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    RHOD ras homolog family member D [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 29984, updated on 17-Jun-2019

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    RHODprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    ras homolog family member Dprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:670
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000173156 MIM:605781
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    Rho; ARHD; RHOM; RHOHP1
    Summary
    Ras homolog, or Rho, proteins interact with protein kinases and may serve as targets for activated GTPase. They play a critical role in muscle differentiation. The protein encoded by this gene binds GTP and is a member of the small GTPase superfamily. It is involved in endosome dynamics and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, and it may coordinate membrane transport with the function of the cytoskeleton. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
    Expression
    Ubiquitous expression in esophagus (RPKM 14.1), skin (RPKM 7.1) and 20 other tissues See more
    Orthologs

    Genomic context

    See RHOD in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    11q13.2
    Exon count:
    5
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109.20190607 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 11 NC_000011.10 (67056847..67072017)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 11 NC_000011.9 (66824289..66839488)

    Chromosome 11 - NC_000011.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene chromosome 11 open reading frame 86 Neighboring gene synaptotagmin 12 Neighboring gene microRNA 6860 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107984341 Neighboring gene lysine demethylase 2A

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Phenotypes

    NHGRI GWAS Catalog

    Description
    Hundreds of variants clustered in genomic loci and biological pathways affect human height.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog

    HIV-1 interactions

    Replication interactions

    Interaction Pubs
    Knockdown of ras homolog family member D (RHOD) by siRNA inhibits HIV-1 replication in HeLa P4/R5 cells PubMed

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Tat tat The function and activity of CREB is required for both Tat-induced Rho signaling and nuclear targeting of ZO-1 PubMed
    matrix gag HIV-1 MA-induced upregulation of collagen-I and alpha-SMA expression is dependent on CXCR2 via the Rho/ROCK-1 pathway PubMed
    gag HIV-1 p17-mediated activation of the Rho/ROCK-signaling pathway is required for p17-mediated monocyte adhesion and migration PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Pathways from BioSystems

    • Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystemAxon guidance represents a key stage in the formation of neuronal network. Axons are guided by a variety of guidance factors, such as netrins, ephrins, Slits, and semaphorins. These guidance cues are...
    • Axon guidance, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Axon guidance, conserved biosystemAxon guidance represents a key stage in the formation of neuronal network. Axons are guided by a variety of guidance factors, such as netrins, ephrins, Slits, and semaphorins. These guidance cues are...
    • RHO GTPase Effectors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RHO GTPase Effectors, organism-specific biosystemRHO GTPases regulate cell behaviour by activating a number of downstream effectors that regulate cytoskeletal organization, intracellular trafficking and transcription (reviewed by Sahai and Marshall...
    • RHO GTPases Activate Formins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RHO GTPases Activate Formins, organism-specific biosystemFormins are a family of proteins with 15 members in mammals, organized into 8 subfamilies. Formins are involved in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton. Many but not all formin family members are act...
    • Rho GTPase cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Rho GTPase cycle, organism-specific biosystemThe cycling of Rho GTPases is tightly controlled by three classes of protein. These are (1) guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors or GDIs, which maintain Rho proteins in an inactive state in the...
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signaling by Rho GTPases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Rho GTPases, organism-specific biosystemThe Rho family of small guanine nucleotide binding proteins is one of five generally recognized branches of the Ras superfamily. Like most Ras superfamily members, typical Rho proteins function as bi...

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    GTP binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    GTPase activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein kinase binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    Rho protein signal transduction IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    actin filament bundle assembly IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    actin filament bundle assembly IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    actin filament organization IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    cell migration IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    establishment or maintenance of actin cytoskeleton polarity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    focal adhesion assembly IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    lamellipodium assembly IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cell adhesion IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cell migration IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein targeting IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of actin cytoskeleton reorganization IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    regulation of cell migration IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of cell shape IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of focal adhesion assembly IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    cell cortex IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    cell division site IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytoplasm IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    early endosome IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    endosome membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    intracellular membrane-bounded organelle IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    colocalizes_with plasma membrane IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    plasma membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    rho-related GTP-binding protein RhoD
    Names
    Rho-related protein HP1
    ras homolog D
    ras homolog gene family, member A
    ras homolog gene family, member D

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001300886.2NP_001287815.1  rho-related GTP-binding protein RhoD isoform 2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001287815.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks an alternate in-frame segment compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) has the same N- and C-termini but is shorter compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      BM761353, CB853597, CN305061
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS73330.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      E9PIG5
      Related
      ENSP00000432003.1, ENST00000532559.1
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cl21455
      Location:16144
      P-loop_NTPase; P-loop containing Nucleoside Triphosphate Hydrolases
    2. NM_014578.4NP_055393.1  rho-related GTP-binding protein RhoD isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_055393.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longer transcript and encodes the longer isoform (1).
      Source sequence(s)
      BC001338, BM761362, CA433897
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS8155.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      O00212
      Related
      ENSP00000308576.2, ENST00000308831.7
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd04132
      Location:16210
      Rho4_like; Ras homology family 4 (Rho4) of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases)-like

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000011.10 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

      Range
      67056847..67072017
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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