-resistant human colorectal cancer cells in a time-dependent manner PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr induces HIF-1alpha expression, which involves the presence of Sp1 and the p65 subunit of NFkappaB transcription factors PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr inhibits the nuclear translocation of Rel A in infected T cells PubMed
    vpr Data suggests that HIV-1 Vpr acts in concert with Rel A and p300 to activate HIV transcription, possibly by Vpr effects on Cdc2 kinase activity PubMed
    Vpu vpu HIV-1 Vpu inhibits nuclear translocation of RelA/p65 and the SS/AA mutations in the DSGxxS motif of Vpu largely abolish this activity in HeLa cells PubMed
    vpu HIV-1 Vpu and TASK-1 decreases HIV-1 transcription by suppressing unintegrated HIV-1 DNA, which is inhibited by overexpression of RelA PubMed
    capsid gag The binding of soluble TLR2 to HIV-1 MA, CA, or gp41 inhibits the nuclear translocation of NFKB p65 subunit and downregulates IL-8 and CCR5 expression, leading to inhibition of HIV-1 infection in cells PubMed
    matrix gag Exposure of TZM-bl-2 cells to HIV MA (p17) increases RELA (NFkappaB subunit p65) nuclear translocation PubMed
    gag The binding of soluble TLR2 to HIV-1 MA, CA, or gp41 inhibits the nuclear translocation of NFKB p65 subunit and downregulates IL-8 and CCR5 expression, leading to inhibition of HIV-1 infection in cells PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

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      Epstein-Barr virus infection, organism-specific biosystemEpstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is associated with oncogenesis. EBV infection to primary human B lymphocytes leads to induction of EBV-specific HLA-restricted cytotoxi...
    • Epstein-Barr virus infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Epstein-Barr virus infection, conserved biosystemEpstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is associated with oncogenesis. EBV infection to primary human B lymphocytes leads to induction of EBV-specific HLA-restricted cytotoxi...
    • FCERI mediated NF-kB activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      FCERI mediated NF-kB activation, organism-specific biosystemThe increase in intracellular Ca+2 in conjunction with DAG also activates PKC and RasGRP, which inturn contributes to cytokine production by mast cells (Kambayashi et al. 2007). Activation of the FCE...
    • Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystemMast cells (MC) are distributed in tissues throughout the human body and have long been recognized as key cells of type I hypersensitivity reactions. They also play important roles in inflammatory an...
    • Fc-epsilon receptor I signaling in mast cells, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Fc-epsilon receptor I signaling in mast cells, organism-specific biosystem
      Fc-epsilon receptor I signaling in mast cells
    • Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, organism-specific biosystemShear stress represents the frictional force that the flow of blood exerts at the endothelial surface of the vessel wall and plays a central role in vascular biology and contributes to the progress o...
    • Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, conserved biosystemShear stress represents the frictional force that the flow of blood exerts at the endothelial surface of the vessel wall and plays a central role in vascular biology and contributes to the progress o...
    • Folate Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Folate Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem
      Folate Metabolism
    • Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network, organism-specific biosystem
      Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network
    • HIF-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      HIF-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemHypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that functions as a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis. It consists of two subunits: an inducibly-expressed HIF-1alpha subunit and a c...
    • HIV-1 Nef: Negative effector of Fas and TNF-alpha, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      HIV-1 Nef: Negative effector of Fas and TNF-alpha, organism-specific biosystem
      HIV-1 Nef: Negative effector of Fas and TNF-alpha
    • HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
    • HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
    • Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped virus and contains a partially double-stranded relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) genome. After entry into hepatocytes, HBV RC-DNA is transported to the nucleus and...
    • Hepatitis C, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Hepatitis C, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The HCV employ several strategies to perturb host cell immunity. After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the...
    • Hepatitis C, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Hepatitis C, conserved biosystemHepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The HCV employ several strategies to perturb host cell immunity. After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the...
    • Herpes simplex infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Herpes simplex infection, organism-specific biosystemHerpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide, with the prevalence of HSV-1 reaching up to 80%-90%. Primary infection with HSV takes place in the mucosa, followed by the establishme...
    • Herpes simplex infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Herpes simplex infection, conserved biosystemHerpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide, with the prevalence of HSV-1 reaching up to 80%-90%. Primary infection with HSV takes place in the mucosa, followed by the establishme...
    • IKBKG deficiency causes anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID) (via TLR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      IKBKG deficiency causes anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID) (via TLR), organism-specific biosystemMany signaling pathways rely on the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB), which is critical for the induction of the appropriate cellular function in response to various stimuli such as inflam...
    • IL-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      IL-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe IL-1 family of cytokines currently consists of 11 members which are encoded by distinct genes and includes IL-1?, IL-1?, and the IL-1 Receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). The major role of IL-1 type cyt...
    • IL-17 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      IL-17 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe interleukin 17 (IL-17) family, a subset of cytokines consisting of IL-17A-F, plays crucial roles in both acute and chronic inflammatory responses. IL-17A, the hallmark cytokine of the newly defi...
    • IL-17 signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      IL-17 signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe interleukin 17 (IL-17) family, a subset of cytokines consisting of IL-17A-F, plays crucial roles in both acute and chronic inflammatory responses. IL-17A, the hallmark cytokine of the newly defi...
    • IL-4 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      IL-4 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemIL-4 is a glycoprotein which is composed of 129 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 20kDa. IL-4 and IL-13 are produced by CD4+ cells and exhibit significant functional overlap. Both these cytok...
    • IL1-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      IL1-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
      IL1-mediated signaling events
    • IL12-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      IL12-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
      IL12-mediated signaling events
    • IL17 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      IL17 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin 17 is a family of cytokines that acts as potent mediators in delayed-type reactions by increasing chemokine production in various tissues to recruit monocytes and neutrophils to the site ...
    • IL2 signaling events mediated by PI3K, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      IL2 signaling events mediated by PI3K, organism-specific biosystem
      IL2 signaling events mediated by PI3K
    • IL23-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      IL23-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
      IL23-mediated signaling events
    • IkBA variant leads to EDA-ID, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      IkBA variant leads to EDA-ID, organism-specific biosystemThe nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) family of transcription factors is kept inactive in the cytoplasm by the inhibitor of kappa B (IkB) family members IKBA (IkB alpha), IKBB (IkB beta) and IKBE (IkB ep...
    • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
    • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), organism-specific biosystemInflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract due to environmental and geneti...
    • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), conserved biosystemInflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract due to environmental and geneti...
    • Influenza A, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Influenza A, organism-specific biosystemInfluenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. Novel strains ...
    • Influenza A, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Influenza A, conserved biosystemInfluenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. Novel strains ...
    • Initiation of transcription and translation elongation at the HIV-1 LTR, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Initiation of transcription and translation elongation at the HIV-1 LTR, organism-specific biosystemFollowing cellular activation or drug treatment, NFAT and NF-kB translocate to the nucleus and bind sites at the HIV-1 LTR. NFAT and NF-kB recruit p300/CBP to the LTR, resulting in acetylation of his...
    • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
    • Insulin resistance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Insulin resistance, organism-specific biosystemInsulin resistance is a condition where cells become resistant to the effects of insulin. It is often found in people with health disorders, including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic...
    • Interleukin-1 processing, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Interleukin-1 processing, organism-specific biosystemThe IL-1 family of cytokines that interact with the Type 1 IL-1R include IL-1 Alpha (IL1A), IL-1 Beta (IL1B) and the IL-1 receptor antagonist protein (IL1RAP). IL1RAP is synthesized with a signal pep...
    • Interleukin-11 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Interleukin-11 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemIL-11 is a multifunctional cytokine that belongs to the gp130 family. It was first isolated from a primate bone marrow derived cell line, PU-34 for its ability to stimulate the proliferation of a pla...
    • LPA receptor mediated events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      LPA receptor mediated events, organism-specific biosystem
      LPA receptor mediated events
    • Legionellosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Legionellosis, organism-specific biosystemLegionellosis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila and other legionella species. Two distinct clinical and epidemiological syndromes are associated...
    • Legionellosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Legionellosis, conserved biosystemLegionellosis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila and other legionella species. Two distinct clinical and epidemiological syndromes are associated...
    • Leishmaniasis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Leishmaniasis, organism-specific biosystemLeishmania is an intracellular protozoan parasite of macrophages that causes visceral, mucosal, and cutaneous diseases. The parasite is transmitted to humans by sandflies, where they survive and prol...
    • Leishmaniasis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Leishmaniasis, conserved biosystemLeishmania is an intracellular protozoan parasite of macrophages that causes visceral, mucosal, and cutaneous diseases. The parasite is transmitted to humans by sandflies, where they survive and prol...
    • Leptin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Leptin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemLeptin is a peptide hormone mainly synthesised and secreted from adipocytes. It is also expressed in other tissues including placenta, stomach and skeletal muscle. Leptin mediates its effects by bind...
    • Longevity regulating pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Longevity regulating pathway, organism-specific biosystemRegulation of longevity depends on genetic and environmental factors. Caloric restriction (CR), that is limiting food intake, is recognized in mammals as the best characterized and most reproducible ...
    • MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
    • MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
    • Measles, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Measles, organism-specific biosystemMeasles virus (MV) is highly contagious virus that leads infant death worldwide. Humans are the unique natural reservoir for this virus. It causes severe immunosuppression favouring secondary bacteri...
    • Measles, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Measles, conserved biosystemMeasles virus (MV) is highly contagious virus that leads infant death worldwide. Humans are the unique natural reservoir for this virus. It causes severe immunosuppression favouring secondary bacteri...
    • Mitophagy - animal, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Mitophagy - animal, organism-specific biosystemMitochondria act as the energy powerhouse of the cell, and are essential for eukaryotic cells to grow and function normally. However, deleterious byproducts of oxidative phosphorylation process calle...
    • Mitophagy - animal, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Mitophagy - animal, conserved biosystemMitochondria act as the energy powerhouse of the cell, and are essential for eukaryotic cells to grow and function normally. However, deleterious byproducts of oxidative phosphorylation process calle...
    • MyD88 cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MyD88 cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemMammalian myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is Toll/interleukin (IL)-1 (TIR)-domain containing adapter protein which plays crucial role in TLR signaling. All TLRs, with only one exception of...
    • MyD88 dependent cascade initiated on endosome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MyD88 dependent cascade initiated on endosome, organism-specific biosystemUpon binding of their ligands, TLR7/8 and TLR9 recruit a cytoplasmic adaptor MyD88 and IRAKs, downstream of which the signaling pathways are divided to induce either inflammatory cytokines or type I ...
    • MyD88-independent TLR3/TLR4 cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MyD88-independent TLR3/TLR4 cascade, organism-specific biosystemMyD88-independent signaling pathway is shared by TLR3 and TLR4 cascades. TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-beta (TRIF or TICAM1) is a key adapter molecule in transducing signals from ...
    • MyD88:Mal cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MyD88:Mal cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemThe first known downstream component of TLR4 and TLR2 signaling is the adaptor MyD88. Another adapter MyD88-adaptor-like (Mal; also known as TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein or TIRAP) has also b...
    • NF-kB is activated and signals survival, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      NF-kB is activated and signals survival, organism-specific biosystemUpon activation in response to NGF, NF-kB moves to the nucleus, where it turns on genes that promote survival, and triggers the expression of HES1/5 to modulate dendritic growth.
    • NF-kappa B signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      NF-kappa B signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemNuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) is the generic name of a family of transcription factors that function as dimers and regulate genes involved in immunity, inflammation and cell survival. There are...
    • NF-kappa B signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      NF-kappa B signaling pathway, conserved biosystemNuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) is the generic name of a family of transcription factors that function as dimers and regulate genes involved in immunity, inflammation and cell survival. There are...
    • NLR Proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      NLR Proteins, organism-specific biosystemMammalian cells have evolved a set of specialized pattern recognition-molecules (PRMs) to detect conserved molecular motifs present on pathogens known as pathogen associated-molecular-patterns (PAMPs...
    • NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting various pathogens and generating innate immune responses. The intracellular NOD-like receptor (NLR) family contains mo...
    • NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting various pathogens and generating innate immune responses. The intracellular NOD-like receptor (NLR) family contains mo...
    • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
    • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
    • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), organism-specific biosystemNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to more severe steatohepatitis with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, known as nonalcoholic steatohepati...
    • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), conserved biosystemNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to more severe steatohepatitis with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, known as nonalcoholic steatohepati...
    • Nucleotide-binding Oligomerization Domain (NOD) pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Nucleotide-binding Oligomerization Domain (NOD) pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe NOD (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain) proteins NOD1 and NOD2 have important roles in innate immunity as sensors of microbial components derived from bacterial peptidoglycan. The importa...
    • Oncostatin M Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Oncostatin M Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemOncostatin M (OSM) is a member of the multifunctional cytokine interleukin 6 (IL6) - type cytokine family. It is mainly produced in cell types such as activated T lymphocytes, macrophages, monocytes,...
    • Osteoclast differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Osteoclast differentiation, organism-specific biosystemThe osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways...
    • Osteoclast differentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Osteoclast differentiation, conserved biosystemThe osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways...
    • Osteopontin Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Osteopontin Signaling, organism-specific biosystemStudy of regulation of promatrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) by osteopontin (OPN) through IKK signaling pathway.
    • Osteopontin-mediated events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Osteopontin-mediated events, organism-specific biosystem
      Osteopontin-mediated events
    • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
    • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
    • PKMTs methylate histone lysines, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      PKMTs methylate histone lysines, organism-specific biosystemLysine methyltransferases (KMTs) and arginine methyltransferases (RMTs) have a common mechanism of catalysis. Both families transfer a methyl group from a common donor, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM),...
    • Pancreatic cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pancreatic cancer, organism-specific biosystemInfiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy of the pancreas. When most investigators use the term 'pancreatic cancer' they are referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)...
    • Pancreatic cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pancreatic cancer, conserved biosystemInfiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy of the pancreas. When most investigators use the term 'pancreatic cancer' they are referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)...
    • Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
      Pathways in cancer
    • Pertussis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pertussis, organism-specific biosystemPertussis, also known as whooping cough, is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by a bacteria called Bordetella Pertussis. The characteristic symptoms are paroxysmal cough, inspiratory whe...
    • Pertussis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pertussis, conserved biosystemPertussis, also known as whooping cough, is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by a bacteria called Bordetella Pertussis. The characteristic symptoms are paroxysmal cough, inspiratory whe...
    • Photodynamic therapy-induced NF-kB survival signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Photodynamic therapy-induced NF-kB survival signaling, organism-specific biosystemPhotodynamic therapy may induce a pro-inflammatory and angiogenic response mediated by NF-?B.
    • Prolactin Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Prolactin Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemProlactin (PRL), a pleiotropic polypeptide hormone, mostly secreted by the lactotrophic cells of anterior pituitary gland and to a lesser extent expressed in numerous extra pituitary tissues such as ...
    • Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
    • Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
    • Prostate cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prostate cancer, organism-specific biosystemProstate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of...
    • Prostate cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prostate cancer, conserved biosystemProstate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of...
    • RANKL/RANK (Receptor activator of NFKB (ligand)) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      RANKL/RANK (Receptor activator of NFKB (ligand)) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemRANKL (Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand), RANK (Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B) and the natural decoy receptor of RANKL, OPG (Osteoprotegerin) are three important mol...
    • RIG-I-like Receptor Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      RIG-I-like Receptor Signaling, organism-specific biosystemViral pathogen RNA are recognized by host helicases called RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) that include DDX58 (RIG-I), DHX58 (LGP2), IFIH1 (MDA5), SNW1, and DDX17. These RLR proteins then go on to initia...
    • RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting viral pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Non-self RNA appearing in a cell as a result of intracellular ...
    • RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting viral pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Non-self RNA appearing in a cell as a result of intracellular ...
    • RIG-I/MDA5 mediated induction of IFN-alpha/beta pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RIG-I/MDA5 mediated induction of IFN-alpha/beta pathways, organism-specific biosystemRIG-I-like helicases (RLHs) the retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation associated gene 5 (MDA5) are RNA helicases that recognize viral RNA present within the cytoplasm. F...
    • RIP-mediated NFkB activation via ZBP1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RIP-mediated NFkB activation via ZBP1, organism-specific biosystemOverexpression of human or murine ZBP1 (DAI) in human embryonic kidney 293T cells (HEK293T) activated NF-kB-dependent promoter in a dose-dependent manner. Two RHIM-contaning kinases RIP1 and RIP3 are...
    • Rac1/Pak1/p38/MMP-2 pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Rac1/Pak1/p38/MMP-2 pathway, organism-specific biosystemRac1/p38 pathway from Ingenuity Pathway Analysis.
    • Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras prote...
    • Regulated proteolysis of p75NTR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Regulated proteolysis of p75NTR, organism-specific biosystemp75NTR undergoes a process of regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) similar to other transmembrane proteins such as NOTCH, beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP), and ERBB4. Each of these proteins ...
    • Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway
    • Salmonella infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Salmonella infection, organism-specific biosystemSalmonella infection usually presents as a self-limiting gastroenteritis or the more severe typhoid fever and bacteremia. The common disease-causing Salmonella species in human is a single species, S...
    • Salmonella infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Salmonella infection, conserved biosystemSalmonella infection usually presents as a self-limiting gastroenteritis or the more severe typhoid fever and bacteremia. The common disease-causing Salmonella species in human is a single species, S...
    • Selenium Metabolism and Selenoproteins, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Selenium Metabolism and Selenoproteins, organism-specific biosystem* Comments belonging to specific genes on the Selenoprotein pathway ** TRXND3 gene: Although the geneID is correct, the sequence of this gene was guessed by analogy. ** Cystathionine gamma-lyase is t...
    • Selenium Micronutrient Network, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Selenium Micronutrient Network, organism-specific biosystem
      Selenium Micronutrient Network
    • Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP), organism-specific biosystemThe culture medium of senescent cells in enriched in secreted proteins when compared with the culture medium of quiescent i.e. presenescent cells and these secreted proteins constitute the so-called ...
    • Shigellosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Shigellosis, organism-specific biosystemShigellosis, or bacillary dysentery, is an intestinal infection caused by Shigella, a genus of enterobacteria. Shigella are potential food-borne pathogens that are capable of colonizing the intestina...
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystemInterleukins are low molecular weight proteins that bind to cell surface receptors and act in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion. They were first identified as factors produced by leukocytes but a...
    • Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystemMature B cells express IgM and IgD immunoglobulins which are complexed at the plasma membrane with Ig-alpha (CD79A, MB-1) and Ig-beta (CD79B, B29) to form the B cell receptor (BCR) (Fu et al. 1974, F...
    • Signaling events mediated by HDAC Class I, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Signaling events mediated by HDAC Class I, organism-specific biosystem
      Signaling events mediated by HDAC Class I
    • Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4/5) play pivotal roles in survival, differentiation, and plasticity of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. They are produced, and secreted in mi...
    • Small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystemLung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is a highly aggressive neoplasm, which accounts for approximately 25% ...
    • Small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystemLung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is a highly aggressive neoplasm, which accounts for approximately 25% ...
    • Sphingolipid signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Sphingolipid signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) ...
    • Sphingolipid signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Sphingolipid signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) ...
    • Structural Pathway of Interleukin 1 (IL-1), organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Structural Pathway of Interleukin 1 (IL-1), organism-specific biosystemPathway published in http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pcbi.1003470 IL-1 signaling pathway reconstructed by combining related pathways and information from the litera...
    • T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
    • T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
    • T-Cell antigen Receptor (TCR) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      T-Cell antigen Receptor (TCR) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) complex is composed of a ligand-binding subunit, the ? and ? chains, and a signaling subunit, namely the CD3?, ? and ? chains and the TCR? chain. This complex partic...
    • TAK1 activates NFkB by phosphorylation and activation of IKKs complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      TAK1 activates NFkB by phosphorylation and activation of IKKs complex, organism-specific biosystemNF-kappaB is sequestered in the cytoplasm in a complex with inhibitor of NF-kappaB (IkB). Almost all NF-kappaB activation pathways are mediated by IkB kinase (IKK), which phosphorylates IkB resulting...
    • TCR signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      TCR signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe TCR is a multisubunit complex that consists of clonotypic alpha/beta chains noncovalently associated with the invariant CD3 delta/epsilon/gamma and TCR zeta chains. T cell activation by antigen p...
    • TNF receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      TNF receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      TNF receptor signaling pathway
    • TNF related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      TNF related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemTNF related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a small pleiotropic cytokine of the TNF super family and its gene is located at chromosome 17p13.1. TWEAK has been reported to be expressed in tissues...
    • TNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      TNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemTumor necrosis factor (TNF), as a critical cytokine, can induce a wide range of intracellular signal pathways including apoptosis and cell survival as well as inflammation and immunity. Activated TNF...
    • TNF signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      TNF signaling pathway, conserved biosystemTumor necrosis factor (TNF), as a critical cytokine, can induce a wide range of intracellular signal pathways including apoptosis and cell survival as well as inflammation and immunity. Activated TNF...
    • TRAF6 mediated NF-kB activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      TRAF6 mediated NF-kB activation, organism-specific biosystemThe TRAF6/TAK1 signal activates a canonical IKK complex, resulting in the activation of NF-kB as well as MAPK cascades leading to the activation of AP-1. Although TRAF6/TAK1 has been implicated in To...
    • TRAF6 mediated induction of NFkB and MAP kinases upon TLR7/8 or 9 activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      TRAF6 mediated induction of NFkB and MAP kinases upon TLR7/8 or 9 activation, organism-specific biosystemTRAF6 mediates NFkB activation via canonical phosphorylation of IKK complex by TAK1. TRAF6 and TAK1 also regulate MAPK cascades leading to the activation of AP-1.
    • TRIF-mediated TLR3/TLR4 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      TRIF-mediated TLR3/TLR4 signaling, organism-specific biosystemTRIF(TICAM1) was shown to induce IRF3/7 and NF-?B activation and apoptosis through distinct intracellular signaling pathways [Han KJ et al 2004; Kaiser WJ and Offermann MK et al 2005]. TRIF consists...
    • Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation, organism-specific biosystemImmunity to different classes of microorganisms is orchestrated by separate lineages of effector T helper (TH)-cells, which differentiate from naive CD4+ precursor cells in response to cues provided ...
    • Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation, conserved biosystemImmunity to different classes of microorganisms is orchestrated by separate lineages of effector T helper (TH)-cells, which differentiate from naive CD4+ precursor cells in response to cues provided ...
    • Th17 cell differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Th17 cell differentiation, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin (IL)-17-producing helper T (Th17) cells serve as a subset of CD4+ T cells involved in epithelial cell- and neutrophil mediated immune responses against extracellular microbes and in the p...
    • Th17 cell differentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Th17 cell differentiation, conserved biosystemInterleukin (IL)-17-producing helper T (Th17) cells serve as a subset of CD4+ T cells involved in epithelial cell- and neutrophil mediated immune responses against extracellular microbes and in the p...
    • Thymic Stromal LymphoPoietin (TSLP) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Thymic Stromal LymphoPoietin (TSLP) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      Thymic Stromal LymphoPoietin (TSLP) Signaling Pathway
    • Toll Like Receptor 10 (TLR10) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 10 (TLR10) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemLittle is known about TLR10 ligands. It has been established that the receptor homodimerizes upon binding and signals in an MyD88-dependent manner (Hasan U et al 2005; Nyman T et al 2008). It may als...
    • Toll Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR2 is involved in recognition of peptidoglycan from gram-positive bacteria, bacterial lipoproteins, mycoplasma lipoprotein and mycobacterial products. It is quite possible that recognition of at le...
    • Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemToll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) as was shown for mammals is expressed on myeloid dendritic cells, respiratory epithelium, macrophages, and appears to play a central role in mediating the antiviral and in...
    • Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemToll-like Receptor 4 is a Microbe Associated Molecular Pattern receptor well known for it's sensitivity to Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS is assembled within diverse Gram-negative bacteria,...
    • Toll Like Receptor 5 (TLR5) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 5 (TLR5) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR5 is the receptor for flagellin, the protein that forms bacterial flagella. Unlike most other Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs), flagellin does not undergo any posttranslational modif...
    • Toll Like Receptor 7/8 (TLR7/8) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 7/8 (TLR7/8) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemRNA can serve as a danger signal, both in its double-stranded form (that is associated with viral infection), as well as single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). Specifically, guanosine (G)- and uridine (U)-rich...
    • Toll Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemCpG DNA is an unusual Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP). Cytosine methylation exists in mammalian but not bacterial cells, and most (but not all) CpG in the mammalian genome is methylated....
    • Toll Like Receptor TLR1:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor TLR1:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR1 is expressed by monocytes. TLR1 and TLR2 cotranslationally form heterodimeric complexes on the cell surface and in the cytosol. The TLR2:TLR1 complex recognizes Neisserial PorB and Mycobacterial...
    • Toll Like Receptor TLR6:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor TLR6:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR2 and TLR4 recognize different bacterial cell wall components. While TLR4 is trained onto Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide components, TLR2 - in combination with TLR6 - plays a major role in recog...
    • Toll-Like Receptors Cascades, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll-Like Receptors Cascades, organism-specific biosystemIn human, ten members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family (TLR1-TLR10) have been identified (TLR11 has been found in mouse, but not in human). All TLRs have a similar Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) doma...
    • Toll-like Receptor Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Toll-like Receptor Signaling, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is based on the figure 1 of "Genetic variation in TLR or NFkappaB pathways and the risk of breast cancer: a case-control study" (see bibliography). TLR and NFkB are important in inflamma...
    • Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
    • Toll-like receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toll-like receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
    • Toll-like receptor signaling, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toll-like receptor signaling, conserved biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
    • Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
    • Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
    • Toxoplasmosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toxoplasmosis, organism-specific biosystemToxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is prevalent worldwide. The tachyzoite form acquired by oral ingestion downmodulates proinflammatory signaling pathways via various mechan...
    • Toxoplasmosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toxoplasmosis, conserved biosystemToxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is prevalent worldwide. The tachyzoite form acquired by oral ingestion downmodulates proinflammatory signaling pathways via various mechan...
    • Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
      Transcriptional misregulation in cancer
    • Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, conserved biosystem
      Transcriptional misregulation in cancer
    • Transcriptional regulation of white adipocyte differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Transcriptional regulation of white adipocyte differentiation, organism-specific biosystemAdipogenesis is the process of cell differentiation by which preadipocytes become adipocytes. During this process the preadipocytes cease to proliferate, begin to accumulate lipid droplets and develo...
    • Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
    • Tuberculosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Tuberculosis, conserved biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
    • Viral carcinogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Viral carcinogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThere is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C vi...
    • Viral carcinogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Viral carcinogenesis, conserved biosystemThere is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C vi...
    • Vitamin B12 Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Vitamin B12 Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem
      Vitamin B12 Metabolism
    • ZBP1(DAI) mediated induction of type I IFNs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      ZBP1(DAI) mediated induction of type I IFNs, organism-specific biosystemZ-DNA-binding protein-1 (ZBP1), also known as, DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI) was reported to initiate innate immune responses in murine L929 cells upon stimulation by multip...
    • cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...
    • cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...
    • p75 NTR receptor-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      p75 NTR receptor-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemBesides signalling through the tyrosine kinase receptors TRK A, B, and C, the mature neurotrophins NGF, BDNF, and NT3/4 signal through their common receptor p75NTR. NGF binding to p75NTR activates a ...
    • p75NTR signals via NF-kB, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      p75NTR signals via NF-kB, organism-specific biosystemThe NF-kB pathway is an important pro-survival signalling pathway activated by mature NGF, but not BDNF or NT-3, through p75NTR. It is unclear whether TRKA activity also affects NF-kB activation.

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Clone Names

    • MGC131774

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    DNA binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    DNA binding IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    DNA-binding transcription factor activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    DNA-binding transcription factor activity IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific ISA
    Inferred from Sequence Alignment
    more info
     
    DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific ISM
    Inferred from Sequence Model
    more info
    PubMed 
    DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    NF-kappaB binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    RNA polymerase II proximal promoter sequence-specific DNA binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    actinin binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    activating transcription factor binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    ankyrin repeat binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    chromatin DNA binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    chromatin binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    chromatin binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    distal enhancer DNA-binding transcription activator activity, RNA polymerase II-specific IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    histone deacetylase binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    identical protein binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    identical protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    phosphate ion binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein N-terminus binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein heterodimerization activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein homodimerization activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein kinase binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein-containing complex binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    proximal promoter DNA-binding transcription activator activity, RNA polymerase II-specific IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    proximal promoter DNA-binding transcription repressor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    repressing transcription factor binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter sequence-specific DNA binding IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    transcription factor binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    transcription regulatory region DNA binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    ubiquitin protein ligase binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    Fc-epsilon receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    NIK/NF-kappaB signaling IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    T cell receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    acetaldehyde metabolic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    aging IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    animal organ morphogenesis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cellular defense response NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to angiotensin IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to hepatocyte growth factor stimulus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cellular response to hydrogen peroxide IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to interleukin-1 IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to interleukin-6 IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to lipopolysaccharide IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cellular response to lipoteichoic acid IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to nicotine IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to peptidoglycan IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to tumor necrosis factor IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to tumor necrosis factor IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factor stimulus IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytokine-mediated signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    defense response to virus NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    hair follicle development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    inflammatory response IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    inflammatory response IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    interleukin-1-mediated signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    liver development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    membrane protein intracellular domain proteolysis TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    negative regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of apoptotic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of apoptotic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of protein catabolic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of protein sumoylation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling IEP
    Inferred from Expression Pattern
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of Schwann cell differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of T cell receptor signaling pathway IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cell proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of chondrocyte differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of interleukin-12 biosynthetic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of miRNA metabolic process IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter involved in cellular response to chemical stimulus IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of type I interferon production TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    postsynapse to nucleus signaling pathway IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of DNA-templated transcription in response to stress IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of inflammatory response ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    response to UV-B IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    response to amino acid IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to cAMP IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to cobalamin IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to cytokine IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    response to insulin IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to interleukin-1 IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    response to morphine IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to muramyl dipeptide IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to muscle stretch IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to organic substance IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    response to progesterone IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    viral process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    NF-kappaB p50/p65 complex IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytosol IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytosol IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    glutamatergic synapse IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    nuclear chromatin IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    NOT nucleolus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    nucleoplasm IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    nucleoplasm TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    nucleus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    nucleus IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    transcription factor complex IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    transcription factor p65
    Names
    NF-kappa-B p65delta3
    NF-kappa-B transcription factor p65
    nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p65 subunit
    nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 3
    v-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A
    v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_029971.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5001..14377
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001145138.1NP_001138610.1  transcription factor p65 isoform 2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001138610.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate in-frame acceptor splice site at one of the coding exons compared to transcript variant 1. This results in a shorter isoform (2) missing a 3 aa segment compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      BC033522, BU633061, DA020095
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS44651.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q04206
      Related
      ENSP00000311508.9, OTTHUMP00000233474, ENST00000308639.13, OTTHUMT00000390456
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd07885
      Location:19184
      RHD-n_RelA; N-terminal sub-domain of the Rel homology domain (RHD) of RelA
      cd01177
      Location:191287
      IPT_NFkappaB; IPT domain of the transcription factor NFkappaB and related transcription factors. NFkappaB is considered a central regulator of stress responses, activated by different stressful conditions, including physical stress, oxidative stress, and exposure to ...
    2. NM_001243984.1NP_001230913.1  transcription factor p65 isoform 3

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (3) uses an alternate in-frame splice site at the 5' end of the last exon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (3) lacks an alternate internal segment compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      BC033522, BM916512, BU633061, DA020095
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q04206
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd07885
      Location:19187
      RHD-n_RelA; N-terminal sub-domain of the Rel homology domain (RHD) of RelA
      cd01177
      Location:194290
      IPT_NFkappaB; IPT domain of the transcription factor NFkappaB and related transcription factors. NFkappaB is considered a central regulator of stress responses, activated by different stressful conditions, including physical stress, oxidative stress, and exposure to ...
    3. NM_001243985.1NP_001230914.1  transcription factor p65 isoform 4

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (4) lacks an alternate internal in-frame segment in the last exon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (4) lacks an alternate internal segment compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AP001362, BC069248, BU633061, DA020095
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS73322.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A087X0W8
      Related
      ENSP00000483705.1, ENST00000612991.4
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd07885
      Location:19187
      RHD-n_RelA; N-terminal sub-domain of the Rel homology domain (RHD) of RelA
      cd01177
      Location:194290
      IPT_NFkappaB; IPT domain of the transcription factor NFkappaB and related transcription factors. NFkappaB is considered a central regulator of stress responses, activated by different stressful conditions, including physical stress, oxidative stress, and exposure to ...
    4. NM_021975.3NP_068810.3  transcription factor p65 isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_068810.3

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the predominant transcript and encodes the longer isoform (1).
      Source sequence(s)
      BC033522, BU633061, DA020095, M62399
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS31609.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q04206
      Related
      ENSP00000384273.3, OTTHUMP00000233475, ENST00000406246.7, OTTHUMT00000390457
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd07885
      Location:19187
      RHD-n_RelA; N-terminal sub-domain of the Rel homology domain (RHD) of RelA
      cd01177
      Location:194290
      IPT_NFkappaB; IPT domain of the transcription factor NFkappaB and related transcription factors. NFkappaB is considered a central regulator of stress responses, activated by different stressful conditions, including physical stress, oxidative stress, and exposure to ...

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000011.10 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

      Range
      65653596..65662972 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_011545207.2XP_011543509.1  transcription factor p65 isoform X2

      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd07885
      Location:19186
      RHD-n_RelA; N-terminal sub-domain of the Rel homology domain (RHD) of RelA
    2. XM_011545206.2XP_011543508.1  transcription factor p65 isoform X1

      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd07885
      Location:19187
      RHD-n_RelA; N-terminal sub-domain of the Rel homology domain (RHD) of RelA
      cl15674
      Location:194223
      IPT; Immunoglobulin-like fold, Plexins, Transcription factors (IPT). IPTs are also known as Transcription factor ImmunoGlobin (TIG) domains. They are present in intracellular transcription factors, cell surface receptors (such as plexins and scatter factor ...
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