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PARG poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 8505, updated on 13-Feb-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
PARGprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolaseprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:8605
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000227345 MIM:603501
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
PARG99
Summary
Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is the major enzyme responsible for the catabolism of poly(ADP-ribose), a reversible covalent-modifier of chromosomal proteins. The protein is found in many tissues and may be subject to proteolysis generating smaller, active products. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in kidney (RPKM 6.5), testis (RPKM 6.1) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See PARG in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
10q11.23
Exon count:
20
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 10 NC_000010.11 (49818274..49942027, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 10 NC_000010.10 (51026325..51371346, complement)

Chromosome 10 - NC_000010.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 pseudogene 6 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L21 pseudogene 89 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 10647 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L35a pseudogene 24 Neighboring gene translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 23 homolog B Neighboring gene small nucleolar RNA, H/ACA box 74C-2 Neighboring gene RNA, 5S ribosomal pseudogene 317

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Base Excision Repair, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Base Excision Repair, organism-specific biosystemOf the three major pathways involved in the repair of nucleotide damage in DNA, base excision repair (BER) involves the greatest number of individual enzymatic activities. This is the consequence of ...
  • DNA Repair, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DNA Repair, organism-specific biosystemDNA repair is a phenomenal multi-enzyme, multi-pathway system required to ensure the integrity of the cellular genome. Living organisms are constantly exposed to harmful metabolic by-products, enviro...
  • POLB-Dependent Long Patch Base Excision Repair, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    POLB-Dependent Long Patch Base Excision Repair, organism-specific biosystemDuring POLB-dependent long patch base excision repair (BER), PARP1 and/or PARP2 is recruited to the BER site along with flap endonuclease FEN1. PARP1 and/or PARP2 and FEN1 facilitate POLB-mediated st...
  • Resolution of AP sites via the multiple-nucleotide patch replacement pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Resolution of AP sites via the multiple-nucleotide patch replacement pathway, organism-specific biosystemWhile the single nucleotide replacement pathway appears to facilitate the repair of most damaged bases, an alternative BER pathway is evoked when the structure of the 5'-terminal sugar phosphate is s...
  • Resolution of Abasic Sites (AP sites), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Resolution of Abasic Sites (AP sites), organism-specific biosystemResolution of AP sites can occur through the single nucleotide replacement pathway or through the multiple nucleotide patch replacement pathway, also known as the long-patch base excision repair (BER...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • FLJ54459, FLJ60257, FLJ60456

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
ATP generation from poly-ADP-D-ribose IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
ATP generation from poly-ADP-D-ribose IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
carbohydrate metabolic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to DNA damage stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
nucleotide-sugar metabolic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
regulation of DNA repair IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytoplasm IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cytosol IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
intracellular membrane-bounded organelle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
mitochondrial matrix IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
nucleoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase
Names
mitochondrial poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase
poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase 60 kDa isoform
NP_001290415.1
NP_001290416.1
NP_001290418.1
NP_001311310.1
NP_003622.2
XP_011538607.1
XP_011538610.1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001303486.2NP_001290415.1  poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase isoform b

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001290415.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate splice junction at the 3' end of the first exon compared to variant 1. The resulting transcript differs in the 5' UTR and lacks the 5' end of the CDS compared to variant 1. It encodes isoform b, which is shorter at the N-terminus compared to isoform a. Variants 2 and 7 both encode the same isoform (b).
    Source sequence(s)
    AI767940, AK302560, BC050560, DC408224
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q86W56
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam05028
    Location:499827
    PARG_cat; Poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG)
  2. NM_001303487.2NP_001290416.1  poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase isoform c

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001290416.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) lacks an alternate exon in the 5' end and initiates translation at an alternate start codon compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (c) is shorter at the N-terminus compared to isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AI767940, AK295786, BC050560, DC408224
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q86W56
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam05028
    Location:473801
    PARG_cat; Poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG)
  3. NM_001303489.2NP_001290418.1  poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase isoform d

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 3' UTR, lacks three alternate exons in the 5' end, and initiates translation at an alternate start codon compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (d) has a shorter and distinct N-terminus compared to isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC069546, AI767940, BC033633, DC408224
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam05028
    Location:167495
    PARG_cat; Poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG)
  4. NM_001324381.2NP_001311310.1  poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase isoform b

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (7) and variant 2 both encode the same isoform (b).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC069546, AI767940, AL731572, FP565721
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q86W56
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam05028
    Location:499827
    PARG_cat; Poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG)
  5. NM_003631.4NP_003622.2  poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase isoform a

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_003622.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longest isoform (a).
    Source sequence(s)
    AI767940, BC050560, DC408224
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS73130.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q86W56
    Related
    ENSP00000484285.1, ENST00000616448.1
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam05028
    Location:581909
    PARG_cat; Poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG)

RNA

  1. NR_130168.2 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) lacks two alternate 5' exons and an alternate 3' segment compared to variant 1. This variant is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most expected translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders the transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC069546, AI767940, BC050560, BC052966, DC408224
  2. NR_130169.2 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (6) lacks an alternate 3' segment compared to variant 1. This variant is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most expected translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders the transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
    Source sequence(s)
    AI767940, AK301845, BC050560, DC408224
  3. NR_136752.2 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC069546, AI767940, AL731572, FP565721
  4. NR_136753.2 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC069546, AI767940, AL731572, FP565721
  5. NR_136754.2 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC069546, AI767940, AL731572, FP565721
    Related
    ENST00000614063.4
  6. NR_136755.2 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC069546, AI767940, AL731572, FP565721
  7. NR_136756.2 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC069546, AI767940, AL731572, FP565721

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000010.11 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    49818274..49942027 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_011540305.1XP_011538607.1  poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase isoform X1

    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam05028
    Location:540868
    PARG_cat; Poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG)
  2. XM_011540308.2XP_011538610.1  poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase isoform X2

    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam05028
    Location:581675
    PARG_cat; Poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG)

RNA

  1. XR_001747247.1 RNA Sequence

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