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PRKACA protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5566, updated on 12-Mar-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
PRKACAprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alphaprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:9380
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000072062 MIM:601639
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
PKACA; PPNAD4
Summary
This gene encodes one of the catalytic subunits of protein kinase A, which exists as a tetrameric holoenzyme with two regulatory subunits and two catalytic subunits, in its inactive form. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of proteins by protein kinase A is important to many cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Constitutive activation of this gene caused either by somatic mutations, or genomic duplications of regions that include this gene, have been associated with hyperplasias and adenomas of the adrenal cortex and are linked to corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Tissue-specific isoforms that differ at the N-terminus have been described, and these isoforms may differ in the post-translational modifications that occur at the N-terminus of some isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in heart (RPKM 62.0), adrenal (RPKM 43.9) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See PRKACA in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
19p13.12
Exon count:
12
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 19 NC_000019.10 (14091688..14117747, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 19 NC_000019.9 (14202500..14228559, complement)

Chromosome 19 - NC_000019.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene chromosome 19 open reading frame 67 Neighboring gene sterile alpha motif domain containing 1 Neighboring gene anti-silencing function 1B histone chaperone Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC100507373 Neighboring gene adhesion G protein-coupled receptor L1

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 gp120 activates forward trafficking and surface clustering of NMDA receptors in membrane microdomains by a PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the NR1 C-terminal Ser897, followed by a PKC-dependent phosphorylation of Ser896 PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120-induced neuron death is inhibited by CCL3L1 treatment via the phosphorylation of CREB, the upregulation of Bcl-2, and the PKA and CaMKI/CaMKIV cell signaling pathways PubMed
env The exposure of CD4+ T cells to HIV gp120 results in a long-lasting hyporesponsiveness to antigen stimulation through protein kinase A-mediated signaling PubMed
env Treatment of normal human fibroblasts with HIV-1 gp120 protein results in a significant decrease in the levels of 8-azido-[32P]cAMP binding to RI and RII domains of protein kinase A (PKA) and in PKA activity PubMed
Nef nef Serine residues Ser6 and Ser9 of HIV-1 Nef are phosphorylated by PKA in a cell-free system; intracellularly, only Ser9 of HIV-1 NL4-3 Nef is phosphorylated by PKA in resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells PubMed
Tat tat The binding between HIV-1 Tat and Grb2 is mediated by the proline-rich sequence (residues 1-18) of Tat and the SH3 domain (residues 160-212) of Grb2, which impairs activation of the Raf/MAPK pathway and increases the PKA/Raf inhibitory pathway PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat-peptide(48-60) inhibits protein kinase C alpha and protein kinase A in a concentration-dependent manner PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat induces IL-6 and TNF-alpha expression through the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathways PubMed
Vif vif Protein kinase A (PKA) binds and phosphorylates A3G at Thr32 in vitro and in vivo. This phosphorylation event reduces the binding of A3G to Vif and its subsequent ubiquitination and degradation PubMed
Vpr vpr BiFC assays demonstrate that HIV-1 Vpr directly interacts with PKA-C alpha in HeLa cells PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr directly interacts with PKA and is phosphorylated at position Ser79 by PKA. PKA activity is necessary for virion-delivered Vpr cell cycle arrest PubMed
capsid gag cAMP-dependent protein kinase is incorporated into HIV-1 virions, interacts with and phosphorylates the HIV-1 Capsid protein, and regulates HIV-1 infectivity PubMed
matrix gag HIV-1 MA increases phosphorylation and the DNA-binding activity of CREB and c-Myc through activation of the cAMP/PKA and MEK/ERK signaling pathways. Both signaling pathways are synergistically activated upon co-stimulation through the CD19 PubMed
gag HIV-1 Matrix impairs proliferation of normal lymphocytes in vitro by inducing the activity of the inhibitory protein kinase A (PKA) PubMed
gag Protein kinase A (PKA) has been shown to phosphorylate HIV-1 Matrix in vitro PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

  • AURKA Activation by TPX2, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    AURKA Activation by TPX2, organism-specific biosystemTPX2 binds to aurora kinase A (AURKA) at centrosomes and promotes its activation by facilitating AURKA active conformation and autophosphorylation of the AURKA threonine residue T288 (Bayliss et al. ...
  • Activation of NMDA receptor upon glutamate binding and postsynaptic events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Activation of NMDA receptor upon glutamate binding and postsynaptic events, organism-specific biosystemNMDA receptors are a subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors that are specifically activated by a glutamate agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Activation of NMDA receptor involves opening of the ...
  • Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystemAdaptive immunity refers to antigen-specific immune response efficiently involved in clearing the pathogens. The adaptive immune system is comprised of B and T lymphocytes that express receptors with...
  • Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes, organism-specific biosystemCardiac myocytes express at least six subtypes of adrenergic receptor (AR) which include three subtypes of beta-AR (beta-1, beta-2, beta-3) and three subtypes of the alpha-1-AR (alpha-1A, alpha-1B, a...
  • Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes, conserved biosystemCardiac myocytes express at least six subtypes of adrenergic receptor (AR) which include three subtypes of beta-AR (beta-1, beta-2, beta-3) and three subtypes of the alpha-1-AR (alpha-1A, alpha-1B, a...
  • Alcoholism, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Alcoholism, organism-specific biosystemAlcoholism, also called dependence on alcohol (ethanol), is a chronic relapsing disorder that is progressive and has serious detrimental health outcomes. As one of the primary mediators of the reward...
  • Alcoholism, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Alcoholism, conserved biosystemAlcoholism, also called dependence on alcohol (ethanol), is a chronic relapsing disorder that is progressive and has serious detrimental health outcomes. As one of the primary mediators of the reward...
  • Aldosterone synthesis and secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Aldosterone synthesis and secretion, organism-specific biosystemAldosterone is a steroid hormone synthesized in and secreted from the outer layer of the adrenal cortex, the zona glomerulosa. Aldosterone plays an important role in the regulation of systemic blood ...
  • Aldosterone synthesis and secretion, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Aldosterone synthesis and secretion, conserved biosystemAldosterone is a steroid hormone synthesized in and secreted from the outer layer of the adrenal cortex, the zona glomerulosa. Aldosterone plays an important role in the regulation of systemic blood ...
  • Amoebiasis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Amoebiasis, organism-specific biosystemEntamoeba histolytica, an extracellular protozoan parasite is a human pathogen that invades the intestinal epithelium. Infection occurs on ingestion of contaminated water and food. The pathogenesis o...
  • Amoebiasis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Amoebiasis, conserved biosystemEntamoeba histolytica, an extracellular protozoan parasite is a human pathogen that invades the intestinal epithelium. Infection occurs on ingestion of contaminated water and food. The pathogenesis o...
  • Amphetamine addiction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Amphetamine addiction, organism-specific biosystemAmphetamine is a psychostimulant drug that exerts persistent addictive effects. Most addictive drugs increase extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefr...
  • Amphetamine addiction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Amphetamine addiction, conserved biosystemAmphetamine is a psychostimulant drug that exerts persistent addictive effects. Most addictive drugs increase extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefr...
  • Anchoring of the basal body to the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Anchoring of the basal body to the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemCilium biogenesis is initiated by the docking of basal bodies, a centriole-derived organelle, to the plasma membrane (reviewed in Reiter et al, 2012). The centriole consists of a multiprotein core su...
  • Apelin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Apelin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemApelin is an endogenous peptide capable of binding the apelin receptor (APJ), which was originally described as an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor. Apelin and APJ are widely expressed in various ti...
  • Aquaporin-mediated transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Aquaporin-mediated transport, organism-specific biosystemAquaporins (AQP's) are six-pass transmembrane proteins that form channels in membranes. Each monomer contains a central channel formed in part by two asparagine-proline-alanine motifs (NPA boxes) tha...
  • Aurora A signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Aurora A signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    Aurora A signaling
  • Autophagy - animal, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Autophagy - animal, organism-specific biosystemAutophagy (or macroautophagy) is a cellular catabolic pathway involving in protein degradation, organelle turnover, and non-selective breakdown of cytoplasmic components, which is evolutionarily cons...
  • Autophagy - animal, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Autophagy - animal, conserved biosystemAutophagy (or macroautophagy) is a cellular catabolic pathway involving in protein degradation, organelle turnover, and non-selective breakdown of cytoplasmic components, which is evolutionarily cons...
  • Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystemAxon guidance / axon pathfinding is the process by which neurons send out axons to reach the correct targets. Growing axons have a highly motile structure at the growing tip called the growth cone, w...
  • Bile secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Bile secretion, organism-specific biosystemBile is a vital secretion, essential for digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. Moreover, bile is an important route of elimination for excess cholesterol a...
  • Bile secretion, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Bile secretion, conserved biosystemBile is a vital secretion, essential for digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. Moreover, bile is an important route of elimination for excess cholesterol a...
  • C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), organism-specific biosystemPathogen recognition is central to the induction of T cell differentiation. Groups of pathogens share similar structures known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are recognised ...
  • CD209 (DC-SIGN) signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    CD209 (DC-SIGN) signaling, organism-specific biosystemCD209 (also called as DC-SIGN (DC-specific intracellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin)) is a type II transmembrane C-type lectin receptor preferentially expressed on dendritic cells (DCs...
  • CREB phosphorylation through the activation of Adenylate Cyclase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    CREB phosphorylation through the activation of Adenylate Cyclase, organism-specific biosystemCa2+ signal generated through NMDA receptor in the post-synaptic neuron activates adenylate cyclase signal transduction, leading to the activation of PKA and phosphorylation and activation of CREB-in...
  • Ca-dependent events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Ca-dependent events, organism-specific biosystemCalcium, as the ion Ca2+, is essential in many biological processes. The majority of Ca2+ in many organisms is bound to phosphates which form skeletal structures and also buffer Ca2+ levels in extrac...
  • CaM pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    CaM pathway, organism-specific biosystemCalmodulin (CaM) is a small acidic protein that contains four EF-hand motifs, each of which can bind a calcium ion, therefore it can bind up to four calcium ions. The protein has two approximately sy...
  • Calcium Regulation in the Cardiac Cell, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Calcium Regulation in the Cardiac Cell, organism-specific biosystemCalcium is a common signaling mechanism, as once it enters the cytoplasm it exerts allosteric regulatory affects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction after influx resu...
  • Calcium signaling in the CD4+ TCR pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Calcium signaling in the CD4+ TCR pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    Calcium signaling in the CD4+ TCR pathway
  • Calcium signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Calcium signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemCa2+ that enters the cell from the outside is a principal source of signal Ca2+. Entry of Ca2+ is driven by the presence of a large electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane. Cells use this...
  • Calcium signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Calcium signaling pathway, conserved biosystemCa2+ that enters the cell from the outside is a principal source of signal Ca2+. Entry of Ca2+ is driven by the presence of a large electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane. Cells use this...
  • Calmodulin induced events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Calmodulin induced events, organism-specific biosystemOne important physiological role for Calmodulin is the regulation of adenylylcyclases. Four of the nine known adenylylcyclases are calcium sensitive, in particular type 8 (AC8).
  • Cardiac conduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cardiac conduction, organism-specific biosystemThe normal sequence of contraction of atria and ventricles of the heart require activation of groups of cardiac cells. The mechanism must elicit rapid changes in heart rate and respond to changes in ...
  • Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem
    Cell Cycle
  • Cell Cycle, Mitotic, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cell Cycle, Mitotic, organism-specific biosystemThe replication of the genome and the subsequent segregation of chromosomes into daughter cells are controlled by a series of events collectively known as the cell cycle. DNA replication is carried o...
  • Centrosome maturation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Centrosome maturation, organism-specific biosystemThe centrosome is the primary microtubule organizing center (MTOC) in vertebrate cells and plays an important role in orchestrating the formation of the mitotic spindle. Centrosome maturation is an ...
  • Chemokine signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Chemokine signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation upon foreign insult. Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for th...
  • Chemokine signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Chemokine signaling pathway, conserved biosystemInflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation upon foreign insult. Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for th...
  • Cholinergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cholinergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemAcetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter widely distributed in the central (and also peripheral, autonomic and enteric) nervous system (CNS). In the CNS, ACh facilitates many functions, such as lear...
  • Cilium Assembly, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cilium Assembly, organism-specific biosystemCilia are membrane covered organelles that extend from the surface of eukaryotic cells. Cilia may be motile, such as respiratory cilia) or non-motile (such as the primary cilium) and are distinguishe...
  • Circadian entrainment, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Circadian entrainment, organism-specific biosystemCircadian entrainment is a fundamental property by which the period of the internal biological clock is entrained by recurring exogenous signals, such that the organism's endocrine and behavioral rhy...
  • Circadian entrainment, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Circadian entrainment, conserved biosystemCircadian entrainment is a fundamental property by which the period of the internal biological clock is entrained by recurring exogenous signals, such that the organism's endocrine and behavioral rhy...
  • Class I PI3K signaling events mediated by Akt, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Class I PI3K signaling events mediated by Akt, organism-specific biosystem
    Class I PI3K signaling events mediated by Akt
  • Cocaine addiction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cocaine addiction, organism-specific biosystemDrug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder in which compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior persists despite serious negative consequences.There is strong evidence that the dopaminergic...
  • Cocaine addiction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cocaine addiction, conserved biosystemDrug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder in which compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior persists despite serious negative consequences.There is strong evidence that the dopaminergic...
  • Common Pathways Underlying Drug Addiction, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Common Pathways Underlying Drug Addiction, organism-specific biosystemThe pathway was modeled after Figure 2 in Li, et al. 2008 and is based on the common pathways identified in their study as well as protein interaction data. Specifically, glutamate and dopamine neuro...
  • Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystemCytokines are small proteins that regulate and mediate immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. They are secreted in response to immune stimuli, and usually act briefly, locally, at very low concen...
  • DAG and IP3 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DAG and IP3 signaling, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway describes the generation of DAG and IP3 by the PLCgamma-mediated hydrolysis of PIP2 and the subsequent downstream signaling events.
  • DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystemDNAX activation protein of 12kDa (DAP12) is an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-bearing adapter molecule that transduces activating signals in natural killer (NK) and myeloid cel...
  • DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystemIn response to receptor ligation, the tyrosine residues in DAP12's immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) are phosphorylated by Src family kinases. These phosphotyrosines form the dock...
  • DARPP-32 events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DARPP-32 events, organism-specific biosystemDopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, Mr 32 kDa (DARPP-32), was identified as a major target for dopamine and protein kinase A (PKA) in striatum. Recent advances now indicate that regulation D...
  • Degradation of GLI1 by the proteasome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Degradation of GLI1 by the proteasome, organism-specific biosystemGLI1 is the most divergent of the 3 mammalian GLI transcription factors and lacks a transcriptional repressor domain. Although GLI1 is dispensible for development, the gene is an early transcription...
  • Degradation of GLI2 by the proteasome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Degradation of GLI2 by the proteasome, organism-specific biosystemThe primary role of the GLI2 protein is as an activator of Hh-dependent signaling upon pathway stimulation; in the absence of Hh ligand, a small fraction of GLI2 appears to be processed to a represso...
  • Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystemAs a first step towards capturing the array of processes by which a fertilized egg gives rise to the diverse tissues of the body, examples of three kinds of processes have been annotated. These are a...
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Dilated cardiomyopathy, organism-specific biosystemDilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a heart muscle disease characterised by dilation and impaired contraction of the left or both ventricles that results in progressive heart failure and sudden cardiac d...
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Dilated cardiomyopathy, conserved biosystemDilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a heart muscle disease characterised by dilation and impaired contraction of the left or both ventricles that results in progressive heart failure and sudden cardiac d...
  • Dopamine metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Dopamine metabolism, organism-specific biosystem
    Dopamine metabolism
  • Dopaminergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Dopaminergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemDopamine (DA) is an important and prototypical slow neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, where it controls a variety of functions including locomotor activity, motivation and reward, learning an...
  • Dopaminergic synapse, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Dopaminergic synapse, conserved biosystemDopamine (DA) is an important and prototypical slow neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, where it controls a variety of functions including locomotor activity, motivation and reward, learning an...
  • Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystemThe role of autophosphorylation sites on PDGF receptors are to provide docking sites for downstream signal transduction molecules which contain SH2 domains. The SH2 domain is a conserved motif of aro...
  • EGFR interacts with phospholipase C-gamma, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    EGFR interacts with phospholipase C-gamma, organism-specific biosystemActivated epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) can stimulate phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover. Activated EGFR can activate phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1, i.e. PLCG1) which hydrolyses phosp...
  • Endochondral Ossification, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Endochondral Ossification, organism-specific biosystemEndochondral ossification is the process by which the embryonic cartilaginous model of most bones contributes to longitudinal growth and is gradually replaced by bone. During endochondral ossificatio...
  • Endocrine and other factor-regulated calcium reabsorption, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Endocrine and other factor-regulated calcium reabsorption, organism-specific biosystemCalcium (Ca2+) is essential for numerous physiological functions including intracellular signalling processes, neuronal excitability, muscle contraction and bone formation. Therefore, its homeostasis...
  • Endocrine and other factor-regulated calcium reabsorption, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Endocrine and other factor-regulated calcium reabsorption, conserved biosystemCalcium (Ca2+) is essential for numerous physiological functions including intracellular signalling processes, neuronal excitability, muscle contraction and bone formation. Therefore, its homeostasis...
  • Endocrine resistance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Endocrine resistance, organism-specific biosystemEndocrine therapy is a key treatment strategy to control or eradicate hormone-responsive breast cancer. The most commonly used endocrine therapy agents are selective estrogen receptor modulators (SER...
  • Endocrine resistance, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Endocrine resistance, conserved biosystemEndocrine therapy is a key treatment strategy to control or eradicate hormone-responsive breast cancer. The most commonly used endocrine therapy agents are selective estrogen receptor modulators (SER...
  • Epstein-Barr virus infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Epstein-Barr virus infection, organism-specific biosystemEpstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is associated with oncogenesis. EBV infection to primary human B lymphocytes leads to induction of EBV-specific HLA-restricted cytotoxi...
  • Epstein-Barr virus infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Epstein-Barr virus infection, conserved biosystemEpstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is associated with oncogenesis. EBV infection to primary human B lymphocytes leads to induction of EBV-specific HLA-restricted cytotoxi...
  • ErbB2/ErbB3 signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    ErbB2/ErbB3 signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    ErbB2/ErbB3 signaling events
  • Estrogen signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Estrogen signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemEstrogens are steroid hormones that regulate a plethora of physiological processes in mammals, including reproduction, cardiovascular protection, bone integrity, cellular homeostasis, and behavior. E...
  • Estrogen signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Estrogen signaling pathway, conserved biosystemEstrogens are steroid hormones that regulate a plethora of physiological processes in mammals, including reproduction, cardiovascular protection, bone integrity, cellular homeostasis, and behavior. E...
  • Estrogen signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Estrogen signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemEstrogen receptor refers to a group of receptors which are activated by the hormone 17-beta-estradiol (estrogen). Two types of estrogen receptor exist: ER which is a member of the nuclear hormone fam...
  • Factors involved in megakaryocyte development and platelet production, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Factors involved in megakaryocyte development and platelet production, organism-specific biosystemMegakaryocytes (MKs) give rise to circulating platelets (thrombocytes) through terminal differentiation of MKs which release cytoplasmic fragments as circulating platelets. As MKs mature they underg...
  • Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is an anterior pituitary gonadotropin belonging to the family of glycoprotein hormones that includes thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), Leutinizing Hormone (LH)...
  • G Protein Signaling Pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    G Protein Signaling Pathways, organism-specific biosystemG proteins, short for guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins involved in second messenger cascades. G proteins are so called because they function as "molecular switches". They...
  • G-protein mediated events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G-protein mediated events, organism-specific biosystemWhen dissociated Galpha-GTP and Gbeta-gamma can activate or inhibit different signalling cascades and effector proteins. The precise pathways depends on the identity of the alpha and beta/gamma subty...
  • G2/M Transition, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G2/M Transition, organism-specific biosystemCyclin A can also form complexes with Cdc2 (Cdk1). Together with three B-type cyclins, Cdc2 (Cdk1) regulates the transition from G2 into mitosis. These complexes are activated by dephosphorylation of...
  • GABAergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    GABAergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemGamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). When released in the synaptic cleft, GABA binds to three major classes o...
  • GABAergic synapse, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    GABAergic synapse, conserved biosystemGamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). When released in the synaptic cleft, GABA binds to three major classes o...
  • GLI3 is processed to GLI3R by the proteasome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GLI3 is processed to GLI3R by the proteasome, organism-specific biosystemIn the absence of Hh signaling, the majority of full-length GLI3 is partially processed by the proteasome to a shorter form that serves as the principal repressor of Hh target genes (Wang et al, 2000...
  • Gap junction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Gap junction, organism-specific biosystemGap junctions contain intercellular channels that allow direct communication between the cytosolic compartments of adjacent cells. Each gap junction channel is formed by docking of two 'hemichannels'...
  • Gap junction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Gap junction, conserved biosystemGap junctions contain intercellular channels that allow direct communication between the cytosolic compartments of adjacent cells. Each gap junction channel is formed by docking of two 'hemichannels'...
  • Gastric acid secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Gastric acid secretion, organism-specific biosystemGastric acid is a key factor in normal upper gastrointestinal functions, including protein digestion and calcium and iron absorption, as well as providing some protection against bacterial infections...
  • Gastric acid secretion, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Gastric acid secretion, conserved biosystemGastric acid is a key factor in normal upper gastrointestinal functions, including protein digestion and calcium and iron absorption, as well as providing some protection against bacterial infections...
  • Glucagon signaling in metabolic regulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Glucagon signaling in metabolic regulation, organism-specific biosystemGlucagon and insulin are peptide hormones released from the pancreas into the blood, that normally act in complementary fashion to stabilize blood glucose concentration. When blood glucose levels ris...
  • Glucagon signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Glucagon signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemGlucagon is conventionally regarded as a counterregulatory hormone for insulin and plays a critical anti-hypoglycemic role by maintaining glucose homeostasis in both animals and humans. To increase ...
  • Glucagon signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Glucagon signaling pathway, conserved biosystemGlucagon is conventionally regarded as a counterregulatory hormone for insulin and plays a critical anti-hypoglycemic role by maintaining glucose homeostasis in both animals and humans. To increase ...
  • Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP1) regulates insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP1) regulates insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystemGlucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted by L-cells in the intestine in response to glucose and fatty acids. GLP-1 circulates to the beta cells of the pancreas where it binds a G-protein coupled r...
  • Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network, organism-specific biosystem
    Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network
  • Gluconeogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Gluconeogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThe reactions of gluconeogenesis convert mitochondrial pyruvate to cytosolic glucose 6-phosphate which in turn can be hydrolyzed to glucose and exported from the cell. Gluconeogenesis is confined to ...
  • Glucose metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Glucose metabolism, organism-specific biosystemGlucose is the major form in which dietary sugars are made available to cells of the human body. Its breakdown is a major source of energy for all cells, and is essential for the brain and red blood ...
  • Glutamatergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Glutamatergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemGlutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system(CNS). Glutamate is packaged into synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic terminal. Once released into the synap...
  • Glutamatergic synapse, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Glutamatergic synapse, conserved biosystemGlutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system(CNS). Glutamate is packaged into synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic terminal. Once released into the synap...
  • GnRH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    GnRH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnR...
  • GnRH signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    GnRH signaling pathway, conserved biosystemGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnR...
  • HDL-mediated lipid transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    HDL-mediated lipid transport, organism-specific biosystemHDL particles play a central role in the reverse transport of cholesterol, the process by which cholesterol in tissues other than the liver is returned to the liver for conversion to bile salts and e...
  • HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
  • HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
  • Hedgehog 'off' state, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Hedgehog 'off' state, organism-specific biosystemHedgehog is a secreted morphogen that has evolutionarily conserved roles in body organization by regulating the activity of the Ci/Gli transcription factor family. In Drosophila in the absence of Hh ...
  • Hedgehog signaling events mediated by Gli proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Hedgehog signaling events mediated by Gli proteins, organism-specific biosystem
    Hedgehog signaling events mediated by Gli proteins
  • Hedgehog signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hedgehog signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has numerous roles in the control of cell proliferation, tissue patterning, stem cell maintenance and development. The primary cilium is an important center for tr...
  • Hedgehog signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hedgehog signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has numerous roles in the control of cell proliferation, tissue patterning, stem cell maintenance and development. The primary cilium is an important center for tr...
  • Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystemHemostasis is a physiological response that culminates in the arrest of bleeding from an injured vessel. Under normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhe...
  • Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)-mediated triacylglycerol hydrolysis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)-mediated triacylglycerol hydrolysis, organism-specific biosystemTriacylglycerol is a major energy store in the body and its hydrolysis to yield fatty acids and glycerol is a tightly regulated part of energy metabolism. A central part in this regulation is played ...
  • IL-3 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    IL-3 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin 3 (IL-3) is a potent growth factor belonging to the super family of cytokines. IL-3 is a 20- 32kDa glycoprotein involved in the process of hematopoiesis. It is involved in the proliferati...
  • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
  • Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, organism-specific biosystemThe TRP channels that exhibit a unique response to temperature have been given the name thermo-TRPs. Among all thermo- TRP channels, TRPV1-4, TRPM8, and TRPA1 are expressed in subsets of nociceptive...
  • Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, conserved biosystemThe TRP channels that exhibit a unique response to temperature have been given the name thermo-TRPs. Among all thermo- TRP channels, TRPV1-4, TRPM8, and TRPA1 are expressed in subsets of nociceptive...
  • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
  • Insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystemPancreatic beta cells are specialised endocrine cells that continuously sense the levels of blood sugar and other fuels and, in response, secrete insulin to maintain normal fuel homeostasis. Glucose-...
  • Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
  • Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
  • Integration of energy metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Integration of energy metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMany hormones that affect individual physiological processes including the regulation of appetite, absorption, transport, and oxidation of foodstuffs influence energy metabolism pathways. While insul...
  • Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe Interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-5 and Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptors form a family of heterodimeric receptors that have specific alpha chains but share a common beta...
  • Ion homeostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Ion homeostasis, organism-specific biosystemIon channel homeostasis in relation to cardiac conduction is described in this section (Couette et al. 2006, Bartos et al. 2015).
  • LKB1 signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    LKB1 signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    LKB1 signaling events
  • LPA4-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    LPA4-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    LPA4-mediated signaling events
  • Lipid digestion, mobilization, and transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Lipid digestion, mobilization, and transport, organism-specific biosystemProcesses annotated here include the digestion of dietary lipids, sterol uptake, the formation and turnover of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL), and the mobilization of fatty acids thr...
  • Lipoprotein metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Lipoprotein metabolism, organism-specific biosystemBecause of their hydrophobicity, lipids are found in the extracellular spaces of the human body primarily in the form of lipoprotein complexes. Chylomicrons form in the small intestine and transport ...
  • Long-term potentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Long-term potentiation, organism-specific biosystemHippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy, is the molecular basis for learning and memory. Tetanic stimulation of afferents in the CA1 region of the hippo...
  • Long-term potentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Long-term potentiation, conserved biosystemHippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy, is the molecular basis for learning and memory. Tetanic stimulation of afferents in the CA1 region of the hippo...
  • Longevity regulating pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Longevity regulating pathway, organism-specific biosystemRegulation of longevity depends on genetic and environmental factors. Caloric restriction (CR), that is limiting food intake, is recognized in mammals as the best characterized and most reproducible ...
  • Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species, organism-specific biosystemAging is a complex process of accumulation of molecular, cellular, and organ damage, leading to loss of function and increased vulnerability to disease and death. Despite the complexity of aging, rec...
  • Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species, conserved biosystemAging is a complex process of accumulation of molecular, cellular, and organ damage, leading to loss of function and increased vulnerability to disease and death. Despite the complexity of aging, rec...
  • Loss of Nlp from mitotic centrosomes, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Loss of Nlp from mitotic centrosomes, organism-specific biosystemDuring interphase, Nlp interacts with gamma-tubulin ring complexes (gamma-TuRC), and is thought to contribute to the organization of interphase microtubules (Casenghi et al.,2003). Plk1 is activated...
  • Loss of proteins required for interphase microtubule organization from the centrosome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Loss of proteins required for interphase microtubule organization from the centrosome, organism-specific biosystemIn addition to recruiting proteins and complexes necessary for increased microtubule nucleation, centrosomal maturation involves the loss of proteins involved in interphase microtubule organization ...
  • MAPK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    MAPK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
  • MAPK family signaling cascades, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MAPK family signaling cascades, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of conserved protein serine threonine kinases that respond to varied extracellular stimuli to activate intracellular processes including gen...
  • MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
  • MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
  • MAPK6/MAPK4 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MAPK6/MAPK4 signaling, organism-specific biosystemMAPK6 and MAPK4 (also known as ERK3 and ERK4) are vertebrate-specific atypical MAP kinases. Atypical MAPK are less well characterized than their conventional counterparts, and are generally classifi...
  • Melanogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Melanogenesis, organism-specific biosystemCutaneous melanin pigment plays a critical role in camouflage, mimicry, social communication, and protection against harmful effects of solar radiation. Melanogenesis is under complex regulatory cont...
  • Melanogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Melanogenesis, conserved biosystemCutaneous melanin pigment plays a critical role in camouflage, mimicry, social communication, and protection against harmful effects of solar radiation. Melanogenesis is under complex regulatory cont...
  • Mesodermal Commitment Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Mesodermal Commitment Pathway, organism-specific biosystemModel depicting mesodermal specification based on the literature and highly enriched gene expression profiles via comparison across dozens of independent induced and embryonic pluripotent stem cell l...
  • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
  • Metabolism of carbohydrates, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of carbohydrates, organism-specific biosystemThese pathways together are responsible for: 1) the extraction of energy and carbon skeletons for biosyntheses from dietary sugars and related molecules; 2) the short-term storage of glucose in the b...
  • Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystemLipids are hydrophobic but otherwise chemically diverse molecules that play a wide variety of roles in human biology. They include ketone bodies, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sphi...
  • Mitotic G2-G2/M phases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Mitotic G2-G2/M phases, organism-specific biosystem
    Mitotic G2-G2/M phases
  • Morphine addiction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Morphine addiction, organism-specific biosystemMorphine is an alkaloid from the plant extracts of opium poppy. Although morphine is highly effective for the treatment of pain, it is also known to be intensely addictive. We now know that the most ...
  • Morphine addiction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Morphine addiction, conserved biosystemMorphine is an alkaloid from the plant extracts of opium poppy. Although morphine is highly effective for the treatment of pain, it is also known to be intensely addictive. We now know that the most ...
  • Muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystemIn this module, the processes by which calcium binding triggers actin - myosin interactions and force generation in smooth and striated muscle tissues are annotated.
  • Myometrial Relaxation and Contraction Pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Myometrial Relaxation and Contraction Pathways, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway illustrates signaling networks implicated in uterine muscle contraction at labor and quiescence throughout gestation (pregnancy). The muscle of the uterus, responsible for contractile ac...
  • NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemTrk receptors signal from the plasma membrane and from intracellular membranes, particularly from early endosomes. Signalling from the plasma membrane is fast but transient; signalling from endosomes...
  • Neuronal System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Neuronal System, organism-specific biosystemThe human brain contains at least 100 billion neurons, each with the ability to influence many other cells. Clearly, highly sophisticated and efficient mechanisms are needed to enable communication a...
  • Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding And Downstream Transmission In The Postsynaptic Cell, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding And Downstream Transmission In The Postsynaptic Cell, organism-specific biosystemThe neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft released by the pre-synaptic neuron binds specific receptors located on the post-synaptic terminal. These receptors are either ion channels or G protein cou...
  • Nicotine Activity on Dopaminergic Neurons, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Nicotine Activity on Dopaminergic Neurons, organism-specific biosystemNicotine is an alkaloid found in tobacco plants. It is a substance that acts as a stimulant in humans and is one of the main factors responsible for tobacco dependence. When nicotine enters the body,...
  • Olfactory transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Olfactory transduction, organism-specific biosystemWithin the compact cilia of the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) a cascade of enzymatic activity transduces the binding of an odorant molecule to a receptor into an electrical signal that can be tra...
  • Olfactory transduction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Olfactory transduction, conserved biosystemWithin the compact cilia of the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) a cascade of enzymatic activity transduces the binding of an odorant molecule to a receptor into an electrical signal that can be tra...
  • Oocyte meiosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Oocyte meiosis, organism-specific biosystemDuring meiosis, a single round of DNA replication is followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation, called meiosis I and meiosis II. At meiosis I, homologous chromosomes recombine and then segrega...
  • Oocyte meiosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Oocyte meiosis, conserved biosystemDuring meiosis, a single round of DNA replication is followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation, called meiosis I and meiosis II. At meiosis I, homologous chromosomes recombine and then segrega...
  • Opioid Signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Opioid Signalling, organism-specific biosystemOpioids are chemical substances similar to opiates, the active substances found in opium (morphine, codeine etc.). Opioid action is mediated by the receptors for endogenous opioids; peptides such as...
  • Organelle biogenesis and maintenance, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Organelle biogenesis and maintenance, organism-specific biosystemThis module describes the biogenesis of organelles. Organelles are subcellular structures of distinctive morphology and function. The organelles of human cells include: mitochondria, endoplasmic reti...
  • Ovarian steroidogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Ovarian steroidogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThe ovarian steroids, 17-beta estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), are critical for normal uterine function, establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, and mammary gland development. Furthermore, t...
  • Ovarian steroidogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Ovarian steroidogenesis, conserved biosystemThe ovarian steroids, 17-beta estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), are critical for normal uterine function, establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, and mammary gland development. Furthermore, t...
  • Oxytocin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Oxytocin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemOxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide synthesized by the magno-cellular neurons located in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the hypothalamus. It exerts a wide variety of central and ...
  • Oxytocin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Oxytocin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemOxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide synthesized by the magno-cellular neurons located in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the hypothalamus. It exerts a wide variety of central and ...
  • PKA activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PKA activation, organism-specific biosystemA number of inactive tetrameric PKA holoenzymes are produced by the combination of homo- or heterodimers of the different regulatory subunits associated with two catalytic subunits. When cAMP binds t...
  • PKA activation in glucagon signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PKA activation in glucagon signalling, organism-specific biosystemAdenylate cyclase catalyses the synthesis of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. In the absence of cAMP, protein kinase A (PKA) exists as inactive tetramers of two catalytic subunits and two regulatory subun...
  • PKA-mediated phosphorylation of CREB, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PKA-mediated phosphorylation of CREB, organism-specific biosystemCyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) induces gene transcription through activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and subsequent phosphorylation of the transcription factor cAMP respo...
  • PKA-mediated phosphorylation of key metabolic factors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PKA-mediated phosphorylation of key metabolic factors, organism-specific biosystemUpon dissociation of protein kinase A (PKA) tetramers in the presence of cAMP, the released PKA catalytic monomers phosphorylate specific serine and threonine residues of several metabolic enzymes. T...
  • PLC beta mediated events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PLC beta mediated events, organism-specific biosystemThe phospholipase C (PLC) family of enzymes is both diverse and complex. The isoforms beta, gamma and delta (each have subtypes) make up the members of this family. PLC hydrolyzes phosphatidylinosito...
  • PLC-gamma1 signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PLC-gamma1 signalling, organism-specific biosystemThe activation of phosphlipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma) and subsequent mobilization of calcium from intracellular stores are essential for neurotrophin secretion. PLC-gamma is activated through the phosph...
  • Parkinson's disease, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Parkinson's disease, organism-specific biosystemParkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder that results primarily from the death of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Mutations...
  • Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
    Pathways in cancer
  • Paxillin-dependent events mediated by a4b1, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Paxillin-dependent events mediated by a4b1, organism-specific biosystem
    Paxillin-dependent events mediated by a4b1
  • Platelet activation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Platelet activation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelets play a key and beneficial role for primary hemostasis on the disruption of the integrity of vessel wall. Platelet adhesion and activation at sites of vascular wall injury is initiated by ad...
  • Post NMDA receptor activation events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Post NMDA receptor activation events, organism-specific biosystemCa2+ influx through the NMDA receptor initiates subsequent molecular pathways that have a defined role in establishing long-lasting synaptic changes. The molecular signaling initiated by a rise in Ca...
  • Prion diseases, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prion diseases, organism-specific biosystemPrion diseases, also termed transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and a number of other animal species. The etiology of ...
  • Prion diseases, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prion diseases, conserved biosystemPrion diseases, also termed transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and a number of other animal species. The etiology of ...
  • Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, organism-specific biosystemXenopus oocytes are naturally arrested at G2 of meiosis I. Exposure to either insulin/IGF-1 or the steroid hormone progesterone breaks this arrest and induces resumption of the two meiotic division c...
  • Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, conserved biosystemXenopus oocytes are naturally arrested at G2 of meiosis I. Exposure to either insulin/IGF-1 or the steroid hormone progesterone breaks this arrest and induces resumption of the two meiotic division c...
  • Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
  • Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
  • RET signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RET signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe RET proto-oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed primarily in urogenital precursor cells, spermatogonocytes, dopaminergic neurons, motor neurons and neural crest progenitors and de...
  • Rap1 signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Rap1 signalling, organism-specific biosystemRap1 (Ras-proximate-1) is a small G protein in the Ras superfamily. Like all G proteins, Rap1 is activated when bound GDP is exchanged for GTP. Rap1 is targeted to lipid membranes by the covalent att...
  • Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras prote...
  • Recruitment of mitotic centrosome proteins and complexes, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Recruitment of mitotic centrosome proteins and complexes, organism-specific biosystemThe mitotic spindle becomes established once centrosomes have migrated to opposite poles and the nuclear envelope has broken down. During this stage, interphase centrosomes mature into mitotic centro...
  • Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition, organism-specific biosystemThe kinase activity of PLK1 is required for cell cycle progression as PLK1 phosphorylates and regulates a number of cellular proteins during mitosis. Centrosomic AURKA (Aurora A kinase), catalyticall...
  • Regulation of insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystemPancreatic beta cells integrate signals from several metabolites and hormones to control the secretion of insulin. In general, glucose triggers insulin secretion while other factors can amplify or in...
  • Regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes, organism-specific biosystemLipolysis in adipocytes, the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) to release fatty acids (FAs) and glycerol for use by other organs as energy substrates, is a unique function of white adipose tissue. ...
  • Renin secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Renin secretion, organism-specific biosystemThe aspartyl-protease renin is the key regulator of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is critically involved in extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure homeostasis of the body. R...
  • Renin secretion, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Renin secretion, conserved biosystemThe aspartyl-protease renin is the key regulator of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is critically involved in extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure homeostasis of the body. R...
  • Retinoic acid receptors-mediated signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Retinoic acid receptors-mediated signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    Retinoic acid receptors-mediated signaling
  • Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, organism-specific biosystemEndogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) serve as retrograde messengers at synapses in various regions of the brain. The family of endocannabinoids includes at least five derivatives of arachidonic...
  • Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, conserved biosystemEndogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) serve as retrograde messengers at synapses in various regions of the brain. The family of endocannabinoids includes at least five derivatives of arachidonic...
  • Role of Calcineurin-dependent NFAT signaling in lymphocytes, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Role of Calcineurin-dependent NFAT signaling in lymphocytes, organism-specific biosystem
    Role of Calcineurin-dependent NFAT signaling in lymphocytes
  • Salivary secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Salivary secretion, organism-specific biosystemSaliva has manifold functions in maintaining the integrity of the oral tissues, in protecting teeth from caries, in the tasting and ingestion of food, in speech and in the tolerance of tenures, for e...
  • Salivary secretion, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Salivary secretion, conserved biosystemSaliva has manifold functions in maintaining the integrity of the oral tissues, in protecting teeth from caries, in the tasting and ingestion of food, in speech and in the tolerance of tenures, for e...
  • Serotonergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Serotonergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemSerotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter that plays important roles in physiological functions such as learning and memory, emotion, sleep, pain, motor function and endoc...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystemThe epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one member of the ERBB family of transmembrane glycoprotein tyrosine receptor kinases (RTK). Binding of EGFR to its ligands induces conformational chang...
  • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
  • Signaling by Hedgehog, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Hedgehog, organism-specific biosystemHedgehog (Hh) is a secreted morphogen that regulates developmental processes in vertebrates including limb bud formation, neural tube patterning, cell growth and differentiation (reviewed in Hui and ...
  • Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystemInterleukins are low molecular weight proteins that bind to cell surface receptors and act in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion. They were first identified as factors produced by leukocytes but a...
  • Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet-derived Growth Factor (PDGF) is a potent stimulator of growth and motility of connective tissue cells such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells as well as other cells such as capillary end...
  • Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystemIn normal development vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are crucial regulators of vascular development during embryogenesis (vasculogenesis) and blood-vessel formation in the adult (angioge...
  • Signaling events mediated by HDAC Class I, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Signaling events mediated by HDAC Class I, organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling events mediated by HDAC Class I
  • Signaling events mediated by VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Signaling events mediated by VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling events mediated by VEGFR1 and VEGFR2
  • Signaling events regulated by Ret tyrosine kinase, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Signaling events regulated by Ret tyrosine kinase, organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling events regulated by Ret tyrosine kinase
  • Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4/5) play pivotal roles in survival, differentiation, and plasticity of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. They are produced, and secreted in mi...
  • Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Proteins (SREBP) signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Proteins (SREBP) signalling, organism-specific biosystemSterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are membrane-bound proteins that act as transcription factors. They regulate lipid, especially cholesterol, biosynthesis and uptake at a transcript...
  • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Susceptibility Pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Susceptibility Pathways, organism-specific biosystemIn this model, we provide an integrated view of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) at the level of implicated tissues, signaling networks and genetics. The purpose of this model is to serve as an ov...
  • Syndecan-1-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Syndecan-1-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    Syndecan-1-mediated signaling events
  • Syndecan-2-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Syndecan-2-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    Syndecan-2-mediated signaling events
  • Taste transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Taste transduction, organism-specific biosystemFive basic tastes are recognized by humans and most other animals - bitter, sweet, sour, salty and umami. In vertebrates, taste stimuli are detected by taste receptor cells (TRCs). At least three dis...
  • Taste transduction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Taste transduction, conserved biosystemFive basic tastes are recognized by humans and most other animals - bitter, sweet, sour, salty and umami. In vertebrates, taste stimuli are detected by taste receptor cells (TRCs). At least three dis...
  • Thromboxane A2 receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Thromboxane A2 receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    Thromboxane A2 receptor signaling
  • Thyroid hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Thyroid hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe thyroid hormones (THs) are important regulators of growth, development and metabolism. The action of TH is mainly mediated by T3 (3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine). Thyroid hormones, L-thyroxine (T4) a...
  • Thyroid hormone synthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Thyroid hormone synthesis, organism-specific biosystemThyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are essential for normal development, growth and metabolic homeostasis in all vertebrates, and synthesized in the thyroid gland. The function...
  • Thyroid hormone synthesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Thyroid hormone synthesis, conserved biosystemThyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are essential for normal development, growth and metabolic homeostasis in all vertebrates, and synthesized in the thyroid gland. The function...
  • Tight junction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Tight junction, organism-specific biosystemTight junctions (TJs) are essential for establishing a selectively permeable barrier to diffusion through the paracellular space between neighboring cells. TJs are composed of at least three types of...
  • Tight junction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Tight junction, conserved biosystemTight junctions (TJs) are essential for establishing a selectively permeable barrier to diffusion through the paracellular space between neighboring cells. TJs are composed of at least three types of...
  • Transmembrane transport of small molecules, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Transmembrane transport of small molecules, organism-specific biosystem
    Transmembrane transport of small molecules
  • Transmission across Chemical Synapses, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Transmission across Chemical Synapses, organism-specific biosystemChemical synapses are specialized junctions that are used for communication between neurons, neurons and muscle or gland cells. The synapse involves a pre-synaptic neuron and a post-synaptic neuron,...
  • VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystemAngiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vasculature. One of the most important proangiogenic factors is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF exerts its biologic...
  • VEGFR1 specific signals, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    VEGFR1 specific signals, organism-specific biosystem
    VEGFR1 specific signals
  • Vascular smooth muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Vascular smooth muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystemThe vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is a highly specialized cell whose principal function is contraction. On contraction, VSMCs shorten, thereby decreasing the diameter of a blood vessel to regula...
  • Vascular smooth muscle contraction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Vascular smooth muscle contraction, conserved biosystemThe vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is a highly specialized cell whose principal function is contraction. On contraction, VSMCs shorten, thereby decreasing the diameter of a blood vessel to regula...
  • Vasopressin regulates renal water homeostasis via Aquaporins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Vasopressin regulates renal water homeostasis via Aquaporins, organism-specific biosystemIn the kidney water and solutes are passed out of the bloodstream and into the proximal tubule via the slit-like structure formed by nephrin in the glomerulus. Water is reabsorbed from the filtrate d...
  • Vasopressin-regulated water reabsorption, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Vasopressin-regulated water reabsorption, organism-specific biosystemIn the kidney, the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (AVP) is a critical regulator of water homeostasis by controlling the water movement from lumen to the interstitium for water reabsorption and adju...
  • Vasopressin-regulated water reabsorption, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Vasopressin-regulated water reabsorption, conserved biosystemIn the kidney, the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (AVP) is a critical regulator of water homeostasis by controlling the water movement from lumen to the interstitium for water reabsorption and adju...
  • Vibrio cholerae infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Vibrio cholerae infection, organism-specific biosystemCholera toxin (CTX) is one of the main virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae. Once secreted, CTX B-chain (CTXB) binds to ganglioside GM1 on the surface of the host's cells. After binding takes place, ...
  • Vibrio cholerae infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Vibrio cholerae infection, conserved biosystemCholera toxin (CTX) is one of the main virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae. Once secreted, CTX B-chain (CTXB) binds to ganglioside GM1 on the surface of the host's cells. After binding takes place, ...
  • Viral carcinogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Viral carcinogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThere is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C vi...
  • Viral carcinogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Viral carcinogenesis, conserved biosystemThere is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C vi...
  • Wnt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Wnt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemWnt proteins are secreted morphogens that are required for basic developmental processes, such as cell-fate specification, progenitor-cell proliferation and the control of asymmetric cell division, i...
  • Wnt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Wnt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemWnt proteins are secreted morphogens that are required for basic developmental processes, such as cell-fate specification, progenitor-cell proliferation and the control of asymmetric cell division, i...
  • cAMP signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    cAMP signaling, organism-specific biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
  • cAMP signaling, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    cAMP signaling, conserved biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
  • cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...
  • cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...
  • miRs in Muscle Cell Differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    miRs in Muscle Cell Differentiation, organism-specific biosystem
    miRs in Muscle Cell Differentiation

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC48865, MGC102831

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
ATP binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
magnesium ion binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
manganese ion binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein domain specific binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein kinase A regulatory subunit binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein serine/threonine kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein serine/threonine kinase activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
protein serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
ubiquitin protein ligase binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
activation of protein kinase A activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
blood coagulation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
calcium-mediated signaling using intracellular calcium source TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cell communication by electrical coupling involved in cardiac conduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to epinephrine stimulus TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to glucagon stimulus TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cellular response to glucose stimulus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to heat IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to parathyroid hormone stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
ciliary basal body-plasma membrane docking TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cytokine-mediated signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
high-density lipoprotein particle assembly TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
mRNA processing IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
mesoderm formation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
modulation of chemical synaptic transmission IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of smoothened signaling pathway involved in dorsal/ventral neural tube patterning IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
neural tube closure IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
peptidyl-serine phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
peptidyl-serine phosphorylation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
peptidyl-serine phosphorylation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cell cycle arrest ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of protein export from nucleus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein autophosphorylation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein kinase A signaling IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein phosphorylation NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
regulation of G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of bicellular tight junction assembly IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of cardiac conduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of cardiac muscle contraction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
regulation of cardiac muscle contraction by regulation of the release of sequestered calcium ion TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
regulation of heart rate TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
regulation of macroautophagy TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
regulation of osteoblast differentiation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of proteasomal protein catabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of protein binding TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
regulation of protein processing IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
renal water homeostasis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
sperm capacitation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
acrosomal vesicle ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
colocalizes_with axoneme IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cAMP-dependent protein kinase complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cAMP-dependent protein kinase complex NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
calcium channel complex TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
centrosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
ciliary base TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytosol IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
dendritic spine IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
intercellular bridge IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
mitochondrion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
neuromuscular junction IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
nuclear speck IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleus HDA PubMed 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
perinuclear region of cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane raft IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
sperm flagellum IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha
Names
PKA C-alpha
cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha, isoform 1
protein kinase A catalytic subunit
protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, alpha catalytic subunit
protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, alpha
NP_001291278.1
NP_002721.1
NP_997401.1
XP_016882437.1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_029699.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..31060
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001304349.1NP_001291278.1  cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform 3

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) contains an alternate 5' terminal exon and initiates translation at an alternate start codon, compared to variant 1. It encodes isoform 3 which has a longer and distinct N-terminus, compared to Calpha1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK131561, BC039846, BC108259
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P17612
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00220
    Location:120374
    S_TKc; Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain
    cd14209
    Location:118407
    STKc_PKA; Catalytic subunit of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, cAMP-dependent protein kinase
  2. NM_002730.3NP_002721.1  cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform Calpha1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002721.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes Calpha1 (PMID:21812984).
    Source sequence(s)
    BC039846, BU543573
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS12304.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P17612
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R7J0
    Related
    ENSP00000309591.3, ENST00000308677.8
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd14209
    Location:42331
    STKc_PKA; Catalytic subunit of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, cAMP-dependent protein kinase
  3. NM_207518.2NP_997401.1  cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform Calpha2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_997401.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) contains an alternate 5' terminal exon and initiates translation at an alternate start codon, compared to variant 1. It encodes Calpha2, PMID:21812984 (also known as C alpha-s, PMID: 10906071) which has a shorter and distinct N-terminus, compared to Calpha1. This variant is specifically expressed in spermatogenic cells and may be essential for male fertility.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK292284, BC039846, BC108259
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS12305.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P17612
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A8K8B9
    Related
    ENSP00000466651.1, ENST00000589994.5
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd14209
    Location:34323
    STKc_PKA; Catalytic subunit of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, cAMP-dependent protein kinase

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000019.10 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    14091688..14117747 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_017026948.1XP_016882437.1  cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform X1

    Related
    ENSP00000468352.1, ENST00000587372.5
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