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    Akt2 thymoma viral proto-oncogene 2 [ Mus musculus (house mouse) ]

    Gene ID: 11652, updated on 9-Sep-2018

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    Akt2provided by MGI
    Official Full Name
    thymoma viral proto-oncogene 2provided by MGI
    Primary source
    MGI:MGI:104874
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSMUSG00000004056 Vega:OTTMUSG00000016504
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    VALIDATED
    Organism
    Mus musculus
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Glires; Rodentia; Myomorpha; Muroidea; Muridae; Murinae; Mus; Mus
    Also known as
    PKB; PKBbeta; AW554154; 2410016A19Rik
    Expression
    Ubiquitous expression in subcutaneous fat pad adult (RPKM 40.3), mammary gland adult (RPKM 35.7) and 28 other tissues See more
    Orthologs

    Genomic context

    See Akt2 in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    7 A3; 7 15.94 cM
    Exon count:
    20
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    106 current GRCm38.p4 (GCF_000001635.24) 7 NC_000073.6 (27591557..27639453)
    Build 37.2 previous assembly MGSCv37 (GCF_000001635.18) 7 NC_000073.5 (28376579..28424472)

    Chromosome 7 - NC_000073.6Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene RIKEN cDNA 2310022A10 gene Neighboring gene predicted gene, 45975 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L17 pseudogene Neighboring gene predicted gene, 38973 Neighboring gene tetratricopeptide repeat domain 9B

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: Mouse ENCODE transcriptome data
    • Description: RNA profiling data sets generated by the Mouse ENCODE project.
    • BioProject: PRJNA66167
    • Publication: PMID 25409824
    • Analysis date: n/a

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Variation

    Alleles

    Alleles of this type are documented at Mouse Genome Informatics  (MGI)

    Pathways from BioSystems

    • AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, organism-specific biosystemAdvanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a complex group of compounds produced through the non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, primarily due to aging and un...
    • AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, conserved biosystemAdvanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a complex group of compounds produced through the non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, primarily due to aging and un...
    • AMPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      AMPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemAMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine threonine kinase that is highly conserved through evolution. AMPK system acts as a sensor of cellular energy status. It is activated by increases in th...
    • AMPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      AMPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystemAMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine threonine kinase that is highly conserved through evolution. AMPK system acts as a sensor of cellular energy status. It is activated by increases in th...
    • Activation of AKT2, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Activation of AKT2, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Acute myeloid leukemia, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Acute myeloid leukemia, organism-specific biosystemAcute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a disease that is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of clonal neoplastic cells and accumulation in the bone marrow of blasts with an impaired differentiation...
    • Acute myeloid leukemia, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Acute myeloid leukemia, conserved biosystemAcute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a disease that is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of clonal neoplastic cells and accumulation in the bone marrow of blasts with an impaired differentiation...
    • Adipocytokine signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Adipocytokine signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemIncreased adipocyte volume and number are positively correlated with leptin production, and negatively correlated with production of adiponectin. Leptin is an important regulator of energy intake and...
    • Adipocytokine signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Adipocytokine signaling pathway, conserved biosystemIncreased adipocyte volume and number are positively correlated with leptin production, and negatively correlated with production of adiponectin. Leptin is an important regulator of energy intake and...
    • Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes, organism-specific biosystemCardiac myocytes express at least six subtypes of adrenergic receptor (AR) which include three subtypes of beta-AR (beta-1, beta-2, beta-3) and three subtypes of the alpha-1-AR (alpha-1A, alpha-1B, a...
    • Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes, conserved biosystemCardiac myocytes express at least six subtypes of adrenergic receptor (AR) which include three subtypes of beta-AR (beta-1, beta-2, beta-3) and three subtypes of the alpha-1-AR (alpha-1A, alpha-1B, a...
    • Apelin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Apelin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemApelin is an endogenous peptide capable of binding the apelin receptor (APJ), which was originally described as an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor. Apelin and APJ are widely expressed in various ti...
    • Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystemApoptosis is a genetically programmed process for the elimination of damaged or redundant cells by activation of caspases (aspartate-specific cysteine proteases). The onset of apoptosis is controlled...
    • Apoptosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Apoptosis, conserved biosystemApoptosis is a genetically programmed process for the elimination of damaged or redundant cells by activation of caspases (aspartate-specific cysteine proteases). The onset of apoptosis is controlled...
    • Apoptosis signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from LIPID MAPS)
      Apoptosis signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      Apoptosis signaling pathway
    • Autophagy - animal, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Autophagy - animal, organism-specific biosystemAutophagy (or macroautophagy) is a cellular catabolic pathway involving in protein degradation, organelle turnover, and non-selective breakdown of cytoplasmic components, which is evolutionarily cons...
    • Autophagy - animal, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Autophagy - animal, conserved biosystemAutophagy (or macroautophagy) is a cellular catabolic pathway involving in protein degradation, organelle turnover, and non-selective breakdown of cytoplasmic components, which is evolutionarily cons...
    • B cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      B cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemB cells are an important component of adaptive immunity. They produce and secrete millions of different antibody molecules, each of which recognizes a different (foreign) antigen. The B cell receptor...
    • B cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      B cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemB cells are an important component of adaptive immunity. They produce and secrete millions of different antibody molecules, each of which recognizes a different (foreign) antigen. The B cell receptor...
    • Breast cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Breast cancer, organism-specific biosystemBreast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gla...
    • Breast cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Breast cancer, conserved biosystemBreast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gla...
    • Carbohydrate digestion and absorption, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Carbohydrate digestion and absorption, organism-specific biosystemDietary carbohydrate in humans and omnivorous animals is a major nutrient. The carbohydrates that we ingest vary from the lactose in milk to complex carbohydrates. These carbohydrates are digested t...
    • Carbohydrate digestion and absorption, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Carbohydrate digestion and absorption, conserved biosystemDietary carbohydrate in humans and omnivorous animals is a major nutrient. The carbohydrates that we ingest vary from the lactose in milk to complex carbohydrates. These carbohydrates are digested t...
    • Central carbon metabolism in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Central carbon metabolism in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMalignant transformation of cells requires specific adaptations of cellular metabolism to support growth and survival. In the early twentieth century, Otto Warburg established that there are fundamen...
    • Central carbon metabolism in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Central carbon metabolism in cancer, conserved biosystemMalignant transformation of cells requires specific adaptations of cellular metabolism to support growth and survival. In the early twentieth century, Otto Warburg established that there are fundamen...
    • Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), organism-specific biosystemTrypanosoma cruzi is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease. The parasite life cycle involves hematophagous reduviid bugs as vectors. Once parasites enter the host body, they ...
    • Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), conserved biosystemTrypanosoma cruzi is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease. The parasite life cycle involves hematophagous reduviid bugs as vectors. Once parasites enter the host body, they ...
    • Chemokine signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Chemokine signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation upon foreign insult. Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for th...
    • Chemokine signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Chemokine signaling pathway, conserved biosystemInflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation upon foreign insult. Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for th...
    • Chemokine signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Chemokine signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation upon foreign insult. Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for th...
    • Choline metabolism in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Choline metabolism in cancer, organism-specific biosystemAbnormal choline metabolism is emerging as a metabolic hallmark that is associated with oncogenesis and tumour progression. Following transformation, oncogenic signalling via pathways such as the RAS...
    • Choline metabolism in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Choline metabolism in cancer, conserved biosystemAbnormal choline metabolism is emerging as a metabolic hallmark that is associated with oncogenesis and tumour progression. Following transformation, oncogenic signalling via pathways such as the RAS...
    • Cholinergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Cholinergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemAcetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter widely distributed in the central (and also peripheral, autonomic and enteric) nervous system (CNS). In the CNS, ACh facilitates many functions, such as lear...
    • Chronic myeloid leukemia, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Chronic myeloid leukemia, organism-specific biosystemChronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder of a pluripotent stem cell. The natural history of CML has a triphasic clinical course comprising of an initial chronic phase (C...
    • Chronic myeloid leukemia, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Chronic myeloid leukemia, conserved biosystemChronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder of a pluripotent stem cell. The natural history of CML has a triphasic clinical course comprising of an initial chronic phase (C...
    • Colorectal cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Colorectal cancer, organism-specific biosystemColorectal cancer (CRC) is the second largest cause of cancer-related deaths in Western countries. CRC arises from the colorectal epithelium as a result of the accumulation of genetic alterations in ...
    • Colorectal cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Colorectal cancer, conserved biosystemColorectal cancer (CRC) is the second largest cause of cancer-related deaths in Western countries. CRC arises from the colorectal epithelium as a result of the accumulation of genetic alterations in ...
    • Deactivation of the beta-catenin transactivating complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Deactivation of the beta-catenin transactivating complex, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Dopaminergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Dopaminergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemDopamine (DA) is an important and prototypical slow neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, where it controls a variety of functions including locomotor activity, motivation and reward, learning an...
    • Dopaminergic synapse, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Dopaminergic synapse, conserved biosystemDopamine (DA) is an important and prototypical slow neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, where it controls a variety of functions including locomotor activity, motivation and reward, learning an...
    • EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance, organism-specific biosystemEGFR is a tyrosine kinase that participates in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. EGFR also serves as a stimulus for cancer growth. EGFR gene mutations and protein overexpression, both of which ...
    • EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance, conserved biosystemEGFR is a tyrosine kinase that participates in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. EGFR also serves as a stimulus for cancer growth. EGFR gene mutations and protein overexpression, both of which ...
    • ESC Pluripotency Pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      ESC Pluripotency Pathways, organism-specific biosystemThe cytokine LIF and its downstream effector STAT3 are essential for maintenance of pluripotency in mouse ES cells. The requirement for the transcription factor Oct3/4 for ES cell pluripotency is als...
    • Endocrine resistance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Endocrine resistance, organism-specific biosystemEndocrine therapy is a key treatment strategy to control or eradicate hormone-responsive breast cancer. The most commonly used endocrine therapy agents are selective estrogen receptor modulators (SER...
    • Endocrine resistance, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Endocrine resistance, conserved biosystemEndocrine therapy is a key treatment strategy to control or eradicate hormone-responsive breast cancer. The most commonly used endocrine therapy agents are selective estrogen receptor modulators (SER...
    • Endometrial cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Endometrial cancer, organism-specific biosystemEndometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynaecological malignancy and the fourth most common malignancy in women in the developed world after breast, colorectal and lung cancer. Two types of endom...
    • Endometrial cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Endometrial cancer, conserved biosystemEndometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynaecological malignancy and the fourth most common malignancy in women in the developed world after breast, colorectal and lung cancer. Two types of endom...
    • Epstein-Barr virus infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Epstein-Barr virus infection, organism-specific biosystemEpstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is associated with oncogenesis. EBV infection to primary human B lymphocytes leads to induction of EBV-specific HLA-restricted cytotoxi...
    • Epstein-Barr virus infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Epstein-Barr virus infection, conserved biosystemEpstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is associated with oncogenesis. EBV infection to primary human B lymphocytes leads to induction of EBV-specific HLA-restricted cytotoxi...
    • ErbB signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      ErbB signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) couples binding of extracellular growth factor ligands to intracellular signaling pathways regulating diverse biologic responses, including prolife...
    • ErbB signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      ErbB signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) couples binding of extracellular growth factor ligands to intracellular signaling pathways regulating diverse biologic responses, including prolife...
    • Estrogen signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Estrogen signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemEstrogens are steroid hormones that regulate a plethora of physiological processes in mammals, including reproduction, cardiovascular protection, bone integrity, cellular homeostasis, and behavior. E...
    • Estrogen signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Estrogen signaling pathway, conserved biosystemEstrogens are steroid hormones that regulate a plethora of physiological processes in mammals, including reproduction, cardiovascular protection, bone integrity, cellular homeostasis, and behavior. E...
    • Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemFc epsilon RI-mediated signaling pathways in mast cells are initiated by the interaction of antigen (Ag) with IgE bound to the extracellular domain of the alpha chain of Fc epsilon RI. The activation...
    • Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway, conserved biosystemFc epsilon RI-mediated signaling pathways in mast cells are initiated by the interaction of antigen (Ag) with IgE bound to the extracellular domain of the alpha chain of Fc epsilon RI. The activation...
    • Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, organism-specific biosystemPhagocytosis plays an essential role in host-defense mechanisms through the uptake and destruction of infectious pathogens. Specialized cell types including macrophages, neutrophils, and monocytes ta...
    • Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, conserved biosystemPhagocytosis plays an essential role in host-defense mechanisms through the uptake and destruction of infectious pathogens. Specialized cell types including macrophages, neutrophils, and monocytes ta...
    • Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, organism-specific biosystemShear stress represents the frictional force that the flow of blood exerts at the endothelial surface of the vessel wall and plays a central role in vascular biology and contributes to the progress o...
    • Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, conserved biosystemShear stress represents the frictional force that the flow of blood exerts at the endothelial surface of the vessel wall and plays a central role in vascular biology and contributes to the progress o...
    • Focal Adhesion, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Focal Adhesion, organism-specific biosystemCell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the...
    • Focal Adhesion-PI3K-Akt-mTOR-signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Focal Adhesion-PI3K-Akt-mTOR-signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemCell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the...
    • Focal adhesion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Focal adhesion, organism-specific biosystemCell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the...
    • Focal adhesion, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Focal adhesion, conserved biosystemCell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the...
    • FoxO signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      FoxO signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe forkhead box O (FOXO) family of transcription factors regulates the expression of genes in cellular physiological events including apoptosis, cell-cycle control, glucose metabolism, oxidative str...
    • Glioma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Glioma, organism-specific biosystemGliomas are the most common of the primary brain tumors and account for more than 40% of all central nervous system neoplasms. Gliomas include tumours that are composed predominantly of astrocytes (a...
    • Glioma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Glioma, conserved biosystemGliomas are the most common of the primary brain tumors and account for more than 40% of all central nervous system neoplasms. Gliomas include tumours that are composed predominantly of astrocytes (a...
    • Glucagon signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Glucagon signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemGlucagon is conventionally regarded as a counterregulatory hormone for insulin and plays a critical anti-hypoglycemic role by maintaining glucose homeostasis in both animals and humans. To increase ...
    • Glucagon signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Glucagon signaling pathway, conserved biosystemGlucagon is conventionally regarded as a counterregulatory hormone for insulin and plays a critical anti-hypoglycemic role by maintaining glucose homeostasis in both animals and humans. To increase ...
    • HIF-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      HIF-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemHypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that functions as a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis. It consists of two subunits: an inducibly-expressed HIF-1alpha subunit and a c...
    • HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
    • HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
    • Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped virus and contains a partially double-stranded relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) genome. After entry into hepatocytes, HBV RC-DNA is transported to the nucleus and...
    • Hepatitis C, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Hepatitis C, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The HCV employ several strategies to perturb host cell immunity. After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the...
    • Hepatitis C, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Hepatitis C, conserved biosystemHepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The HCV employ several strategies to perturb host cell immunity. After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the...
    • IGF1R signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      IGF1R signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • IRS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      IRS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Influenza A, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Influenza A, organism-specific biosystemInfluenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. Novel strains ...
    • Influenza A, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Influenza A, conserved biosystemInfluenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. Novel strains ...
    • Inhibition of TSC complex formation by PKB, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Inhibition of TSC complex formation by PKB, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Insulin Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Insulin Signaling, organism-specific biosystem
      Insulin Signaling
    • Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Insulin resistance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Insulin resistance, organism-specific biosystemInsulin resistance is a condition where cells become resistant to the effects of insulin. It is often found in people with health disorders, including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic...
    • Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
    • Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
    • Integrin-mediated Cell Adhesion, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Integrin-mediated Cell Adhesion, organism-specific biosystemIntegrins are receptors that mediate attachment between a cell and the tissues surrounding it, which may be other cells or the extracellular matrix (ECM). They also play a role in cell signaling and ...
    • Jak-STAT signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Jak-STAT signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway is one of a handful of pleiotropic cascades used to transduce a multitude of signals for development and homeost...
    • Jak-STAT signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Jak-STAT signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway is one of a handful of pleiotropic cascades used to transduce a multitude of signals for development and homeost...
    • Longevity regulating pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Longevity regulating pathway, organism-specific biosystemRegulation of longevity depends on genetic and environmental factors. Caloric restriction (CR), that is limiting food intake, is recognized in mammals as the best characterized and most reproducible ...
    • Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species, organism-specific biosystemAging is a complex process of accumulation of molecular, cellular, and organ damage, leading to loss of function and increased vulnerability to disease and death. Despite the complexity of aging, rec...
    • Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species, conserved biosystemAging is a complex process of accumulation of molecular, cellular, and organ damage, leading to loss of function and increased vulnerability to disease and death. Despite the complexity of aging, rec...
    • MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
    • MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
    • MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
    • Measles, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Measles, organism-specific biosystemMeasles virus (MV) is highly contagious virus that leads infant death worldwide. Humans are the unique natural reservoir for this virus. It causes severe immunosuppression favouring secondary bacteri...
    • Measles, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Measles, conserved biosystemMeasles virus (MV) is highly contagious virus that leads infant death worldwide. Humans are the unique natural reservoir for this virus. It causes severe immunosuppression favouring secondary bacteri...
    • Melanoma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Melanoma, organism-specific biosystemMelanoma is a form of skin cancer that has a poor prognosis and which is on the rise in Western populations. Melanoma arises from the malignant transformation of pigment-producing cells, melanocytes...
    • Melanoma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Melanoma, conserved biosystemMelanoma is a form of skin cancer that has a poor prognosis and which is on the rise in Western populations. Melanoma arises from the malignant transformation of pigment-producing cells, melanocytes...
    • Membrane Trafficking, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Membrane Trafficking, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • MicroRNAs in Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      MicroRNAs in Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway shows the role of microRNAs in the process of cardiac hypertrophy. Converted from the humane pathway. MicroRNA targets were predicted by the TargetScan algorithm, and the predicted inter...
    • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
    • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
    • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), organism-specific biosystemNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to more severe steatohepatitis with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, known as nonalcoholic steatohepati...
    • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), conserved biosystemNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to more severe steatohepatitis with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, known as nonalcoholic steatohepati...
    • Non-small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Non-small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystemLung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of lung cancer and represents a heter...
    • Non-small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Non-small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystemLung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of lung cancer and represents a heter...
    • Osteoclast differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Osteoclast differentiation, organism-specific biosystemThe osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways...
    • Osteoclast differentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Osteoclast differentiation, conserved biosystemThe osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways...
    • PI3K Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      PI3K Cascade, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • PI3K-Akt signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      PI3K-Akt signaling, organism-specific biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
    • PI3K-Akt signaling, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      PI3K-Akt signaling, conserved biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
    • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
    • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
    • PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from LIPID MAPS)
      PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway
    • PKB-mediated events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      PKB-mediated events, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Pancreatic cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pancreatic cancer, organism-specific biosystemInfiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy of the pancreas. When most investigators use the term 'pancreatic cancer' they are referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)...
    • Pancreatic cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pancreatic cancer, conserved biosystemInfiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy of the pancreas. When most investigators use the term 'pancreatic cancer' they are referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)...
    • Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
      Pathways in cancer
    • Phospholipase D signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Phospholipase D signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemPhospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membra...
    • Phospholipase D signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Phospholipase D signaling pathway, conserved biosystemPhospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membra...
    • Platelet activation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Platelet activation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelets play a key and beneficial role for primary hemostasis on the disruption of the integrity of vessel wall. Platelet adhesion and activation at sites of vascular wall injury is initiated by ad...
    • Platinum drug resistance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Platinum drug resistance, organism-specific biosystemPlatinum-based drugs cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are widely used in the therapy of solid malignancies, including testicular, ovarian, head and neck, colorectal, bladder and lung cancers. T...
    • Platinum drug resistance, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Platinum drug resistance, conserved biosystemPlatinum-based drugs cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are widely used in the therapy of solid malignancies, including testicular, ovarian, head and neck, colorectal, bladder and lung cancers. T...
    • Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, organism-specific biosystemXenopus oocytes are naturally arrested at G2 of meiosis I. Exposure to either insulin/IGF-1 or the steroid hormone progesterone breaks this arrest and induces resumption of the two meiotic division c...
    • Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, conserved biosystemXenopus oocytes are naturally arrested at G2 of meiosis I. Exposure to either insulin/IGF-1 or the steroid hormone progesterone breaks this arrest and induces resumption of the two meiotic division c...
    • Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
    • Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
    • Prostate cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prostate cancer, organism-specific biosystemProstate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of...
    • Prostate cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prostate cancer, conserved biosystemProstate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of...
    • Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
    • Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
    • Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
    • Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
    • Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras prote...
    • Regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes, organism-specific biosystemLipolysis in adipocytes, the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) to release fatty acids (FAs) and glycerol for use by other organs as energy substrates, is a unique function of white adipose tissue. ...
    • Renal cell carcinoma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Renal cell carcinoma, organism-specific biosystemRenal cell cancer (RCC) accounts for ~3% of human malignancies and its incidence appears to be rising. Although most cases of RCC seem to occur sporadically, an inherited predisposition to renal canc...
    • Renal cell carcinoma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Renal cell carcinoma, conserved biosystemRenal cell cancer (RCC) accounts for ~3% of human malignancies and its incidence appears to be rising. Although most cases of RCC seem to occur sporadically, an inherited predisposition to renal canc...
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Signal Transduction of S1P Receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Signal Transduction of S1P Receptor, organism-specific biosystem
      Signal Transduction of S1P Receptor
    • Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Signaling by Wnt, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Wnt, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, organism-specific biosystemPluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are basic cells with an indefinite self-renewal capacity and the potential to generate all the cell types of the three germinal layers. The types of PSCs known to date i...
    • Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, conserved biosystemPluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are basic cells with an indefinite self-renewal capacity and the potential to generate all the cell types of the three germinal layers. The types of PSCs known to date i...
    • Small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystemLung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is a highly aggressive neoplasm, which accounts for approximately 25% ...
    • Small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystemLung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is a highly aggressive neoplasm, which accounts for approximately 25% ...
    • Sphingolipid signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Sphingolipid signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) ...
    • Sphingolipid signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Sphingolipid signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) ...
    • T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
    • T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
    • TCF dependent signaling in response to WNT, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      TCF dependent signaling in response to WNT, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • TNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      TNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemTumor necrosis factor (TNF), as a critical cytokine, can induce a wide range of intracellular signal pathways including apoptosis and cell survival as well as inflammation and immunity. Activated TNF...
    • TNF signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      TNF signaling pathway, conserved biosystemTumor necrosis factor (TNF), as a critical cytokine, can induce a wide range of intracellular signal pathways including apoptosis and cell survival as well as inflammation and immunity. Activated TNF...
    • TNF-alpha NF-kB Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      TNF-alpha NF-kB Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      TNF-alpha NF-kB Signaling Pathway
    • Thyroid hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Thyroid hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe thyroid hormones (THs) are important regulators of growth, development and metabolism. The action of TH is mainly mediated by T3 (3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine). Thyroid hormones, L-thyroxine (T4) a...
    • Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
    • Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
    • Toxoplasmosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toxoplasmosis, organism-specific biosystemToxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is prevalent worldwide. The tachyzoite form acquired by oral ingestion downmodulates proinflammatory signaling pathways via various mechan...
    • Toxoplasmosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toxoplasmosis, conserved biosystemToxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is prevalent worldwide. The tachyzoite form acquired by oral ingestion downmodulates proinflammatory signaling pathways via various mechan...
    • Translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
    • Tuberculosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Tuberculosis, conserved biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
    • VEGF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      VEGF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThere is now much evidence that VEGFR-2 is the major mediator of VEGF-driven responses in endothelial cells and it is considered to be a crucial signal transducer in both physiologic and pathologic a...
    • VEGF signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      VEGF signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThere is now much evidence that VEGFR-2 is the major mediator of VEGF-driven responses in endothelial cells and it is considered to be a crucial signal transducer in both physiologic and pathologic a...
    • Vesicle-mediated transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Vesicle-mediated transport, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
    • cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...
    • cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...
    • cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemCyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated i...
    • cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, conserved biosystemCyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated i...
    • mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, which exists in two complexes termed mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 conta...
    • mTOR signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      mTOR signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, which exists in two complexes termed mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 conta...
    • mTOR signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      mTOR signalling, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Clone Names

    • MGC14031

    Gene Ontology Provided by MGI

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    ATP binding ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    kinase activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    metal ion binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    nucleotide binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein kinase C binding ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    protein kinase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein serine/threonine kinase activity EXP
    Inferred from Experiment
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein serine/threonine kinase activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein serine/threonine kinase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein serine/threonine kinase activity ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    transferase activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    activation of GTPase activity IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    apoptotic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    carbohydrate metabolic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    carbohydrate transport IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cellular response to high light intensity IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to insulin stimulus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to insulin stimulus ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    cellular response to organic cyclic compound ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    glucose metabolic process IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    glycogen biosynthetic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    glycogen metabolic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    insulin receptor signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    insulin receptor signaling pathway ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    intracellular protein transmembrane transport IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    intracellular signal transduction IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    multicellular organism development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of RNA splicing ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    negative regulation of apoptotic process ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    negative regulation of plasma membrane long-chain fatty acid transport ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    peptidyl-serine phosphorylation IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    peripheral nervous system myelin maintenance IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    phosphorylation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of cell migration ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    positive regulation of cell motility ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    positive regulation of cell proliferation ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    positive regulation of fatty acid beta-oxidation ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    positive regulation of gene expression ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    positive regulation of glucose import ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    positive regulation of glucose import in response to insulin stimulus IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of glucose metabolic process ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    positive regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    positive regulation of positive chemotaxis ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of protein phosphorylation ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    positive regulation of protein targeting to membrane IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of signal transduction ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    positive regulation of sodium ion transport ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    positive regulation of vesicle fusion IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein kinase B signaling ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    protein localization to plasma membrane IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein phosphorylation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein phosphorylation ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    regulation of translation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to insulin ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    retinal rod cell apoptotic process IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    cell cortex IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytoplasm IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cytosol ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    endosome IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    insulin-responsive compartment ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    intracellular membrane-bounded organelle ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    membrane IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    mitochondrion ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    nucleus ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    plasma membrane IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    plasma membrane ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein-containing complex ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    ruffle membrane IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    sarcoplasmic reticulum ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     
    vesicle ISO
    Inferred from Sequence Orthology
    more info
     

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase
    Names
    PKB beta
    RAC-PK-beta
    protein kinase Akt-2
    protein kinase B, beta
    NP_001103678.1
    NP_031460.1
    XP_006539540.1
    XP_006539541.1
    XP_006539543.1
    XP_006539544.1
    XP_006539545.1
    XP_006539546.1
    XP_011248720.1

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001110208.2NP_001103678.1  RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001103678.1

      Status: VALIDATED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) differs in the 5' UTR compared to variant 3. Variants 1-4 encode the same protein.
      Source sequence(s)
      AK028871, AK158792, BM899551, CJ159088
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS21027.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q60823
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      Q3TY95, Q8CE74
      Related
      ENSMUSP00000103981.2, OTTMUSP00000017783, ENSMUST00000108344.8, OTTMUST00000039864
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd05595
      Location:156478
      STKc_PKB_beta; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Protein Kinase B beta (also called Akt2)
      cd01241
      Location:4111
      PH_PKB; Protein Kinase B-like pleckstrin homology (PH) domain
    2. NM_001331108.1NP_001318037.1  RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase

      Status: VALIDATED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (3) represents the longest transcript. Variants 1-4 encode the same protein.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC074312, BM899551
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS21027.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q60823
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      Q3TY95
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd05595
      Location:156478
      STKc_PKB_beta; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Protein Kinase B beta (also called Akt2)
      cd01241
      Location:4111
      PH_PKB; Protein Kinase B-like pleckstrin homology (PH) domain
    3. NM_001331109.1NP_001318038.1  RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase

      Status: VALIDATED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR compared to variant 3. Variants 1-4 encode the same protein.
      Source sequence(s)
      AK028871, BC040377, BM899551
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS21027.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q60823
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      Q3TY95, Q8CE74
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd05595
      Location:156478
      STKc_PKB_beta; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Protein Kinase B beta (also called Akt2)
      cd01241
      Location:4111
      PH_PKB; Protein Kinase B-like pleckstrin homology (PH) domain
    4. NM_007434.4NP_031460.1  RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_031460.1

      Status: VALIDATED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR compared to variant 3. Variants 1-4 encode the same protein.
      Source sequence(s)
      AK028871, AK158792, BM899551, CJ152468
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS21027.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q60823
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      Q3TY95, Q8CE74
      Related
      ENSMUSP00000052103.5, OTTMUSP00000017785, ENSMUST00000051356.11, OTTMUST00000039866
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd05595
      Location:156478
      STKc_PKB_beta; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Protein Kinase B beta (also called Akt2)
      cd01241
      Location:4111
      PH_PKB; Protein Kinase B-like pleckstrin homology (PH) domain

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Mus musculus Annotation Release 106

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCm38.p4 C57BL/6J

    Genomic

    1. NC_000073.6 Reference GRCm38.p4 C57BL/6J

      Range
      27591557..27639453
      Download
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    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_006539482.1XP_006539545.1  RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006539545.1

      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      cd05595
      Location:113435
      STKc_PKB_beta; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Protein Kinase B beta (also called Akt2)
      smart00220
      Location:109366
      S_TKc; Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain
      cl17171
      Location:468
      PH-like; Pleckstrin homology-like domain
    2. XM_006539477.1XP_006539540.1  RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006539540.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q60823
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      Q3TY95
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd05595
      Location:156478
      STKc_PKB_beta; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Protein Kinase B beta (also called Akt2)
      cd01241
      Location:4111
      PH_PKB; Protein Kinase B-like pleckstrin homology (PH) domain
    3. XM_006539478.1XP_006539541.1  RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X1

      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd05595
      Location:156478
      STKc_PKB_beta; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Protein Kinase B beta (also called Akt2)
      cd01241
      Location:4111
      PH_PKB; Protein Kinase B-like pleckstrin homology (PH) domain
    4. XM_006539483.1XP_006539546.1  RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006539546.1

      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      cd05595
      Location:113435
      STKc_PKB_beta; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Protein Kinase B beta (also called Akt2)
      smart00220
      Location:109366
      S_TKc; Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain
      cl17171
      Location:468
      PH-like; Pleckstrin homology-like domain
    5. XM_011250418.1XP_011248720.1  RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X1

      Related
      ENSMUSP00000103980.1, OTTMUSP00000017784, ENSMUST00000108343.7, OTTMUST00000039865
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd05595
      Location:156478
      STKc_PKB_beta; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Protein Kinase B beta (also called Akt2)
      cd01241
      Location:4111
      PH_PKB; Protein Kinase B-like pleckstrin homology (PH) domain
    6. XM_006539481.3XP_006539544.1  RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006539544.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q60823
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      Q3TY95
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd05595
      Location:156478
      STKc_PKB_beta; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Protein Kinase B beta (also called Akt2)
      cd01241
      Location:4111
      PH_PKB; Protein Kinase B-like pleckstrin homology (PH) domain
    7. XM_006539480.1XP_006539543.1  RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006539543.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q60823
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      Q3TY95
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd05595
      Location:156478
      STKc_PKB_beta; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Protein Kinase B beta (also called Akt2)
      cd01241
      Location:4111
      PH_PKB; Protein Kinase B-like pleckstrin homology (PH) domain
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