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MYD88 MYD88 innate immune signal transduction adaptor [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 4615, updated on 21-Apr-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
MYD88provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
MYD88 innate immune signal transduction adaptorprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:7562
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000172936 MIM:602170
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
MYD88D
Summary
This gene encodes a cytosolic adapter protein that plays a central role in the innate and adaptive immune response. This protein functions as an essential signal transducer in the interleukin-1 and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. These pathways regulate that activation of numerous proinflammatory genes. The encoded protein consists of an N-terminal death domain and a C-terminal Toll-interleukin1 receptor domain. Patients with defects in this gene have an increased susceptibility to pyogenic bacterial infections. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in appendix (RPKM 32.5), bone marrow (RPKM 32.2) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See MYD88 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
3p22.2
Exon count:
5
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 3 NC_000003.12 (38137439..38143022)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 3 NC_000003.11 (38179969..38184513)

Chromosome 3 - NC_000003.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene DLEC1 cilia and flagella associated protein Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105377033 Neighboring gene acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 1 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101928234 Neighboring gene oxidative stress responsive kinase 1 Neighboring gene cell division cycle 42 pseudogene Neighboring gene solute carrier family 22 member 13

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr-induced IL-6 production depends on the activation of NFkappaB and the involvement of C/EBP-beta, TLR4, and MyD88 PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

  • AGE/RAGE pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    AGE/RAGE pathway, organism-specific biosystemAdvanced glycation end products (AGEs) are heterogeneous group of non-enzymatic malliard reaction products of aldose sugar with proteins and lipids. Formation of AGEs is an indicator of one of the ma...
  • Activated TLR4 signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Activated TLR4 signalling, organism-specific biosystemTLR4 is unique among the TLR family in its ability to recruit four adapters to activate two distinct signaling pathways. One pathway is activated by the pair of the adapters Mal or TIRAP (Toll/inter...
  • Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystemAdaptive immunity refers to antigen-specific immune response efficiently involved in clearing the pathogens. The adaptive immune system is comprised of B and T lymphocytes that express receptors with...
  • African trypanosomiasis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    African trypanosomiasis, organism-specific biosystemTrypanosoma brucei, the parasite responsible for African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), are spread by the tsetse fly in sub-Saharan Africa. The parasites are able to pass through the blood-brai...
  • African trypanosomiasis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    African trypanosomiasis, conserved biosystemTrypanosoma brucei, the parasite responsible for African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), are spread by the tsetse fly in sub-Saharan Africa. The parasites are able to pass through the blood-brai...
  • Antigen processing-Cross presentation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Antigen processing-Cross presentation, organism-specific biosystemMHC class I molecules generally present peptide antigens derived from proteins synthesized by the cell itself to CD8+ T cells. However, in some circumstances, antigens from extracellular environment ...
  • Apoptosis Modulation and Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Apoptosis Modulation and Signaling, organism-specific biosystemApoptosis, or cell death program, can be activated by various mechanisms within the extrinsic and the intrinsic pathway. While activation of cell death receptors leads to the engagement of the extrin...
  • Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), organism-specific biosystemTrypanosoma cruzi is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease. The parasite life cycle involves hematophagous reduviid bugs as vectors. Once parasites enter the host body, they ...
  • Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), conserved biosystemTrypanosoma cruzi is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease. The parasite life cycle involves hematophagous reduviid bugs as vectors. Once parasites enter the host body, they ...
  • Class I MHC mediated antigen processing & presentation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Class I MHC mediated antigen processing & presentation, organism-specific biosystemMajor histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules play an important role in cell mediated immunity by reporting on intracellular events such as viral infection, the presence of intracellular b...
  • Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystemCytokines are small proteins that regulate and mediate immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. They are secreted in response to immune stimuli, and usually act briefly, locally, at very low concen...
  • Cytosolic sensors of pathogen-associated DNA, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cytosolic sensors of pathogen-associated DNA, organism-specific biosystemPresence of pathogen-associated DNA in cytosol induces type I IFN production. Several intracellular receptors have been implicated to some degree. These include DNA-dependent activator of interferon ...
  • DEx/H-box helicases activate type I IFN and inflammatory cytokines production, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DEx/H-box helicases activate type I IFN and inflammatory cytokines production, organism-specific biosystemDHX36 and DHX9 are aspartate-glutamate-any amino acid aspartate/histidine (DExD/H) box helicase (DHX) proteins that localize in the cytosol. The DHX RNA helicases family includes a large number of pr...
  • Disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Disease, organism-specific biosystemBiological processes are captured in Reactome by identifying the molecules (DNA, RNA, protein, small molecules) involved in them and describing the details of their interactions. From this molecular ...
  • Diseases associated with the TLR signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Diseases associated with the TLR signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystemToll like receptors (TLRs) are sensors of the innate immune system that detect danger signals derived from pathogens (pathogen-associated molecular patterns - PAMP) or damaged cells (damage-associate...
  • Diseases of Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Diseases of Immune System, organism-specific biosystemThe immune system is a complex network of the biological processes that provide defense mechanisms during infection or in response to an intrinsic danger signal. Compromised immune response may prese...
  • ER-Phagosome pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    ER-Phagosome pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe other TAP-dependent cross-presentation mechanism in phagocytes is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-phagosome model. Desjardins proposed that ER is recruited to the cell surface, where it fuses wit...
  • Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped virus and contains a partially double-stranded relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) genome. After entry into hepatocytes, HBV RC-DNA is transported to the nucleus and...
  • Herpes simplex infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Herpes simplex infection, organism-specific biosystemHerpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide, with the prevalence of HSV-1 reaching up to 80%-90%. Primary infection with HSV takes place in the mucosa, followed by the establishme...
  • Herpes simplex infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Herpes simplex infection, conserved biosystemHerpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide, with the prevalence of HSV-1 reaching up to 80%-90%. Primary infection with HSV takes place in the mucosa, followed by the establishme...
  • IL-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    IL-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe IL-1 family of cytokines currently consists of 11 members which are encoded by distinct genes and includes IL-1?, IL-1?, and the IL-1 Receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). The major role of IL-1 type cyt...
  • IL1 and megakaryocytes in obesity, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    IL1 and megakaryocytes in obesity, organism-specific biosystemSchematic of the effects of interleukin (IL)1-beta/IL1R1 on megakaryocyte and platelet function. A high fat diet will cause megakaryocytes to produce platelets with an increase in both inflammatory a...
  • IL1-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    IL1-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    IL1-mediated signaling events
  • IRAK4 deficiency (TLR2/4), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    IRAK4 deficiency (TLR2/4), organism-specific biosystemInterleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) is a serine/threonine kinase, that mediates activation of transcriptional factors such as NFkB and AP1 downstream of IL-1 receptors and all toll lik...
  • IRAK4 deficiency (TLR5), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    IRAK4 deficiency (TLR5), organism-specific biosystemToll like receptor 5 (TLR5) specifically recognizes bacterial infection through binding of flagellin from pathogenic bacteria. Upon ligand binding, TLR5 dimers recruit MyD88 through their TIR domains...
  • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
  • Influenza A, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Influenza A, organism-specific biosystemInfluenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. Novel strains ...
  • Influenza A, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Influenza A, conserved biosystemInfluenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. Novel strains ...
  • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
  • Interleukin-1 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Interleukin-1 signaling, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin 1 (IL1) signals via Interleukin 1 receptor 1 (IL1R1), the only signaling-capable IL1 receptor. This is a single chain type 1 transmembrane protein comprising an extracellular ligand bindi...
  • Legionellosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Legionellosis, organism-specific biosystemLegionellosis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila and other legionella species. Two distinct clinical and epidemiological syndromes are associated...
  • Legionellosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Legionellosis, conserved biosystemLegionellosis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila and other legionella species. Two distinct clinical and epidemiological syndromes are associated...
  • Leishmaniasis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Leishmaniasis, organism-specific biosystemLeishmania is an intracellular protozoan parasite of macrophages that causes visceral, mucosal, and cutaneous diseases. The parasite is transmitted to humans by sandflies, where they survive and prol...
  • Leishmaniasis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Leishmaniasis, conserved biosystemLeishmania is an intracellular protozoan parasite of macrophages that causes visceral, mucosal, and cutaneous diseases. The parasite is transmitted to humans by sandflies, where they survive and prol...
  • Malaria, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Malaria, organism-specific biosystemPlasmodium protozoa are parasites that account for malaria infection. Sporozoite forms of the parasite are injected by mosquito bites under the skin and are carried to the liver where they develop in...
  • Malaria, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Malaria, conserved biosystemPlasmodium protozoa are parasites that account for malaria infection. Sporozoite forms of the parasite are injected by mosquito bites under the skin and are carried to the liver where they develop in...
  • Measles, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Measles, organism-specific biosystemMeasles virus (MV) is highly contagious virus that leads infant death worldwide. Humans are the unique natural reservoir for this virus. It causes severe immunosuppression favouring secondary bacteri...
  • Measles, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Measles, conserved biosystemMeasles virus (MV) is highly contagious virus that leads infant death worldwide. Humans are the unique natural reservoir for this virus. It causes severe immunosuppression favouring secondary bacteri...
  • MyD88 cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MyD88 cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemMammalian myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is Toll/interleukin (IL)-1 (TIR)-domain containing adapter protein which plays crucial role in TLR signaling. All TLRs, with only one exception of...
  • MyD88 deficiency (TLR2/4), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MyD88 deficiency (TLR2/4), organism-specific biosystemMyeloid differentiation primary response (MyD88) is an adaptor protein that mediates intracellular signaling pathways evoked by all Toll-like receptors (TLRs) except for TLR3 and by several interleuk...
  • MyD88 deficiency (TLR5), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MyD88 deficiency (TLR5), organism-specific biosystemMyeloid differentiation primary response (MyD88) is an adaptor protein that mediates intracellular signaling pathways evoked by all Toll-like receptors (TLRs) (except for TLR3) and several interleuki...
  • MyD88 dependent cascade initiated on endosome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MyD88 dependent cascade initiated on endosome, organism-specific biosystemUpon binding of their ligands, TLR7/8 and TLR9 recruit a cytoplasmic adaptor MyD88 and IRAKs, downstream of which the signaling pathways are divided to induce either inflammatory cytokines or type I ...
  • MyD88-independent TLR3/TLR4 cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MyD88-independent TLR3/TLR4 cascade, organism-specific biosystemMyD88-independent signaling pathway is shared by TLR3 and TLR4 cascades. TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-beta (TRIF or TICAM1) is a key adapter molecule in transducing signals from ...
  • MyD88:Mal cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MyD88:Mal cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemThe first known downstream component of TLR4 and TLR2 signaling is the adaptor MyD88. Another adapter MyD88-adaptor-like (Mal; also known as TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein or TIRAP) has also b...
  • NF-kappa B signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    NF-kappa B signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemNuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) is the generic name of a family of transcription factors that function as dimers and regulate genes involved in immunity, inflammation and cell survival. There are...
  • NF-kappa B signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    NF-kappa B signaling pathway, conserved biosystemNuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) is the generic name of a family of transcription factors that function as dimers and regulate genes involved in immunity, inflammation and cell survival. There are...
  • NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting various pathogens and generating innate immune responses. The intracellular NOD-like receptor (NLR) family contains mo...
  • NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting various pathogens and generating innate immune responses. The intracellular NOD-like receptor (NLR) family contains mo...
  • Pertussis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pertussis, organism-specific biosystemPertussis, also known as whooping cough, is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by a bacteria called Bordetella Pertussis. The characteristic symptoms are paroxysmal cough, inspiratory whe...
  • Pertussis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pertussis, conserved biosystemPertussis, also known as whooping cough, is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by a bacteria called Bordetella Pertussis. The characteristic symptoms are paroxysmal cough, inspiratory whe...
  • RIG-I/MDA5 mediated induction of IFN-alpha/beta pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RIG-I/MDA5 mediated induction of IFN-alpha/beta pathways, organism-specific biosystemRIG-I-like helicases (RLHs) the retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation associated gene 5 (MDA5) are RNA helicases that recognize viral RNA present within the cytoplasm. F...
  • RIP-mediated NFkB activation via ZBP1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RIP-mediated NFkB activation via ZBP1, organism-specific biosystemOverexpression of human or murine ZBP1 (DAI) in human embryonic kidney 293T cells (HEK293T) activated NF-kB-dependent promoter in a dose-dependent manner. Two RHIM-contaning kinases RIP1 and RIP3 are...
  • Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway
  • Salmonella infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Salmonella infection, organism-specific biosystemSalmonella infection usually presents as a self-limiting gastroenteritis or the more severe typhoid fever and bacteremia. The common disease-causing Salmonella species in human is a single species, S...
  • Salmonella infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Salmonella infection, conserved biosystemSalmonella infection usually presents as a self-limiting gastroenteritis or the more severe typhoid fever and bacteremia. The common disease-causing Salmonella species in human is a single species, S...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystemInterleukins are low molecular weight proteins that bind to cell surface receptors and act in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion. They were first identified as factors produced by leukocytes but a...
  • Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4/5) play pivotal roles in survival, differentiation, and plasticity of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. They are produced, and secreted in mi...
  • Simplified Depiction of MYD88 Distinct Input-Output Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Simplified Depiction of MYD88 Distinct Input-Output Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is based on figure 7 from Li et al. Formation of MyD88 dimer catalyzes formation of IRAK1/TRAF6 complex. UEV1A and Ubc13 ubiquinate TRAF6 which allow for the activation of NFKB and AP-1 ...
  • Structural Pathway of Interleukin 1 (IL-1), organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Structural Pathway of Interleukin 1 (IL-1), organism-specific biosystemPathway published in http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pcbi.1003470 IL-1 signaling pathway reconstructed by combining related pathways and information from the litera...
  • TAK1 activates NFkB by phosphorylation and activation of IKKs complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TAK1 activates NFkB by phosphorylation and activation of IKKs complex, organism-specific biosystemNF-kappaB is sequestered in the cytoplasm in a complex with inhibitor of NF-kappaB (IkB). Almost all NF-kappaB activation pathways are mediated by IkB kinase (IKK), which phosphorylates IkB resulting...
  • TLR4 Signaling and Tolerance, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    TLR4 Signaling and Tolerance, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is based on the figure 2 of "Toll-like Receptors: Novel Pharmacological Targets for the Treatment of Neurological Diseases" and figure 2 of "Toll-like receptor and its roles in myocardia...
  • TRAF6 mediated IRF7 activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TRAF6 mediated IRF7 activation, organism-specific biosystemTRAF6 is crucial for both RIG-I- and MDA5-mediated antiviral responses. The absence of TRAF6 resulted in enhanced viral replication and a significant reduction in the production of type I IFNs and IL...
  • TRAF6 mediated IRF7 activation in TLR7/8 or 9 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TRAF6 mediated IRF7 activation in TLR7/8 or 9 signaling, organism-specific biosystemIn plasmacytoid dendritic cell induction of type I IFNs critically depends on IFN regulatory factor 7 in TLR7 and 9 signaling (Honda et al 2005). IRF-7, but not IRF3, interacts with MyD88, TRAF6, and...
  • TRAF6 mediated NF-kB activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TRAF6 mediated NF-kB activation, organism-specific biosystemThe TRAF6/TAK1 signal activates a canonical IKK complex, resulting in the activation of NF-kB as well as MAPK cascades leading to the activation of AP-1. Although TRAF6/TAK1 has been implicated in To...
  • TRAF6 mediated induction of NFkB and MAP kinases upon TLR7/8 or 9 activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TRAF6 mediated induction of NFkB and MAP kinases upon TLR7/8 or 9 activation, organism-specific biosystemTRAF6 mediates NFkB activation via canonical phosphorylation of IKK complex by TAK1. TRAF6 and TAK1 also regulate MAPK cascades leading to the activation of AP-1.
  • TRIF-mediated TLR3/TLR4 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TRIF-mediated TLR3/TLR4 signaling, organism-specific biosystemTRIF(TICAM1) was shown to induce IRF3/7 and NF-?B activation and apoptosis through distinct intracellular signaling pathways [Han KJ et al 2004; Kaiser WJ and Offermann MK et al 2005]. TRIF consists...
  • Toll Like Receptor 10 (TLR10) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll Like Receptor 10 (TLR10) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemLittle is known about TLR10 ligands. It has been established that the receptor homodimerizes upon binding and signals in an MyD88-dependent manner (Hasan U et al 2005; Nyman T et al 2008). It may als...
  • Toll Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR2 is involved in recognition of peptidoglycan from gram-positive bacteria, bacterial lipoproteins, mycoplasma lipoprotein and mycobacterial products. It is quite possible that recognition of at le...
  • Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemToll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) as was shown for mammals is expressed on myeloid dendritic cells, respiratory epithelium, macrophages, and appears to play a central role in mediating the antiviral and in...
  • Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemToll-like Receptor 4 is a Microbe Associated Molecular Pattern receptor well known for it's sensitivity to Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS is assembled within diverse Gram-negative bacteria,...
  • Toll Like Receptor 5 (TLR5) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll Like Receptor 5 (TLR5) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR5 is the receptor for flagellin, the protein that forms bacterial flagella. Unlike most other Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs), flagellin does not undergo any posttranslational modif...
  • Toll Like Receptor 7/8 (TLR7/8) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll Like Receptor 7/8 (TLR7/8) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemRNA can serve as a danger signal, both in its double-stranded form (that is associated with viral infection), as well as single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). Specifically, guanosine (G)- and uridine (U)-rich...
  • Toll Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemCpG DNA is an unusual Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP). Cytosine methylation exists in mammalian but not bacterial cells, and most (but not all) CpG in the mammalian genome is methylated....
  • Toll Like Receptor TLR1:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll Like Receptor TLR1:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR1 is expressed by monocytes. TLR1 and TLR2 cotranslationally form heterodimeric complexes on the cell surface and in the cytosol. The TLR2:TLR1 complex recognizes Neisserial PorB and Mycobacterial...
  • Toll Like Receptor TLR6:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll Like Receptor TLR6:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR2 and TLR4 recognize different bacterial cell wall components. While TLR4 is trained onto Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide components, TLR2 - in combination with TLR6 - plays a major role in recog...
  • Toll-Like Receptors Cascades, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll-Like Receptors Cascades, organism-specific biosystemIn human, ten members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family (TLR1-TLR10) have been identified (TLR11 has been found in mouse, but not in human). All TLRs have a similar Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) doma...
  • Toll-like Receptor Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Toll-like Receptor Signaling, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is based on the figure 1 of "Genetic variation in TLR or NFkappaB pathways and the risk of breast cancer: a case-control study" (see bibliography). TLR and NFkB are important in inflamma...
  • Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
  • Toll-like receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Toll-like receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
  • Toll-like receptor signaling, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Toll-like receptor signaling, conserved biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
  • Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
  • Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
  • Toxoplasmosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Toxoplasmosis, organism-specific biosystemToxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is prevalent worldwide. The tachyzoite form acquired by oral ingestion downmodulates proinflammatory signaling pathways via various mechan...
  • Toxoplasmosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Toxoplasmosis, conserved biosystemToxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is prevalent worldwide. The tachyzoite form acquired by oral ingestion downmodulates proinflammatory signaling pathways via various mechan...
  • Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
  • Tuberculosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Tuberculosis, conserved biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
  • ZBP1(DAI) mediated induction of type I IFNs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    ZBP1(DAI) mediated induction of type I IFNs, organism-specific biosystemZ-DNA-binding protein-1 (ZBP1), also known as, DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI) was reported to initiate innate immune responses in murine L929 cells upon stimulation by multip...
  • p75 NTR receptor-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    p75 NTR receptor-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemBesides signalling through the tyrosine kinase receptors TRK A, B, and C, the mature neurotrophins NGF, BDNF, and NT3/4 signal through their common receptor p75NTR. NGF binding to p75NTR activates a ...
  • p75(NTR)-mediated signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    p75(NTR)-mediated signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    p75(NTR)-mediated signaling
  • p75NTR recruits signalling complexes, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    p75NTR recruits signalling complexes, organism-specific biosystemNF-kB activation involves recruitment at the cell membrane of several proteins such as RIP2, MYD88, IRAK1, TRAF6, p62 and atypical PKC by the NGF:p75NTR complex.
  • p75NTR signals via NF-kB, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    p75NTR signals via NF-kB, organism-specific biosystemThe NF-kB pathway is an important pro-survival signalling pathway activated by mature NGF, but not BDNF or NT-3, through p75NTR. It is unclear whether TRKA activity also affects NF-kB activation.

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
TIR domain binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
death receptor binding TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
identical protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein self-association IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
3'-UTR-mediated mRNA stabilization IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
apoptotic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cell surface receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to mechanical stimulus IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to oxidised low-density lipoprotein particle stimulus ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
defense response to Gram-positive bacterium ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
defense response to bacterium IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
inflammatory response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
interleukin-1-mediated signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
negative regulation of apoptotic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
phagocytosis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of gene expression ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of interleukin-17 production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of interleukin-23 production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of interleukin-6 production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of interleukin-8 production IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of type I interferon production IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of type I interferon production TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of inflammatory response ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
response to interleukin-1 IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
signal transduction NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
toll-like receptor 9 signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
type I interferon signaling pathway IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
endosome membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
myeloid differentiation primary response protein MyD88
Names
mutant myeloid differentiation primary response 88
myeloid differentiation primary response 88
myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88)

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_016964.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..9545
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics), LRG_157

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001172566.2NP_001166037.2  myeloid differentiation primary response protein MyD88 isoform 5

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) lacks two exons in the coding region, which results in a frameshift and an early stop codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (5) is shorter and has a distinct C-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK298666, AP006309, BC013589, DA040090
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS54568.1
    Related
    ENSP00000497991.1, ENST00000650112.1
  2. NM_001172567.2NP_001166038.2  myeloid differentiation primary response protein MyD88 isoform 1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longest isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AK296570, AL832906, AP006309
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS54565.1
    Related
    ENSP00000498321.1, ENST00000652534.1
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00255
    Location:160304
    TIR; Toll - interleukin 1 - resistance
    cd08312
    Location:29106
    Death_MyD88; Death domain of Myeloid Differentation primary response protein MyD88
  3. NM_001172568.2NP_001166039.2  myeloid differentiation primary response protein MyD88 isoform 3

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) has multiple differences in the coding region but maintains the reading frame, compared to variant 1. This variant encodes isoform 3, which is shorter than isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK296570, AP006309, BC013589
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS54567.1
    Related
    ENSP00000401399.3, ENST00000417037.7
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00255
    Location:115251
    TIR; Toll - interleukin 1 - resistance
    cd08312
    Location:29106
    Death_MyD88; Death domain of Myeloid Differentation primary response protein MyD88
  4. NM_001172569.2NP_001166040.2  myeloid differentiation primary response protein MyD88 isoform 4

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) lacks an exon in the coding region, which results in a frameshift and an early stop codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (4) is shorter and has a distinct C-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK298666, AP006309, BC013589
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS54566.1
    Related
    ENSP00000499012.1, ENST00000651800.1
  5. NM_001365876.1NP_001352805.1  myeloid differentiation primary response protein MyD88 isoform 6

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AP006309
  6. NM_001365877.1NP_001352806.1  myeloid differentiation primary response protein MyD88 isoform 7

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AP006309
  7. NM_002468.5NP_002459.3  myeloid differentiation primary response protein MyD88 isoform 2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This results in a shorter protein (isoform 2), compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC013589, BP242808, BP339466
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS2674.2
    Related
    ENSP00000379625.4, ENST00000396334.8
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00255
    Location:160296
    TIR; Toll - interleukin 1 - resistance
    cd08312
    Location:29106
    Death_MyD88; Death domain of Myeloid Differentation primary response protein MyD88

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000003.12 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    38137439..38143022
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_006713170.2XP_006713233.1  myeloid differentiation primary response protein MyD88 isoform X2

  2. XM_005265172.2XP_005265229.1  myeloid differentiation primary response protein MyD88 isoform X1

    Related
    ENSP00000498576.1, ENST00000652213.1
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