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HAS2 hyaluronan synthase 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 3037, updated on 21-Apr-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
HAS2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
hyaluronan synthase 2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:4819
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000170961 MIM:601636
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Summary
Hyaluronan or hyaluronic acid (HA) is a high molecular weight unbranched polysaccharide synthesized by a wide variety of organisms from bacteria to mammals, and is a constituent of the extracellular matrix. It consists of alternating glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine residues that are linked by beta-1-3 and beta-1-4 glycosidic bonds. HA is synthesized by membrane-bound synthase at the inner surface of the plasma membrane, and the chains are extruded through pore-like structures into the extracellular space. It serves a variety of functions, including space filling, lubrication of joints, and provision of a matrix through which cells can migrate. HA is actively produced during wound healing and tissue repair to provide a framework for ingrowth of blood vessels and fibroblasts. Changes in the serum concentration of HA are associated with inflammatory and degenerative arthropathies such as rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, the interaction of HA with the leukocyte receptor CD44 is important in tissue-specific homing by leukocytes, and overexpression of HA receptors has been correlated with tumor metastasis. HAS2 is a member of the newly identified vertebrate gene family encoding putative hyaluronan synthases, and its amino acid sequence shows significant homology to glycosaminoglycan synthetase (DG42) from Xenopus laevis, and human and murine hyaluronan synthase 1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Expression
Broad expression in appendix (RPKM 7.0), gall bladder (RPKM 6.4) and 18 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See HAS2 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
8q24.13
Exon count:
4
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 8 NC_000008.11 (121613031..121641390, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 8 NC_000008.10 (122624356..122653675, complement)

Chromosome 8 - NC_000008.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107986971 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L35a pseudogene 19 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105375732 Neighboring gene HAS2 antisense RNA 1 Neighboring gene mitochondrial ribosomal protein S36 pseudogene 3

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Genome-wide association scan for survival on dialysis in African-Americans with type 2 diabetes.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Novel genetic loci identified for the pathophysiology of childhood obesity in the Hispanic population.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

HIV-1 interactions

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
Knockdown of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) by siRNA enhances HIV-1 replication in CD4+/CCR5+/CXCR4+ TZM-bl HeLa cells PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Glycosaminoglycan metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Glycosaminoglycan metabolism, organism-specific biosystemGlycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are long, unbranched polysaccharides containing a repeating disaccharide unit composed of a hexosamine (either N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) or N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)...
  • Hyaluronan biosynthesis and export, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Hyaluronan biosynthesis and export, organism-specific biosystemHyaluronan (hyaluronic acid, HA) is composed of repeating disaccharide units of glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine [-4GlcAb1-3GlcNAcb1-]. It is synthesized in the cell membrane by adding monosac...
  • Hyaluronan metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Hyaluronan metabolism, organism-specific biosystemHyaluronan (hyaluronic acid, hyaluronate or HA) is an anionic glycosaminoglycan (GAG) distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues and most abundant in the extracellular m...
  • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
  • Metabolism of carbohydrates, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of carbohydrates, organism-specific biosystemThese pathways together are responsible for: 1) the extraction of energy and carbon skeletons for biosyntheses from dietary sugars and related molecules; 2) the short-term storage of glucose in the b...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC126241, MGC126242

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
hyaluronan synthase activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
hyaluronan synthase activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
identical protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
atrioventricular canal development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
bone morphogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to fluid shear stress IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to interleukin-1 IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to platelet-derived growth factor stimulus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to tumor necrosis factor IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
endocardial cushion to mesenchymal transition ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
estrous cycle IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
extracellular matrix assembly ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
extracellular polysaccharide biosynthetic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
hyaluronan biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
hyaluronan biosynthetic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
hyaluronan biosynthetic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
hyaluronan biosynthetic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
kidney development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of cell migration IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell proliferation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of hyaluronan biosynthetic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of keratinocyte migration IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of keratinocyte proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of monocyte aggregation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of smooth muscle cell migration IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of urine volume ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of extracellular matrix assembly IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
renal water absorption ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
vasculogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytoplasm IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
integral component of plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane raft IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
hyaluronan synthase 2
Names
HA synthase 2
hyaluronate synthase 2
hyaluronic acid synthase 2
NP_005319.1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_005328.3NP_005319.1  hyaluronan synthase 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_005319.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC022909, AC104233, U54804
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS6335.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q92819
    Related
    ENSP00000306991.4, ENST00000303924.5
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd06434
    Location:84361
    GT2_HAS; Hyaluronan synthases catalyze polymerization of hyaluronan

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000008.11 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    121613031..121641390 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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