Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

AKR1C3 aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 8644, updated on 17-Jun-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
AKR1C3provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:386
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000196139 MIM:603966
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
DD3; DDX; PGFS; HAKRB; HAKRe; HA1753; HSD17B5; hluPGFS
Summary
This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to their corresponding alcohols by utilizing NADH and/or NADPH as cofactors. The enzymes display overlapping but distinct substrate specificity. This enzyme catalyzes the reduction of prostaglandin (PG) D2, PGH2 and phenanthrenequinone (PQ), and the oxidation of 9alpha,11beta-PGF2 to PGD2. It may play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases such as asthma, and may also have a role in controlling cell growth and/or differentiation. This gene shares high sequence identity with three other gene members and is clustered with those three genes at chromosome 10p15-p14. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
Expression
Broad expression in duodenum (RPKM 122.7), gall bladder (RPKM 91.1) and 15 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See AKR1C3 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
10p15.1
Exon count:
10
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20190607 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 10 NC_000010.11 (5048766..5107686)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 10 NC_000010.10 (5090958..5149878)

Chromosome 10 - NC_000010.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101928051 Neighboring gene aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C2 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107984198 Neighboring gene aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C8, pseudogene Neighboring gene aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4 Neighboring gene ADP ribosylation factor like GTPase 4A pseudogene 3

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Arachidonic acid metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Arachidonic acid metabolism, organism-specific biosystem
    Arachidonic acid metabolism
  • Arachidonic acid metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Arachidonic acid metabolism, organism-specific biosystemEicosanoids, oxygenated, 20-carbon fatty acids, are autocrine and paracrine signaling molecules that modulate physiological processes including pain, fever, inflammation, blood clot formation, smooth...
  • Arachidonic acid metabolism, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Arachidonic acid metabolism, conserved biosystem
    Arachidonic acid metabolism
  • Benzo(a)pyrene metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Benzo(a)pyrene metabolism, organism-specific biosystem
    Benzo(a)pyrene metabolism
  • Bile acid and bile salt metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Bile acid and bile salt metabolism, organism-specific biosystemIn a healthy adult human, about 500 mg of cholesterol is converted to bile salts daily. Newly synthesized bile salts are secreted into the bile and released into the small intestine where they emulsi...
  • Metabolic pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Metabolic pathways, organism-specific biosystem
    Metabolic pathways
  • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
  • Metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins, organism-specific biosystemVitamins A, D, E, and K are classified as fat-soluble. Metabolic pathways by which dietary precursors of vitamins A (Harrison 2005) and K(Shearer et al. 2012) are converted to active forms, and by wh...
  • Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystemLipids are hydrophobic but otherwise chemically diverse molecules that play a wide variety of roles in human biology. They include ketone bodies, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sphi...
  • Metabolism of vitamins and cofactors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of vitamins and cofactors, organism-specific biosystemVitamins are a diverse group of organic compounds, classified according to their solubility, either fat-soluble or water-soluble, that are either not synthesized or synthesized only in limited amount...
  • Metapathway biotransformation, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Metapathway biotransformation, organism-specific biosystem
    Metapathway biotransformation
  • Ovarian steroidogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Ovarian steroidogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThe ovarian steroids, 17-beta estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), are critical for normal uterine function, establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, and mammary gland development. Furthermore, t...
  • Ovarian steroidogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Ovarian steroidogenesis, conserved biosystemThe ovarian steroids, 17-beta estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), are critical for normal uterine function, establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, and mammary gland development. Furthermore, t...
  • RA biosynthesis pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RA biosynthesis pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe major activated retinoid, all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) is produced by the dehydrogenation of all-trans-retinol (atROL) by members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) and aldehyde d...
  • Retinoid metabolism and transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Retinoid metabolism and transport, organism-specific biosystemVitamin A (all-trans-retinol) must be taken up, either as carotenes from plants, or as retinyl esters from animal food. The most prominent carotenes are alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein, beta-cryptox...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by Retinoic Acid, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Retinoic Acid, organism-specific biosystemVitamin A (retinol) can be metabolised into active retinoid metabolites that function either as a chromophore in vision or in regulating gene expression transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. ...
  • Steroid hormone biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Steroid hormone biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystemSteroid hormones derived from cholesterol are a class of biologically active compounds in vertebrates. The cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme CYP11A1 catalyzes conversion of cholesterol, a C27 co...
  • Steroid hormone biosynthesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Steroid hormone biosynthesis, conserved biosystemSteroid hormones derived from cholesterol are a class of biologically active compounds in vertebrates. The cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme CYP11A1 catalyzes conversion of cholesterol, a C27 co...
  • Synthesis of Prostaglandins (PG) and Thromboxanes (TX), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Synthesis of Prostaglandins (PG) and Thromboxanes (TX), organism-specific biosystemThe bioactive prostaglandin (PG) signalling molecules, including PGA2, PGE2, PGF2a, and PGI2 (prostacyclin) are synthesised from arachidonic acid and its products by various prostaglandin synthase ty...
  • Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts, organism-specific biosystemIn a healthy adult human, about 500 mg of cholesterol is converted to bile salts daily (Russell 2003). The major pathway for bile salt synthesis in the liver begins with the conversion of cholesterol...
  • Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 24-hydroxycholesterol, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 24-hydroxycholesterol, organism-specific biosystemIn the body, 24-hydroxycholesterol is synthesized in the brain, exported to the liver, and converted there to bile acids and bile salts. This pathway is only a minor source of bile acids and bile sal...
  • Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 27-hydroxycholesterol, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 27-hydroxycholesterol, organism-specific biosystemIn the body, 27-hydroxycholesterol is synthesized in multiple tissues, exported to the liver, and converted there to bile acids and bile salts. This pathway is only a minor source of bile acids and b...
  • Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol, organism-specific biosystemIn the liver, synthesis of bile acids and bile salts is initiated with the conversion of cholesterol to 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol and of 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol to 4-cholesten-7alpha-ol-3-one. The ...
  • Visual phototransduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Visual phototransduction, organism-specific biosystemVisual phototransduction is the process by which photon absorption by visual pigment molecules in photoreceptor cells is converted to an electrical cellular response. The events in this process are p...
  • allopregnanolone biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from BIOCYC)
    allopregnanolone biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystemGeneral Background : 3-BETA-HYDROXY-5-ALPHA-PREGNANE-20-ONE is a neuroactive steroid which is a steroid that is able to regulate neural functions. It is derived from : PROGESTERONE and is synthesiz...
  • allopregnanolone biosynthesis, conserved biosystem (from BIOCYC)
    allopregnanolone biosynthesis, conserved biosystemGeneral Background |FRAME: 3-BETA-HYDROXY-5-ALPHA-PREGNANE-20-ONE Allopregnanolone| is a neuroactive steroid which is a steroid that is able to regulate neural functions. It is derived from |FRAME:...
  • androgen biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from BIOCYC)
    androgen biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway describes the conversion of the inactive C21 steroid hormone precursor pregnenolone to the androgens: androstenedione, testosterone and 17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one. Androstened...
  • androgen biosynthesis, conserved biosystem (from BIOCYC)
    androgen biosynthesis, conserved biosystemThis pathway describes the conversion of the inactive C21 steroid hormone precursor |FRAME: PREGNENOLONE| to the androgens: |FRAME: ANDROST4ENE androstenedione|, |FRAME: TESTOSTERONE| and |FRAME: 17-...
  • superpathway of steroid hormone biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from BIOCYC)
    superpathway of steroid hormone biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystemAs their name implies, : Steroid-Hormones "steroid hormones" are steroids that act as hormones. Steroid hormones are divided into five groups based on the receptors to which they bind: : Glucocortico...
  • superpathway of steroid hormone biosynthesis, conserved biosystem (from BIOCYC)
    superpathway of steroid hormone biosynthesis, conserved biosystemAs their name implies, |FRAME: Steroid-Hormones "steroid hormones"| are steroids that act as hormones. Steroid hormones are divided into five groups based on the receptors to which they bind: |FRAME:...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • KIAA0119

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
15-hydroxyprostaglandin-D dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
NADP-retinol dehydrogenase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
alditol:NADP+ 1-oxidoreductase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
alditol:NADP+ 1-oxidoreductase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
aldo-keto reductase (NADP) activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
androsterone dehydrogenase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
androsterone dehydrogenase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
delta4-3-oxosteroid 5beta-reductase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
dihydrotestosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
geranylgeranyl reductase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
indanol dehydrogenase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
ketoreductase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
ketosteroid monooxygenase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
ketosteroid monooxygenase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
oxidoreductase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
oxidoreductase activity, acting on NAD(P)H, quinone or similar compound as acceptor IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
phenanthrene 9,10-monooxygenase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
prostaglandin D2 11-ketoreductase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
prostaglandin H2 endoperoxidase reductase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
prostaglandin-F synthase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
retinal dehydrogenase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
retinol dehydrogenase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
steroid dehydrogenase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
testosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
testosterone dehydrogenase (NAD+) activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to cadmium ion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to calcium ion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to corticosteroid stimulus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to jasmonic acid stimulus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to prostaglandin D stimulus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to prostaglandin stimulus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to reactive oxygen species IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to starvation IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
cyclooxygenase pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
daunorubicin metabolic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
daunorubicin metabolic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
doxorubicin metabolic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
doxorubicin metabolic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
farnesol catabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
keratinocyte differentiation IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
macromolecule metabolic process IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
male gonad development IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of retinoic acid biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
oxidation-reduction process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
oxidation-reduction process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell death IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell proliferation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of endothelial cell apoptotic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
progesterone metabolic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
progesterone metabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
prostaglandin metabolic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
prostaglandin metabolic process IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
prostaglandin metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
regulation of retinoic acid receptor signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of testosterone biosynthetic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
renal absorption NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
response to nutrient IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
retinal metabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
retinoid metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
retinol metabolic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
steroid metabolic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
steroid metabolic process IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
testosterone biosynthetic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytosol IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3
Names
3-alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, type II
3-alpha-HSD type II, brain
chlordecone reductase homolog HAKRb
dihydrodiol dehydrogenase 3
dihydrodiol dehydrogenase X
indanol dehydrogenase
prostaglandin F synthase
testosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase 5
trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase
type IIb 3-alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
NP_001240837.1
NP_001240838.1
NP_003730.4

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_047094.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..63921
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001253908.1NP_001240837.1  aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 isoform 2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR and coding sequence compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) is the same length as isoform 1 but differs by 1 aa in the N-terminus.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC019230, BG547635, H79159
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS73062.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P42330
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A0A0MSS8
    Related
    ENSP00000401327.3, ENST00000439082.7
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    COG0656
    Location:9305
    ARA1; Aldo/keto reductase, related to diketogulonate reductase [Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism]
    COG0667
    Location:17297
    Tas; Predicted oxidoreductase (related to aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase) [General function prediction only]
  2. NM_001253909.2NP_001240838.1  aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 isoform 3

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001240838.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) lacks several exons at its 3' end, which extends into an intron compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (3) has a shorter and distinct C-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK296701, AL391427
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B4DKT3
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    COG0656
    Location:8134
    ARA1; Aldo/keto reductase, related to diketogulonate reductase [Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism]
    COG0667
    Location:17119
    Tas; Predicted oxidoreductase (related to aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase) [General function prediction only]
  3. NM_003739.6NP_003730.4  aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_003730.4

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript and encodes one of the larger isoforms (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AV761799, BC019230
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS7063.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P42330
    Related
    ENSP00000369927.3, ENST00000380554.5
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    COG0656
    Location:8305
    ARA1; Aldo/keto reductase, related to diketogulonate reductase [Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism]

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000010.11 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    5048766..5107686
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
Support Center