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    WNT16 Wnt family member 16 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 51384, updated on 15-Apr-2019

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    WNT16provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    Wnt family member 16provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:16267
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000002745 MIM:606267
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Summary
    The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes which encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. This gene is a member of the WNT gene family. It contains two transcript variants diverging at the 5' termini. These two variants are proposed to be the products of separate promoters and not to be splice variants from a single promoter. They are differentially expressed in normal tissues, one of which (variant 2) is expressed at significant levels only in the pancreas, whereas another one (variant 1) is expressed more ubiquitously with highest levels in adult kidney, placenta, brain, heart, and spleen. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
    Expression
    Biased expression in skin (RPKM 9.9) and lymph node (RPKM 0.5) See more
    Orthologs

    Genomic context

    See WNT16 in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    7q31.31
    Exon count:
    5
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 7 NC_000007.14 (121325367..121341104)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 7 NC_000007.13 (120965421..120981158)

    Chromosome 7 - NC_000007.14Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene cadherin like and PC-esterase domain containing 1 Neighboring gene RNA, 5S ribosomal pseudogene 241 Neighboring gene RNA, U6 small nuclear 517, pseudogene Neighboring gene family with sequence similarity 3 member C Neighboring gene CYCS pseudogene 19

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Phenotypes

    NHGRI GWAS Catalog

    Description
    Genetic determinants of heel bone properties: genome-wide association meta-analysis and replication in the GEFOS/GENOMOS consortium.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 56 bone mineral density loci and reveals 14 loci associated with risk of fracture.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Meta-analysis of genome-wide scans for total body BMD in children and adults reveals allelic heterogeneity and age-specific effects at the WNT16 locus.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Multistage genome-wide association meta-analyses identified two new loci for bone mineral density.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Phenotypic dissection of bone mineral density reveals skeletal site specificity and facilitates the identification of novel loci in the genetic regulation of bone mass attainment.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    WNT16 influences bone mineral density, cortical bone thickness, bone strength, and osteoporotic fracture risk.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog

    Pathways from BioSystems

    • Association Between Physico-Chemical Features and Toxicity Associated Pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Association Between Physico-Chemical Features and Toxicity Associated Pathways, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is based on Figure 8 of "Mapping drug physico-chemical features to pathway activity reveals molecular networks linked to toxicity outcome."(See bibliography). These 3 pathways demonstr...
    • Basal cell carcinoma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Basal cell carcinoma, organism-specific biosystemCancer of the skin is the most common cancer in Caucasians and basal cell carcinomas (BCC) account for 90% of all skin cancers. The vast majority of BCC cases are sporadic, though there is a rare fam...
    • Basal cell carcinoma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Basal cell carcinoma, conserved biosystemCancer of the skin is the most common cancer in Caucasians and basal cell carcinomas (BCC) account for 90% of all skin cancers. The vast majority of BCC cases are sporadic, though there is a rare fam...
    • Breast cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Breast cancer, organism-specific biosystemBreast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gla...
    • Breast cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Breast cancer, conserved biosystemBreast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gla...
    • Class B/2 (Secretin family receptors), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Class B/2 (Secretin family receptors), organism-specific biosystemThis family is known as Family B (secretin-receptor family, family 2) G-protein-coupled receptors. Family B GPCRs include secretin, calcitonin, parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide...
    • DNA Damage Response (only ATM dependent), organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      DNA Damage Response (only ATM dependent), organism-specific biosystemThis is the second pathway out of two pathways which deals with DNA damage response. It has two central gene products (ATM and TP53) which are connected with the first DNA damage response pathway. In...
    • GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystemThere are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all...
    • HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
    • HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
    • Hippo signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Hippo signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemHippo signaling is an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that controls organ size from flies to humans. In humans and mice, the pathway consists of the MST1 and MST2 kinases, their cofactor S...
    • Hippo signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Hippo signaling pathway, conserved biosystemHippo signaling is an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that controls organ size from flies to humans. In humans and mice, the pathway consists of the MST1 and MST2 kinases, their cofactor S...
    • Melanogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Melanogenesis, organism-specific biosystemCutaneous melanin pigment plays a critical role in camouflage, mimicry, social communication, and protection against harmful effects of solar radiation. Melanogenesis is under complex regulatory cont...
    • Melanogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Melanogenesis, conserved biosystemCutaneous melanin pigment plays a critical role in camouflage, mimicry, social communication, and protection against harmful effects of solar radiation. Melanogenesis is under complex regulatory cont...
    • Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
      Pathways in cancer
    • Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
    • Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
    • Signaling by Wnt, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Wnt, organism-specific biosystemWNT signaling pathways control a wide range of developmental and adult process in metozoans including cell proliferation, cell fate decisions, cell polarity and stem cell maintenance (reviewed in Sai...
    • Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, organism-specific biosystemPluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are basic cells with an indefinite self-renewal capacity and the potential to generate all the cell types of the three germinal layers. The types of PSCs known to date i...
    • Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, conserved biosystemPluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are basic cells with an indefinite self-renewal capacity and the potential to generate all the cell types of the three germinal layers. The types of PSCs known to date i...
    • Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
      Transcriptional misregulation in cancer
    • Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, conserved biosystem
      Transcriptional misregulation in cancer
    • WNT ligand biogenesis and trafficking, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      WNT ligand biogenesis and trafficking, organism-specific biosystem19 WNT proteins have been identified in human cells. The WNTs are members of a conserved metazoan family of secreted morphogens that activate several signaling pathways in the responding cell: the c...
    • Wnt Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Wnt Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemWnt proteins are secreted morphogens that are required for basic developmental processes, such as cell-fate specification, progenitor-cell proliferation and the control of asymmetric cell division, i...
    • Wnt Signaling Pathway and Pluripotency, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Wnt Signaling Pathway and Pluripotency, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway was adapted from several resources and is designed to provide a theoretical frame-work for examining Wnt signaling and interacting components in the context of embryonic stem-cell plurip...
    • Wnt signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Wnt signaling, organism-specific biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
    • Wnt signaling, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Wnt signaling, conserved biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
    • Wnt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Wnt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemWnt proteins are secreted morphogens that are required for basic developmental processes, such as cell-fate specification, progenitor-cell proliferation and the control of asymmetric cell division, i...
    • Wnt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Wnt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemWnt proteins are secreted morphogens that are required for basic developmental processes, such as cell-fate specification, progenitor-cell proliferation and the control of asymmetric cell division, i...
    • mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, which exists in two complexes termed mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 conta...
    • mTOR signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      mTOR signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, which exists in two complexes termed mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 conta...

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    frizzled binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    Wnt signaling pathway IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    Wnt signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    bone remodeling IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cardiac epithelial to mesenchymal transition IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cell fate commitment IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    keratinocyte differentiation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    keratinocyte proliferation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of cell death IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    neuron differentiation IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    optic cup formation involved in camera-type eye development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
    PubMed 
    oxidative stress-induced premature senescence IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of JNK cascade IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of gene expression IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    replicative senescence IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular space IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular space IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    protein Wnt-16
    Names
    wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 16b
    wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 16

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_029242.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5001..20738
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_016087.2NP_057171.2  protein Wnt-16 isoform 2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_057171.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs from variant 1 at the 5' terminus including 5' UTR and the coding region for the N-terminus. It encodes a shorter isoform than variant 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF152584, AF169963
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS5780.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q9UBV4
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      E9PH60
      Related
      ENSP00000355065.2, ENST00000361301.6
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      pfam00110
      Location:42355
      wnt; wnt family
    2. NM_057168.2NP_476509.1  protein Wnt-16 isoform 1 precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_476509.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) differs from variant 2 at the 5' terminus including 5' UTR and the coding region for the N-terminus. Isoform 1, encoded by this variant, is 90% identical to the mouse Wnt16 protein at the amino acid level.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC006364
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS5781.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q9UBV4
      Related
      ENSP00000222462.2, ENST00000222462.3
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      pfam00110
      Location:52365
      wnt; wnt family

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000007.14 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

      Range
      121325367..121341104
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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