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    LHB luteinizing hormone beta polypeptide [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 3972, updated on 15-Jun-2019

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    LHBprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    luteinizing hormone beta polypeptideprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:6584
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000104826 MIM:152780
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    CGB4; HH23; LSH-B; LSH-beta
    Summary
    This gene is a member of the glycoprotein hormone beta chain family and encodes the beta subunit of luteinizing hormone (LH). Glycoprotein hormones are heterodimers consisting of a common alpha subunit and an unique beta subunit which confers biological specificity. LH is expressed in the pituitary gland and promotes spermatogenesis and ovulation by stimulating the testes and ovaries to synthesize steroids. The genes for the beta chains of chorionic gonadotropin and for luteinizing hormone are contiguous on chromosome 19q13.3. Mutations in this gene are associated with hypogonadism which is characterized by infertility and pseudohermaphroditism. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
    Expression
    Biased expression in pancreas (RPKM 1.7), testis (RPKM 1.1) and 7 other tissues See more
    Orthologs

    Genomic context

    See LHB in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    19q13.33
    Exon count:
    3
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 19 NC_000019.10 (49015980..49017090, complement)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 19 NC_000019.9 (49519237..49520350, complement)

    Chromosome 19 - NC_000019.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene glycogen synthase 1 Neighboring gene skeletal muscle cis-regulatory module in GYS1 intron Neighboring gene RuvB like AAA ATPase 2 Neighboring gene microRNA 6798 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101059948 Neighboring gene chorionic gonadotropin subunit beta 3

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Pathways from BioSystems

    • Androgen biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Androgen biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystemAndrogens are the determining factors for male development and behaviour in vertebrates (Miller 2002).
    • Asparagine N-linked glycosylation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Asparagine N-linked glycosylation, organism-specific biosystemN-linked glycosylation is the most important form of post-translational modification for proteins synthesized and folded in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (Stanley et al. 2009). An early study in 1999 rev...
    • Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystemRhodopsin-like receptors (class A/1) are the largest group of GPCRs and are the best studied group from a functional and structural point of view. They show great diversity at the sequence level and ...
    • G alpha (s) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      G alpha (s) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe general function of the G alpha (s) subunit (Gs) is to activate adenylate cyclase, which in turn produces cAMP, leading to the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinases (often referred to col...
    • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
    • GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystemThere are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all...
    • Glycoprotein hormones, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Glycoprotein hormones, organism-specific biosystemMore complex protein hormones have carbohydrate side chains and are called glycoprotein hormones. Hormones in this class are Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; follitropin), Luteinizing hormone (LH),...
    • GnRH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      GnRH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnR...
    • GnRH signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      GnRH signaling pathway, conserved biosystemGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnR...
    • Hormone ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Hormone ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystemThe class A (rhodopsin-like) GPCRs that bind to hormone ligands are annotated here. The hormones follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and hu...
    • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
    • Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystemLipids are hydrophobic but otherwise chemically diverse molecules that play a wide variety of roles in human biology. They include ketone bodies, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sphi...
    • Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystemProtein metabolism comprises the pathways of translation, post-translational modification and protein folding.
    • Metabolism of steroid hormones, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism of steroid hormones, organism-specific biosystemSteroid hormones are synthesized primarily in the adrenal gland and gonads. They regulate energy metabolism and stress responses (glucocorticoids), salt balance (mineralocorticoids), and sexual devel...
    • Mineralocorticoid biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Mineralocorticoid biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystemAldosterone, the major human mineralocorticoid, is synthesized in the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex from pregnenolone. Pregnenolone is converted to progesterone in two reactions, both cataly...
    • N-glycan antennae elongation in the medial/trans-Golgi, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      N-glycan antennae elongation in the medial/trans-Golgi, organism-specific biosystemIn the latter compartments of the distal Golgi the N-Glycan is further modified, leading to the wide range of N-Glycans observed in multicellular organisms. The first step of N-Glycan elongation in t...
    • Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem
      Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
    • Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, conserved biosystem
      Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
    • Ovarian steroidogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Ovarian steroidogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThe ovarian steroids, 17-beta estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), are critical for normal uterine function, establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, and mammary gland development. Furthermore, t...
    • Ovarian steroidogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Ovarian steroidogenesis, conserved biosystemThe ovarian steroids, 17-beta estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), are critical for normal uterine function, establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, and mammary gland development. Furthermore, t...
    • Peptide hormone biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Peptide hormone biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystemPeptide hormones are peptides that are secreted directly into the blood stream (endocrine hormones). They are synthesized as precursors that require proteolytic processing (not discussed here) to gen...
    • Peptide hormone metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Peptide hormone metabolism, organism-specific biosystemPeptide hormones are cleaved from larger precursors in the secretory system (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, secretory granules) of the cell. After secretion peptide hormones are modified and...
    • Post-translational protein modification, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Post-translational protein modification, organism-specific biosystemAfter translation, many newly formed proteins undergo further covalent modifications that alter their functional properties and that are essentially irreversible under physiological conditions in the...
    • Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
    • Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
    • Reactions specific to the complex N-glycan synthesis pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Reactions specific to the complex N-glycan synthesis pathway, organism-specific biosystemIf MAN2 acts before MGAT3, the pathway progresses to complex N-glycans, because MAN2 is not able to operate on bisected oligosaccharides (11421343, page 5). The expression of MAN2 over MGAT3 in a tis...
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
    • T-Cell antigen Receptor (TCR) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      T-Cell antigen Receptor (TCR) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) complex is composed of a ligand-binding subunit, the ? and ? chains, and a signaling subunit, namely the CD3?, ? and ? chains and the TCR? chain. This complex partic...
    • Transport to the Golgi and subsequent modification, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Transport to the Golgi and subsequent modification, organism-specific biosystemAt least two mechanisms of transport of proteins from the ER to the Golgi have been described. One is a general flow requiring no export signals (Wieland et al, 1987; Martinez-Menarguez et al, 1999)....

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    contributes_to hormone activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    signaling receptor binding TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    cell-cell signaling TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    hormone-mediated signaling pathway IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    male gonad development TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    peptide hormone processing TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    progesterone biosynthetic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    signal transduction TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    Golgi lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    cytoplasm IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular space IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    lutropin subunit beta
    Names
    interstitial cell stimulating hormone, beta chain
    luteinizing hormone beta subunit
    lutropin beta chain

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_011464.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5001..6111
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_000894.2NP_000885.1  lutropin subunit beta precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000885.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      X00264
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS12748.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P01229
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A0F7RQE6
      Related
      ENSP00000497294.1, ENST00000649238.1
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      smart00068
      Location:25131
      GHB; Glycoprotein hormone beta chain homologues

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000019.10 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

      Range
      49015980..49017090 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_011526975.1XP_011525277.1  lutropin subunit beta isoform X1

      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      smart00068
      Location:41147
      GHB; Glycoprotein hormone beta chain homologues
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