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    LGALS3 galectin 3 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 3958, updated on 12-Aug-2018

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    LGALS3provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    galectin 3provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:6563
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000131981 MIM:153619; Vega:OTTHUMG00000171030
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    L31; GAL3; MAC2; CBP35; GALBP; GALIG; LGALS2
    Summary
    This gene encodes a member of the galectin family of carbohydrate binding proteins. Members of this protein family have an affinity for beta-galactosides. The encoded protein is characterized by an N-terminal proline-rich tandem repeat domain and a single C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain. This protein can self-associate through the N-terminal domain allowing it to bind to multivalent saccharide ligands. This protein localizes to the extracellular matrix, the cytoplasm and the nucleus. This protein plays a role in numerous cellular functions including apoptosis, innate immunity, cell adhesion and T-cell regulation. The protein exhibits antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]
    Annotation information
    Note: GeneID 3958 had the official symbol LGALS2 and was identified as the human homolog of mouse Mac-2 (macrophage galactose-specific lectin) in M35368.1 and PMID: 2402511. The official symbol for this gene is now LGALS3. [30 Mar 2010]
    Expression
    Broad expression in colon (RPKM 302.9), small intestine (RPKM 190.7) and 21 other tissues See more
    Orthologs

    Genomic context

    See LGALS3 in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    14q22.3
    Exon count:
    7
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 14 NC_000014.9 (55129217..55145430)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 14 NC_000014.8 (55595935..55612148)

    Chromosome 14 - NC_000014.9Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene suppressor of cytokine signaling 4 Neighboring gene mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 interacting protein 1 like Neighboring gene DLG associated protein 5 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105370508

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    HIV-1 interactions

    Replication interactions

    Interaction Pubs
    Knockdown of galectin-3 by shRNA inhibits HIV-1 production in HuT 78 cells and infectivity in primary CD4+ T cells PubMed

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Pr55(Gag) gag Galectin-3 is incorporated into virus particles in the presence of virion-associated Gag PubMed
    gag Galectin-3 co-localizes with HIV-1 Gag and Alix, and facilitates the association of Gag with Alix in cells PubMed
    Rev rev CBP35 was identified as part of a complex of ribonucleoproteins that bind to RRE RNA, an interaction that is abolished by Rev PubMed
    Tat tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates galectin-3 (carbohydrate-binding protein 35; CBP35) expression in an Sp-1 dependent manner PubMed
    Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr upregulates the gene expression of LGALS3 in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells PubMed
    capsid gag Overexpression of galectin-3 enhances HIV-1 production from HIV-1-infected Jurkat cells by measurement of virion-associated CA PubMed
    p6 gag Knockdown of Alix by shRNA reduces the association of HIV-1 p6 with galectin-3 in cells PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Pathways from BioSystems

    • AGE/RAGE pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      AGE/RAGE pathway, organism-specific biosystemAdvanced glycation end products (AGEs) are heterogeneous group of non-enzymatic malliard reaction products of aldose sugar with proteins and lipids. Formation of AGEs is an indicator of one of the ma...
    • Advanced glycosylation endproduct receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Advanced glycosylation endproduct receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystemAdvanced Glycosylation End- product-specific Receptor (AGER) also known as Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products (RAGE) is a multi-ligand membrane receptor belonging to the immunoglobulin supe...
    • Hedgehog signaling events mediated by Gli proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Hedgehog signaling events mediated by Gli proteins, organism-specific biosystem
      Hedgehog signaling events mediated by Gli proteins
    • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
    • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
    • Neutrophil degranulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Neutrophil degranulation, organism-specific biosystemNeutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes (white blood cells), indispensable in defending the body against invading microorganisms. In response to infection, neutrophils leave the circulation and ...
    • Spinal Cord Injury, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Spinal Cord Injury, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway provides an overview of cell types, therapeutic targets, drugs, new proposed targets and pathways implicated in spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is a complex multistep process that...

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    IgE binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    RNA binding HDA PubMed 
    carbohydrate binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    chemoattractant activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    laminin binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    RNA splicing IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    eosinophil chemotaxis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    epithelial cell differentiation IEP
    Inferred from Expression Pattern
    more info
    PubMed 
    innate immune response IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    mRNA processing IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    macrophage chemotaxis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    monocyte chemotaxis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    mononuclear cell migration IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of T cell activation via T cell receptor contact with antigen bound to MHC molecule on antigen presenting cell ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of T cell receptor signaling pathway ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of endocytosis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of immunological synapse formation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
    PubMed 
    neutrophil chemotaxis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    neutrophil degranulation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    positive chemotaxis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of calcium ion import IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    NOT positive regulation of dendritic cell differentiation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of mononuclear cell migration IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of T cell apoptotic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of T cell proliferation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of myeloid cell differentiation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    galectin-3
    Names
    35 kDa lectin
    IgE-binding protein
    MAC-2 antigen
    advanced glycation end-product receptor 3
    carbohydrate-binding protein 35
    galactose-specific lectin 3
    laminin-binding protein
    lectin L-29
    lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 3

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_017089.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5001..21214
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001357678.1NP_001344607.1  galectin-3 isoform 3

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AB006780, AL139316, BU681070, CD518618
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd00070
      Location:131258
      GLECT; Galectin/galactose-binding lectin. This domain exclusively binds beta-galactosides, such as lactose, and does not require metal ions for activity. GLECT domains occur as homodimers or tandemly repeated domains. They are developmentally regulated and may ...
      cl26386
      Location:23127
      DNA_pol3_gamma3; DNA polymerase III subunits gamma and tau domain III
    2. NM_002306.3NP_002297.2  galectin-3 isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002297.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AB006780, BU681070, CD518618
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS41956.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P17931
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A024R693
      Related
      ENSP00000254301.9, OTTHUMP00000244927, ENST00000254301.13, OTTHUMT00000411309
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd00070
      Location:117244
      GLECT; Galectin/galactose-binding lectin. This domain exclusively binds beta-galactosides, such as lactose, and does not require metal ions for activity. GLECT domains occur as homodimers or tandemly repeated domains. They are developmentally regulated and may ...
      pfam02084
      Location:18105
      Bindin; Bindin

    RNA

    1. NR_003225.2 RNA Sequence

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) has an alternate 5' exon, compared to variant 1. This variant is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most supported translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders the transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
      Source sequence(s)
      AL139316, BU681070, BX641090
      Related
      ENST00000556438.6

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000014.9 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

      Range
      55129217..55145430
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

    The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

    1. NM_001177388.1: Suppressed sequence

      Description
      NM_001177388.1: This RefSeq was removed because currently there is insufficient support for the transcript and the protein.
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