Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
    • Showing Current items.

    GAL galanin and GMAP prepropeptide [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 51083, updated on 2-Oct-2018

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    GALprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    galanin and GMAP prepropeptideprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:4114
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000069482 MIM:137035; Vega:OTTHUMG00000167890
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    ETL8; GALN; GLNN; GMAP; GAL-GMAP
    Summary
    This gene encodes a neuroendocrine peptide that is widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and also the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, adrenal gland and urogenital tract. The encoded protein is a precursor that is proteolytically processed to generate two mature peptides: galanin and galanin message-associated peptide (GMAP). Galanin has diverse physiological functions including nociception, feeding and energy homeostasis, osmotic regulation and water balance. GMAP has been demonstrated to possess antifungal activity and hypothesized to be part of the innate immune system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2015]
    Expression
    Biased expression in appendix (RPKM 6.0), colon (RPKM 2.3) and 5 other tissues See more
    Orthologs

    Genomic context

    See GAL in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    11q13.2
    Exon count:
    6
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 11 NC_000011.10 (68684475..68691175)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 11 NC_000011.9 (68451983..68458643)

    Chromosome 11 - NC_000011.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene LDL receptor related protein 5 Neighboring gene protein phosphatase 6 regulatory subunit 3 Neighboring gene NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit A3 pseudogene 2 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107984343 Neighboring gene testis expressed metallothionein like protein Neighboring gene carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Pathways from BioSystems

    • Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystemRhodopsin-like receptors (class A/1) are the largest group of GPCRs and are the best studied group from a functional and structural point of view. They show great diversity at the sequence level and ...
    • G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe classical signalling mechanism for G alpha (i) is inhibition of the cAMP dependent pathway through inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Decreased production of cAMP from ATP results in decreased act...
    • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
    • GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystemThere are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all...
    • Peptide ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Peptide ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystemThese receptors, a subset of the Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like) family, all bind peptide ligands which include the chemokines, opioids and somatostatins.
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Clone Names

    • MGC40167

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    galanin receptor activity IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    neuropeptide hormone activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    neuropeptide hormone activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    neuropeptide hormone activity NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    type 1 galanin receptor binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    type 2 galanin receptor binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    type 3 galanin receptor binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    cAMP-mediated signaling IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    feeding behavior IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    inflammatory response IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    insulin secretion NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of lymphocyte proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of root hair elongation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    nervous system development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    neuropeptide signaling pathway IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of apoptotic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of cortisol secretion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of timing of catagen IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein kinase A signaling IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of glucocorticoid metabolic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    regulation of signaling receptor activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to drug IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to estrogen IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to immobilization stress IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to insulin IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    Golgi apparatus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular space IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular space IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    neuronal cell body IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    secretory granule IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    galanin peptides
    Names
    galanin prepropeptide
    galanin-message-associated peptide
    galanin-related peptide
    galanin/GMAP prepropeptide

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_052785.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5001..11701
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_015973.4NP_057057.2  galanin peptides preproprotein

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_057057.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AP003096, BC030241, BM846531
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS8183.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P22466
      Related
      ENSP00000265643.3, OTTHUMP00000237192, ENST00000265643.3, OTTHUMT00000396843
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      smart00071
      Location:23123
      Galanin; Galanin

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000011.10 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

      Range
      68684475..68691175
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
    Support Center