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    ACTR2 actin related protein 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 10097, updated on 13-Jan-2019

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    ACTR2provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    actin related protein 2provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:169
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000138071 MIM:604221
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    ARP2
    Summary
    The specific function of this gene has not yet been determined; however, the protein it encodes is known to be a major constituent of the ARP2/3 complex. This complex is located at the cell surface and is essential to cell shape and motility through lamellipodial actin assembly and protrusion. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
    Expression
    Ubiquitous expression in appendix (RPKM 135.1), lymph node (RPKM 134.7) and 25 other tissues See more
    Orthologs

    Genomic context

    See ACTR2 in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    2p14
    Exon count:
    10
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 2 NC_000002.12 (65227695..65271253)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 2 NC_000002.11 (65454829..65498387)

    Chromosome 2 - NC_000002.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene centrosomal protein 68 Neighboring gene RAB1A, member RAS oncogene family Neighboring gene voltage dependent anion channel 2 pseudogene Neighboring gene sprouty related EVH1 domain containing 2 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105374780

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Pathways from BioSystems

    • Association Between Physico-Chemical Features and Toxicity Associated Pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Association Between Physico-Chemical Features and Toxicity Associated Pathways, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is based on Figure 8 of "Mapping drug physico-chemical features to pathway activity reveals molecular networks linked to toxicity outcome."(See bibliography). These 3 pathways demonstr...
    • Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystemAxon guidance / axon pathfinding is the process by which neurons send out axons to reach the correct targets. Growing axons have a highly motile structure at the growing tip called the growth cone, w...
    • CDC42 signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      CDC42 signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
      CDC42 signaling events
    • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, organism-specific biosystemClathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is one of a number of process that control the uptake of material from the plasma membrane, and leads to the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles (Pearse et al, 1...
    • Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystemAs a first step towards capturing the array of processes by which a fertilized egg gives rise to the diverse tissues of the body, examples of three kinds of processes have been annotated. These are a...
    • EPH-Ephrin signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      EPH-Ephrin signaling, organism-specific biosystemDuring the development process cell migration and adhesion are the main forces involved in morphing the cells into critical anatomical structures. The ability of a cell to migrate to its correct dest...
    • EPHB-mediated forward signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      EPHB-mediated forward signaling, organism-specific biosystemMultiple EPHB receptors contribute directly to dendritic spine development and morphogenesis. These are more broadly involved in post-synaptic development through activation of focal adhesion kinase ...
    • ErbB1 downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      ErbB1 downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem
      ErbB1 downstream signaling
    • Fcgamma receptor (FCGR) dependent phagocytosis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Fcgamma receptor (FCGR) dependent phagocytosis, organism-specific biosystemPhagocytosis is one of the important innate immune responses that function to eliminate invading infectious agents. Monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils are the professional phagocytic cells. Phag...
    • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
    • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
    • Membrane Trafficking, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Membrane Trafficking, organism-specific biosystemThe secretory membrane system allows a cell to regulate delivery of newly synthesized proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids to the cell surface, a necessity for growth and homeostasis. The system is ma...
    • Neutrophil degranulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Neutrophil degranulation, organism-specific biosystemNeutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes (white blood cells), indispensable in defending the body against invading microorganisms. In response to infection, neutrophils leave the circulation and ...
    • RAC1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      RAC1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      RAC1 signaling pathway
    • RHO GTPase Effectors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RHO GTPase Effectors, organism-specific biosystemRHO GTPases regulate cell behaviour by activating a number of downstream effectors that regulate cytoskeletal organization, intracellular trafficking and transcription (reviewed by Sahai and Marshall...
    • RHO GTPases Activate WASPs and WAVEs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RHO GTPases Activate WASPs and WAVEs, organism-specific biosystemWASP and WAVE proteins belong to the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein family, with recessive mutations in the founding member WASP being responsible for the X-linked recessive immunodeficieny known a...
    • Regulation of actin dynamics for phagocytic cup formation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Regulation of actin dynamics for phagocytic cup formation, organism-specific biosystemThe actin cytoskeleton is fundamental for phagocytosis and members of the Rho family GTPases RAC and CDC42 are involved in actin cytoskeletal regulation leading to pseudopod extension. Active RAC and...
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signaling by Rho GTPases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Rho GTPases, organism-specific biosystemThe Rho family of small guanine nucleotide binding proteins is one of five generally recognized branches of the Ras superfamily. Like most Ras superfamily members, typical Rho proteins function as bi...
    • Tight junction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Tight junction, organism-specific biosystemTight junctions (TJs) are essential for establishing a selectively permeable barrier to diffusion through the paracellular space between neighboring cells. TJs are composed of at least three types of...
    • Tight junction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Tight junction, conserved biosystemTight junctions (TJs) are essential for establishing a selectively permeable barrier to diffusion through the paracellular space between neighboring cells. TJs are composed of at least three types of...
    • Vesicle-mediated transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Vesicle-mediated transport, organism-specific biosystemThe transit of proteins and other cargo through the cell requires a cellular transport process in which transported substances are moved in membrane-bounded vesicles. Transported substances are enclo...

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    ATP binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    contributes_to actin filament binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    structural constituent of cytoskeleton IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    associative learning IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    asymmetric cell division IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cellular response to interferon-gamma IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cellular response to trichostatin A IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cilium assembly IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytosolic transport IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    ephrin receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    establishment or maintenance of cell polarity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    meiotic chromosome movement towards spindle pole IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    meiotic cytokinesis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    membrane organization TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    neutrophil degranulation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    positive regulation of dendritic spine morphogenesis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of double-strand break repair via homologous recombination IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    NOT regulation of double-strand break repair via nonhomologous end joining IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    response to ethanol IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to immobilization stress IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    spindle localization IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    Arp2/3 protein complex IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Arp2/3 protein complex TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    actin cap IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    actin cytoskeleton TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    azurophil granule lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
    extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    ficolin-1-rich granule lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    focal adhesion HDA PubMed 
    invadopodium IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    lamellipodium IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    membrane HDA PubMed 
    nucleus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    podosome core IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    postsynaptic density IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    site of double-strand break IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    actin-related protein 2
    Names
    ARP2 actin related protein 2 homolog
    actin-like protein 2

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001005386.2NP_001005386.1  actin-related protein 2 isoform a

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001005386.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longer transcript and encodes the longer isoform (a).
      Source sequence(s)
      AC007318, AK315205, BX491447, DC404298, W15444
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS46307.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P61160
      Related
      ENSP00000367220.4, ENST00000377982.8
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      smart00268
      Location:6393
      ACTIN; Actin
    2. NM_005722.3NP_005713.1  actin-related protein 2 isoform b

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_005713.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks an alternate in-frame exon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (b) has the same N- and C-termini but is shorter compared to isoform a.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC007318, AF006082, DC404298, W15444
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS1881.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P61160
      Related
      ENSP00000260641.5, ENST00000260641.9
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      smart00268
      Location:6388
      ACTIN; Actin

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000002.12 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

      Range
      65227695..65271253
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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