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    AZIN2 antizyme inhibitor 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 113451, updated on 17-Jun-2019

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    AZIN2provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    antizyme inhibitor 2provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:29957
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000142920 MIM:608353
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    ADC; AZI2; ODCp; AZIB1; ODC-p; ODC1L
    Summary
    The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the antizyme inhibitor family, which plays a role in cell growth and proliferation by maintaining polyamine homeostasis within the cell. Antizyme inhibitors are homologs of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, the key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis) that have lost the ability to decarboxylase ornithine; however, retain the ability to bind to antizymes. Antizymes negatively regulate intracellular polyamine levels by binding to ODC and targeting it for degradation, as well as by inhibiting polyamine uptake. Antizyme inhibitors function as positive regulators of polyamine levels by sequestering antizymes and neutralizing their effect. This gene encodes antizyme inhibitor 2, the second member of this gene family. Like antizyme inhibitor 1, antizyme inhibitor 2 interacts with all 3 antizymes and stimulates ODC activity and polyamine uptake. However, unlike antizyme inhibitor 1, which is ubiquitously expressed and localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm, antizyme inhibitor 2 is predominantly expressed in the brain and testis and localized in the endoplasmic reticulum-golgi intermediate compartment. Recent studies indicate that antizyme inhibitor 2 is also expressed in specific cell types in ovaries, adrenal glands and pancreas, and in mast cells. The exact function of this gene is not known, however, available data suggest its role in cell growth, spermiogenesis, vesicular trafficking and secretion. Accumulation of antizyme inhibitor 2 has also been observed in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. There has been confusion in literature and databases over the nomenclature of this gene, stemming from an earlier report that a human cDNA clone (identical to ODCp/AZIN2) had arginine decarboxylase (ADC) activity (PMID:14738999). Subsequent studies in human and mouse showed that antizyme inhibitor 2 was devoid of arginine decarboxylase activity (PMID:19956990). Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
    Expression
    Broad expression in testis (RPKM 8.2), brain (RPKM 4.1) and 15 other tissues See more
    Orthologs

    Genomic context

    See AZIN2 in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    1p35.1
    Exon count:
    15
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109.20190607 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 1 NC_000001.11 (33081110..33162288)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 1 NC_000001.10 (33546711..33586132)

    Chromosome 1 - NC_000001.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene adenylate kinase 2 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105378635 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC112268224 Neighboring gene tripartite motif containing 62 Neighboring gene zinc finger protein 362 Neighboring gene alpha 1,3-galactosyltransferase 2

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Pathways from BioSystems

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Clone Names

    • KIAA1945

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    arginine decarboxylase activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    ornithine decarboxylase activator activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    ornithine decarboxylase activator activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    ornithine decarboxylase activator activity ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    NOT ornithine decarboxylase activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    putrescine transmembrane transporter activity ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    agmatine biosynthetic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    negative regulation of protein catabolic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of protein catabolic process ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of catalytic activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of catalytic activity ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of polyamine transmembrane transport ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    putrescine biosynthetic process from ornithine IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    putrescine transport ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    spermatogenesis NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    trans-Golgi network membrane organization IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    axon IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cis-Golgi network ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    cytoplasm IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytoplasmic vesicle IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    dendrite IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment membrane ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    granular vesicle IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    mitochondrion IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    nucleus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    perikaryon IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    perinuclear region of cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    trans-Golgi network IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    transport vesicle IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    antizyme inhibitor 2
    Names
    ODC antizyme inhibitor-2
    ODC-like protein
    ODC-paralogue
    arginine decarboxylase
    ornithine decarboxylase like
    ornithine decarboxylase-like protein
    ornithine decarboxylase-paralog

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001293562.2NP_001280491.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001280491.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks a 5' non-coding exon compared to variant 1. Variants 1 and 2 encode the same isoform (1).
      Source sequence(s)
      AL020995, AW450278, BC010449, BC028128
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS375.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q96A70
      Related
      ENSP00000362542.3, ENST00000373443.7
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd00622
      Location:40408
      PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
    2. NM_001301823.2NP_001288752.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001288752.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (3) has multiple differences at the 5' end, which result in a distinct 5' UTR and translation initiation from an in-frame downstream start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) has a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1. Variants 3, 4, 8, 9, 10 and 11 encode the same isoform (2).
      Source sequence(s)
      AK095127, AL020995, AW450278, DB456925
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q96A70
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      D3DPR0
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd00622
      Location:1313
      PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
    3. NM_001301824.2NP_001288753.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001288753.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (4) has multiple differences at the 5' end, which result in a distinct 5' UTR and translation initiation from an in-frame downstream start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) has a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1. Variants 3, 4, 8, 9, 10 and 11 encode the same isoform (2).
      Source sequence(s)
      AK057051, AL020995, AW450278, DB456925
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q96A70
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      D3DPR0
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd00622
      Location:1313
      PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
    4. NM_001301825.1NP_001288754.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 3

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001288754.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (5, also known as SV2) uses an alternate in-frame acceptor splice site in the 3' coding region compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (3) is longer containing a 20 aa protein segment not found in isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AW450278, AY050635, BC028128
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS76138.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q96A70
      Related
      ENSP00000362540.1, ENST00000373441.1
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd00622
      Location:40428
      PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
    5. NM_001301826.1NP_001288755.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 4

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001288755.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (6, also known as SV3) contains a different 3' terminal exon compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (4) is shorter with a distinct C-terminus compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AY050637, BC028128
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q96A70
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd00622
      Location:40353
      PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
    6. NM_001350398.2NP_001337327.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (8) has multiple differences at the 5' end, which result in a distinct 5' UTR and translation initiation from an in-frame downstream start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) has a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1. Variants 3, 4, 8, 9, 10 and 11 encode the same isoform (2).
      Source sequence(s)
      AK095127, AL020995, AW450278, BC028128, BX444560, DB476211
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd00622
      Location:1313
      PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
    7. NM_001350399.2NP_001337328.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (9) has multiple differences at the 5' end, which result in a distinct 5' UTR and translation initiation from an in-frame downstream start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) has a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1. Variants 3, 4, 8, 9, 10 and 11 encode the same isoform (2).
      Source sequence(s)
      AK095127, AL020995, AW450278, BC028128, BX444560, DB456925, DB476211
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd00622
      Location:1313
      PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
    8. NM_001350400.2NP_001337329.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (10) has multiple differences at the 5' end, which result in a distinct 5' UTR and translation initiation from an in-frame downstream start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) has a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1. Variants 3, 4, 8, 9, 10 and 11 encode the same isoform (2).
      Source sequence(s)
      AK095127, AL020995, AW450278, BC028128, BX444560, DB476211
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd00622
      Location:1313
      PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
    9. NM_001350401.2NP_001337330.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (11) has multiple differences at the 5' end, which result in a distinct 5' UTR and translation initiation from an in-frame downstream start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) has a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1. Variants 3, 4, 8, 9, 10 and 11 encode the same isoform (2).
      Source sequence(s)
      AK095127, AL020995, AW450278, BC028128, BX444560, DB476211
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd00622
      Location:1313
      PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
    10. NM_001350402.1NP_001337331.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 5

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (12) has multiple differences at the 5' end, which result in a distinct 5' UTR and translation initiation from an in-frame downstream start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (5) has a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AK095127, AL020995, AW450278, BX444560, DB476211, R15361
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cl00261
      Location:1257
      PLPDE_III; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzymes
    11. NM_052998.4NP_443724.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_443724.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the predominant isoform (1). Variants 1 and 2 encode the same isoform.
      Source sequence(s)
      AL020995, AW450278, BC028128
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS375.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q96A70
      Related
      ENSP00000294517.6, ENST00000294517.11
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd00622
      Location:40408
      PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase

    RNA

    1. NR_126031.1 RNA Sequence

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (7, also known as SV4) uses an alternate acceptor splice site at an internal exon compared to variant 1. It is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders this transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
      Source sequence(s)
      AK122697, AY050636, BC028128
    2. NR_146648.1 RNA Sequence

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (13) contains multiple differences compared to variant 1. It is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders this transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
      Source sequence(s)
      AK095127, AL020995, AW450278, AY050637, BC028128, BX444560, DB456925, DB476211
    3. NR_146649.1 RNA Sequence

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (14) contains multiple differences at internal exons compared to variant 1. It is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders this transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
      Source sequence(s)
      AL020995, AW450278, BC010449, BC028128, R15361

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000001.11 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

      Range
      33081110..33162288
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_005270406.1XP_005270463.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_005270463.1

      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd00622
      Location:21350
      PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
    2. XM_024452817.1XP_024308585.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X4

      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd00622
      Location:1313
      PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
    3. XM_006710312.1XP_006710375.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X8

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006710375.1

      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      B3KV62
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cl00261
      Location:1257
      PLPDE_III; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzymes
    4. XM_005270404.2XP_005270461.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X3

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_005270461.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q96A70
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd00622
      Location:40408
      PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
    5. XM_017000175.1XP_016855664.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X4

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q96A70
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      D3DPR0
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd00622
      Location:1313
      PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
    6. XM_017000174.1XP_016855663.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X6

      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd00622
      Location:40305
      PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
    7. XM_017000167.1XP_016855656.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X2

    8. XM_005270407.2XP_005270464.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X4

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_005270464.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q96A70
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      D3DPR0
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd00622
      Location:1313
      PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
    9. XM_011540566.1XP_011538868.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X7

      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd00622
      Location:40305
      PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
    10. XM_011540563.1XP_011538865.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X5

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011538865.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q96A70
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd00622
      Location:40353
      PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
    11. XM_017000173.2XP_016855662.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X4

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q96A70
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      D3DPR0
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd00622
      Location:1313
      PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
    12. XM_024452818.1XP_024308586.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X4

      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd00622
      Location:1313
      PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
    13. XM_011540557.1XP_011538859.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011538859.1

      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd00622
      Location:21350
      PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
    14. XM_017000171.1XP_016855660.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X4

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q96A70
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      D3DPR0
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd00622
      Location:1313
      PLPDE_III_ODC; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Ornithine Decarboxylase
    15. XM_024452824.1XP_024308592.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X8

    16. XM_017000176.1XP_016855665.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X8

      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      B3KV62
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cl00261
      Location:1257
      PLPDE_III; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzymes
    17. XM_017000178.1XP_016855667.1  antizyme inhibitor 2 isoform X8

      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      B3KV62
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cl00261
      Location:1257
      PLPDE_III; Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzymes

    RNA

    1. XR_946531.1 RNA Sequence

      Related
      ENST00000481886.5
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